進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-0709201318135200
論文名稱(中文) 不同強度阻力訓練對停經婦女身體組成與脂肪激素之劑量效應
論文名稱(英文) Dose-response effects of resistance training intensity on the body composition and adipokines in postmenopausal women
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 體育健康與休閒研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Physical Education, Health & Leisure Studies
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 陳喬馨
研究生(英文) Chiao-Hsin Chen
學號 rb6991119
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 66頁
口試委員 指導教授-林麗娟
口試委員-林茂村
口試委員-楊宜青
中文關鍵字 骨質密度  體脂肪  瘦素  脂聯素  等速肌力  訓練量 
英文關鍵字 bone mineral density  fat mass  leptin  adiponectin  isokinetic strength  training volumes 
學科別分類
中文摘要 目的:本研究探討在相同訓練量的情況下,不同強度阻力運動對停經婦女骨質密度、身體組成、脂肪激素與肌肉力量之短期與長期效應。
方法: 招募24名健康停經女性參與實驗,經隨機配對分為控制組8人(56.7±3.4歲)、高強度運動組8人(58.6±2.1歲)、中強度運動組8人(58.8±6.8歲),進行每週兩次的全身性器械式阻力運動介入,比較訓練前(0週)、訓練中(24週)及介入訓練後(48週)全身各部位骨質密度、體脂肪、肌肉量、等速肌力及血清脂肪激素(脂聯素、瘦素)的變化,並以單因子共變數分析(One way ANCOVA)、皮爾森積差相關進行依變項之檢定。
結果:經過24週的運動介入後,下肢骨質密度高強度運動組(+0.76%)顯著高於中強度運動組(-1.62%)(p<.05)。上肢體脂率(%)0-24週變化量以高強度(-5.9%)與中強度(-5.1%)兩組皆與控制組(+0.45%)有顯著差異(p<.05),而0-48週變化量高強度運動組(-7.8%)與控制組(-0.6%)有顯著差異(p<.05);全身體脂率(%)在0-48週變化量則高強度運動組(-7.3%)顯著優於控制組(+0.2%)(p<.05)。肌肉量部分則是在0-24週皆未能有顯著差異;在下肢肌肉量經24-48週改變量高強度組(+2.8%)顯著高於控制組(-0.7%)(p<.05),在下肢肌肉量經0-48週長期改變量高強度組(+3.6%)與中強度運動組(+4.7%)均顯著高於控制組(-1.1%)(p<.05);而全身肌肉量改變量在0-48週間高強度運動組(+3.1%)顯著高於控制組(+0.1%)(p<.05)。在等速肌力方面,肱三頭肌慢速(45°/秒)的最大力矩在0-24週及0-48週肌力的改變量兩組運動組(高強度組:+24.5%,+30.8%;中強度組:+18.9%,+15.7%)皆顯著高於與控制組(+3.2%,+6.4%) (p<.05) ;相對力矩改變量在0-24週變化量高強度(+24.4%)與中強度(+18.8%)兩皆與控制組(+1.8%)達顯著差異;0-48週變化量高強度(+30.1%)與控制組(+5.2%)達顯著差異(p<.05)。下肢腿後肌群快速(180°/秒)的最大力矩在0-24週及0-48週肌力的改變量兩組運動組(高強度組:+25.0%,+28.3%;中強度組:+12.0%,+26.0%)皆顯著高於與控制組(-12.5%,+12.2%) (p<.05);下肢腿後肌群快速(180°/秒)的相對力矩在0-24週及0-48週肌力的改變量兩組運動組(高強度組:+25.1%,+28.3%;中強度組:+11.9%,+25.8%)皆顯著高於與控制組(-13.7%,-13.4%) (p<.05)。在脂肪激素方面則各組間無顯著差異。但在相關方面,脂聯素:與0週的BMI及肌肉量達顯著正相關(p<.05),經過訓練介入後則血清中脂聯素濃度與身體組成的BMI、體脂率及肌肉量並無相關。而瘦素:與0週、24週及48週各個時間點均與BMI、體脂率及肌肉量達顯著正相關(p<.05)。
結論:經過48週相同訓練量的不同強度阻力訓練介入後,高強度阻力運動在短期即有助於骨質密度的改善與肌肉量的提升,而對於體脂肪的減少、增加肌力與脂肪激素的適應則是高、中強度兩運動組皆有相同的適應效果。
英文摘要 Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 24 weeks and 48 weeks of training with different intensities,but same training volumes on bone mineral density, body composition, adipocytokines, and muscle strength in postmenopausal women.
Methods: 24 healthy volunteers participated in the study. The experimental protocol utilized a random paired design to 3 groups of high-intensity resistance group (n=8, age 58.6±2.1yrs), moderate-intensity resistance group (n=8,age 58.8±6.8 yrs), and control groups (n=8; age 56.7±3.4rs) by determining each subject’s mean of upper and lower maximal strength. Subjects in training groups were engaged in exercise training with two times per week under supervision for 48 weeks. Data collected at 0 week , 24 weeks and 48 weeks included bone mineral density (BMD) ,body fat mass, body lean mass, one repetition-maximum(1-RM), elbow, knee extensors and flexors isokinetic strength’s peak torque、peak torque/ weight, and adipocytokines including adiponectin, leptin. The data were analyzed by one-way ANCOVA and Pearson product-moment correlation.
Results: Leg BMD shown significant difference between 0-24 weeks and high- intensity group was significantly higher the than moderate-intensity group (high :+0.76%,moderate:-1.62%)(p<.05). The arm fat mass showed significant difference among groups in 0-24 weeks ( high and moderate- intensity group were significant lower than control,high :-5.9%,moderate:-5.1%,control :+0.45%) (p<.05); high- intensity group was significantly lower than the control group in 0-48 weeks ( high :-7.8%,control :-0.6%) (p<.05).The total fat mass showed significant difference between groups in 0-48 weeks ( high intensity group was significantly lower than control group ( high :-7.3%,control :+0.2%) (p<.05). The lean mass had no significant difference among groups in 0-24 weeks. The lean mass of leg had shown significant difference among groups in 24-48 weeks (high and moderate- intensity groups were significantly higher than control group,high :+2.8%,control :-0.7%) (p<.05). Besides,the lean mass leg had shown significant difference among groups in 0-48 weeks (high intensity group was significantly higher than control group, high :+3.6%,moderate:+4.7%,control :-1.1%) (p<.05). The total lean mass had shown significant difference between groups in 0-48 weeks ( high intensity group was significantly higher than control group ,high :+3.1%,control :+0.1%) (p<.05).Triceps’s peak torque at 45°/s showed significant difference between groups in 0-24 weeks and 0-48 weeks(high and moderate-intensity group were significantly higher than control group,high :+24.5% and +30.8%,moderate:+18.9% and +15.7%,control :+3.2% and +6.4%)(p<.05). Triceps’s peak torque / weight at 45°/s showed significant difference between groups in 0-24 weeks(high and moderate-intensity group were significantly higher than control group,high :+24.4%,moderate:+18.8%,control :+1.8%)(p<.05);in 0-48 weeks(high intensity group was significantly higher than control group,high :+30.1%, control :+5.2%)(p<.05). Hamstring’s peak torque at 180°/s had shown significant difference between groups in 0-24 weeks and 0-48 weeks(high and moderate-intensity groups were significantly higher than control group,high :+25.0% and +28.3%,moderate:+12.0% and +26.0%,control :-12.5% and +12.2%)(p<.05). Hamstring’s peak torque / weight at 180°/s had shown significant difference between groups in 0-24 weeks and 0-48 weeks(high and moderate-intensity groups were significantly higher than control group,high :+25.1% and +28.3%,moderate:+11.9% and +25.8%,control :-13.7% and -13.4%)(p<.05). Adipocytokines had none significant changes among groups (p>.05). Leptin ,BMI , body fat mass,and body lean mass had significant positive correlation in 0 、24、48weeks (p<.05).
Conclusion: High- or modrtate intensity resistance training have positive effects on BMD body fat mass and body lean mass in 48 weeks. High-intensity can further improves BMD via higher stimulate. It had also improved more isokinetic strength and rather than the antagonist muscle. Therefore, different intensity of resistance training can be promoted to maintain health and encourage postmenopausal women to exercise for improving their function of life.
論文目次 摘要.........I
Abstract..........Ⅲ
誌謝...............Ⅴ
目錄...............Ⅵ
表目錄.............Ⅷ
圖目錄.............Ⅸ
第壹章、緒論........ 1
第一節、研究背景..... 1
第二節、研究目的..... 6
第三節、操作性定義... 6
第四節、研究重要性... 7
第貳章、文獻回顧..... 9
第一節、停經對於骨質密度的影響........... 9
第二節、停經對於身體組成的影響.......... 10
第三節、停經對於脂肪激素的影響.......... 12
第四節、停經對於肌肉力量的影響.......... 14
第五節、不同強度阻力訓練對健康的影響..... 16
第六節、總結......................... 16
第參章、研究方法...................... 18
第一節、研究對象...................... 18
第二節、研究設計...................... 18
第三節、實驗程序...................... 19
第四節、測量方法與實驗儀器.............. 21
第五節、運動介入...................... 23
第六節、資料整理與統計分析.............. 25
第肆章、結果.......................... 26
第一節、受試者特性..................... 26
第二節、不同強度訓練後骨質密度之變化.................................... 26
第三節、不同強度訓練後身體組成之變化.........29
第四節、不同強度訓練後脂肪激素的改變與相關... 35
第五節、不同強度訓練後等速肌力之變化........ 40
第伍章、討論............................ 46
第一節、不同運動強度骨質密度的適應.......... 46
第二節、不同運動強度身體組成的適應.......... 47
第三節、不同運動強度脂肪激素的改變與相關的適應.48
第四節、不同運動強度等速肌力的適應.......... 50
第五節、阻力訓練劑量與訓練量............... 52
第六節、研究限制......................... 53
第陸章、結論與建議....................... 54
第一節、結論............................ 54
第二節、建議............................ 54
參考文獻............................... 55
參考文獻 參考文獻
中文部分
中華民國內政部主計處(2012)。內政統計年報:簡易生命表。2013年4月1日,取自內政部主計處,http://www.moi.gov.tw/stat/life.aspx
行政院衛生署國民健康局(2011)。98年度國民運動行為調查結果說明, 2013年4月1日,取自行政院衛生署國民健康局,http://health99.hpa.gov.tw/Hot_News/h_NewsDetailN.aspx?TopIcNo=6019
李建明、黃素妃、陳政友、羅應嘉、林昭光、游麗惠等(2007)。健走運動對改
善更年期婦女骨密度與健康體適能之研究。北市醫學雜誌,4(3),235-244。
李燕鳴, 曾慶孝, 劉淑馨(2009)。預測中老年期停經婦女低骨質密度的危險因素。 台灣老年醫學暨老年學雜誌, 4(1), 39-50。
林宛臻(2009)。低強度阻力訓練對停經女性身體組成, 體適能, 血脂質與脂肪激素之影響。 成功大學體育健康與休閒研究所學位論文。
林宛臻, 林麗娟(2009)。停經後女性身體組成變化與運動處方建議。中華體育季刊, 23(2), 27-40。
林泰佑, 林麗娟(2011)。阻力訓練對減緩老年人骨骼肌減少症的效益。中華體育季刊, 25(1), 10-21。
林麗娟(2005)不同身體負載運動對女性運動員骨質密度與骨骼代謝之影響。 體育學報, 38(1), 69-87。
林麗娟, 林宛臻, 羅詩文, 楊宜青, 姚維仁(2010)。低阻力彈力帶訓練對停經後婦女身體組成與功能性體適能之影響。台灣老年醫學暨老年學雜誌, 5(4), 266-276。
金光明, 王瑋, 康健, 鄔英, 侯顯明,于潤江(2002)。阻塞性睡眠呼吸暫停患者血清瘦素水準的研究。中華結核和呼吸雜誌, 25(4), 204-206。
張彤, 李萬根, 宮雅南, 朱沛莊, 鄧煜輝(2005)。絕經後婦女骨密度與肥胖指標的相關性。中國臨床康復, 31, 31。
郭仁富, 杜思德(2011)。糖尿病與骨質疏鬆症。內科學誌, 34(41.4), 26.21。
陳冠婷(2008)。 探討肥胖症與易感性基因及瘦素之相關性。中國醫藥大學環境醫學研究所碩士班學位論文。
華嘉增(2004)。婦女更年期保健新進展。中國婦幼保健, 15(12), 778-780。
楊南屏, 楊榮森,周碧瑟(2008)。提早因應高齡化社會的特殊醫療保健需求:以骨質疏鬆症為例。[Actions in Advance to the Special Medical Care Need in an Aging Society: Osteoporosis as an Example]。臺灣公共衛生雜誌, 27(3), 181-197。
趙啟淵, 汪威達, 陳志明, 楊宜青 (2010)。老年人的肌萎性肥胖。家庭醫學與基層醫療, 25(8), 292-297。
蔡金梅, 丁國憲, 賴濱, 程蘊琳, 黃峻(2005)。 瘦素與骨質疏鬆。中國骨質疏鬆雜誌, 11(3), 380-383。
盧思穎(2004)。阻力訓練在能量代謝上的效果。中華體育季刊,18(3),39-45。
盧慕恩(2009)。探討 Adiponectin 調節人類前列腺腫瘤細胞之轉移和 α5β1 integrin 的表現。中國醫藥大學基礎醫學研究所學位論文。
謝閔繐, 林麗娟(2012)身體活動與運動對於女性各不同生理階段維持骨質健康的意義。[A Review of Physical Activity and Exercise for Maintenance of Bone Health in Different Stages in the Females]。中華體育季刊, 26(1), 21-31。
蘇美禎, 黃璉華, 曹麗英,周松男(2003)。更年期婦女健康需求。 臺灣醫學, 7, 708-716。
蘇榮基(2002)。體適能檢測的探討。勤益學報,20(2),613-619。

英文部分
Adams GM. (1998). Exercise physiology: Laboratory manual. Boston, MA: WCB McGraw-Hill.
Ahima, R. S., & Flier, J. S. (2000). Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, 11(8), 327-332.
Asikainen, T. M., Kukkonen-Harjula, K., & Miilunpalo, S. (2004). Exercise for health for early postmenopausal women: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Sports medicine, 34(11), 753-778.
Barrett-Connor, E., & Bush, T. L. (1991). Estrogen and coronary heart disease in women. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association, 265(14), 1861-1867.
Bates, S. H., & Myers, M. G. (2004). The role of leptin? STAT3 signaling in neuroendocrine function: an integrative perspective. Journal of molecular medicine, 82(1), 12-20.
Bemben, D., & Bemben, M. (2011). Dose–response effect of 40 weeks of resistance training on bone mineral density in older adults. Osteoporosis International, 22(1), 179-186.
Beneka, A., Malliou, P., Fatouros, I., Jamurtas, A., Gioftsidou, A., Godolias, G., & Taxildaris, K. (2005). Resistance training effects on muscular strength of elderly are related to intensity and gender. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 8(3), 274-283.
Berggren, J. R., Hulver, M. W., & Houmard, J. A. (2005). Fat as an endocrine organ: influence of exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 99(2), 757-764.
Blain, H., Vuillemin, A., Teissier, A., Hanesse, B., Guillemin, F., & Jeandel, C. (2001). Influence of muscle strength and body weight and composition on regional bone mineral density in healthy women aged 60 years and over. Gerontology, 47(4), 207-212.
Bocalini, D. S., Serra, A. J., & Dos Santos, L. (2010). Moderate Resistive Training Maintains Bone Mineral Density and Improves Functional Fitness in Postmenopausal Women. Journal of Aging Research , 2010:760818.
Bocalini, D. S., Serra, A. J., Dos Santos, L., Murad, N., & Levy, R. F. (2009). Strength training preserves the bone mineral density of postmenopausal women without hormone replacement therapy. Journal of Aging and Health, 21(3), 519-527.
Bonganha, V., Modeneze, D. M., Madruga, V. A., & Vilarta, R. (2012). Effects of resistance training (RT) on body composition, muscle strength and quality of life (QoL) in postmenopausal life. Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 54(2), 361-365.
Bouassida, A., Chamari, K., Zaouali, M., Feki, Y., Zbidi, A., & Tabka, Z. (2010). Review on leptin and adiponectin responses and adaptations to acute and chronic exercise. British journal of sports medicine, 44(9), 620-630.
Buford, T. W., Roberts, M. D., & Church, T. S. (2013). Toward Exercise as Personalized Medicine. Sports medicine, 43(3), 157-165.
Calles-Escandon, J., Arciero, P. J., Gardner, A. W., Bauman, C., & Poehlman, E. T. (1995). Basal fat oxidation decreases with aging in women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 78(1), 266-271.
Chien, K. L., Sung, F. C., Hsu, H. C., Su, T. C., Chang, W. D., & Lee, Y. T. (2005). Relative importance of atherosclerotic risk factors for coronary heart disease in Taiwan. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, 12(2), 95-101.
Chu, M. C., Cosper, P., Orio, F., Carmina, E., & Lobo, R. A. (2006). Insulin resistance in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome and the measurements of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and ghrelin. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 194(1), 100-104.
Cooper, C. (1993). Epidemiology and public health impact of osteoporosis. Baillière's clinical rheumatology, 7(3), 459.
Dalbo, V. J., Roberts, M. D., Sunderland, K. L., Poole, C. N., Stout, J. R., Beck, T. W.,Kerksick, C. M. (2011). Acute Loading and Aging Effects on Myostatin Pathway Biomarkers in Human Skeletal Muscle After Three Sequential Bouts of Resistance Exercise. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 66(8), 855-865.
Ebina, K., Fukuhara, A., & Shimomura, I. (2008). Role of adipocytokine in bone metabolism. Clinical calcium, 18(5), 623.
Engelke, K., Kemmler, W., Lauber, D., Beeskow, C., Pintag, R., & Kalender, W. (2006). Exercise maintains bone density at spine and hip EFOPS: a 3-year longitudinal study in early postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis International, 17(1), 133-142.
Esteghamati, A., Khalilzadeh, O., Ashraf, H., Zandieh, A., Morteza, A., Rashidi, A., Nakhjavani, M. (2010). Physical activity is correlated with serum leptin independent of obesity: results of the national surveillance of risk factors of noncommunicable diseases in Iran (SuRFNCD-2007). Metabolism, 59(12), 1730-1735.
Fatouros, I., Tournis, S., Leontsini, D., Jamurtas, A., Sxina, M., Thomakos, P., Mitrakou, A. (2005). Leptin and adiponectin responses in overweight inactive elderly following resistance training and detraining are intensity related. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(11), 5970-5977.
Felson, D. T., Zhang, Y., Hannan, M. T., & Anderson, J. J. (1993). Effects of weight and body mass index on bone mineral density in men and women: the Framingham study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 8(5), 567-573.
Figueroa, A., Going, S. B., Milliken, L. A., Blew, R. M., Sharp, S., Teixeira, P. J., & Lohman, T. G. (2003). Effects of exercise training and hormone replacement therapy on lean and fat mass in postmenopausal women. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 58(3), M266-M270.
Frontera, W. R., Hughes, V. A., Lutz, K. J., & Evans, W. J. (1991). A cross-sectional study of muscle strength and mass in 45-to 78-yr-old men and women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 71(2), 644-650.
Frystyk, J., Berne, C., Berglund, L., Jensevik, K., Flyvbjerg, A., & Zethelius, B. (2007). Serum adiponectin is a predictor of coronary heart disease: a population-based 10-year follow-up study in elderly men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 92(2), 571-576.
Goldstein, B. J., & Scalia, R. (2004). Adiponectin: a novel adipokine linking adipocytes and vascular function. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89(6), 2563-2568.
Gonnelli, S., Caffarelli, C., Del Santo, K., Cadirni, A., Guerriero, C., Lucani, B., Nuti, R. (2008). The relationship of ghrelin and adiponectin with bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in elderly men. Calcified tissue international, 83(1), 55-60.
Gordon, N. F. (2009). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (Vol. 54): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Guadalupe-Grau, A., Fuentes, T., Guerra, B., & Calbet, J. A. (2009). Exercise and bone mass in adults. Sports medicine, 39(6), 439-468.
Haskell, W. L., Lee, I. M., Pate, R. R., Powell, K. E., Blair, S. N., Franklin, B. A., Bauman, A. (2007). Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(8), 1423.
Henwood, T. R., & Taaffe, D. R. (2006). Short‐term resistance training and the older adult: the effect of varied programmes for the enhancement of muscle strength and functional performance. Clinical physiology and functional imaging, 26(5), 305-313.
Hla, M., Davis, J. W., Ross, P. D., Wasnich, R. D., Yates, A. J., Ravn, P., McClung, M. (1996). A multicenter study of the influence of fat and lean mass on bone mineral content: evidence for differences in their relative influence at major fracture sites. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) Study Group. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 64(3), 354-360.
Hunter GR, Byrne NM, Sirikul B, Fernandez JR, Zuckerman PA, Darnell BE, Gower BA . (2008). Resistance training conserves fat-free mass and resting energy expenditure following weight loss. Obesity ,16:1045–1051.
Hulver, M. W., & Houmard, J. A. (2003). Plasma leptin and exercise: recent findings. Sports medicine, 33(7), 473-482.
Hurley BF & Roth SM. (2000). Strength training in the elderly: effects on risk factors for age-related diseases. Sports Medicine, 30(4), 249-268.
JA, L., JW, K., & DY, K. (2012). Effects of yoga exercise on serum adiponectin and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal women Menopause, 19(3), 296-301.
Kahn, B. B., & Flier, J. S. (2000). Obesity and insulin resistance. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 106(4), 473-481.
Kannus, P., Niemi, S., Parkkari, J., Palvanen, M., Vuori, I., & Jarvinen, M. (2006). Nationwide decline in incidence of hip fracture. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 21(12), 1836-1838.
Kemmler, W., Lauber, D., Weineck, J., Hensen, J., Kalender, W., & Engelke, K. (2004). Benefits of 2 years of intense exercise on bone density, physical fitness, and blood lipids in early postmenopausal osteopenic women - Results of the Erlangen Fitness Osteoporosis Preventation Study (EFOPS). Archives of internal medicine, 164(10), 1084-1091.
Kershaw, E. E., & Flier, J. S. (2004). Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89(6), 2548-2556.
Keskin, D., Borman, P., Ersöz, M., Kurtaran, A., Bodur, H., & Akyüz, M. (2008). The risk factors related to falling in elderly females. Geriatric nursing, 29(1), 58-63.
Khosla, S., Atkinson, E. J., Riggs, B. L., & Melton III, L. J. (1996). Relationship between body composition and bone mass in women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 11(6), 857-863.
Kontogianni, M. D., Dafni, U. G., Routsias, J. G., & Skopouli, F. N. (2004). Blood leptin and adiponectin as possible mediators of the relation between fat mass and BMD in perimenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 19(4), 546-551.
Kraemer, R. R., Chu, H., & Castracane, V. D. (2002). Leptin and exercise. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 227(9), 701-708.
Kraemer, W. (1994). General adaptations to resistance and endurance training programs. Essentials of strength training and conditioning, 127-150.
Laet, C., Kanis, J., Odén, A., Johanson, H., Johnell, O., Delmas, P., Garnero, P. (2005). Body mass index as a predictor of fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporosis International, 16(11), 1330-1338.
Lenchik, L., Register, T., Hsu, F., Lohman, K., Nicklas, B., Freedman, B., Bowden, D. (2003). Adiponectin as a novel determinant of bone mineral density and visceral fat. Bone, 33(4), 646-651.
Levine, J. P. (2006). Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic management of osteoporosis. Clinical cornerstone, 8(1), 40-53.
Levinger, I., Goodman, C., Hare, D. L., Jerums, G., Toia, D., & Selig, S. (2009). The reliability of the 1RM strength test for untrained middle-aged individuals. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 12(2), 310-316.
Lindsay, R., Cosman, F., Herrington, B. S., & Himmelstein, S. (1992). Bone mass and body composition in normal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 7(1), 55-63.
Mackenzie H, R. M. (2010). The sustainability of Medicare Ottawa, ON: Canadian Federation of Nurses Unions.
Maeda, N., Shimomura, I., Kishida, K., Nishizawa, H., Matsuda, M., Nagaretani, H., Matsuzawa, Y. (2002). Diet-induced insulin resistance in mice lacking adiponectin/ACRP30. Nature Medicine, 8(7), 731-737.
Makovey, J., Naganathan, V., & Sambrook, P. (2005). Gender differences in relationships between body composition components, their distribution and bone mineral density: a cross-sectional opposite sex twin study. Osteoporosis International, 16(12), 1495-1505.
Matsuzawa, Y. (2005). White adipose tissue and cardiovascular disease. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 19(4), 637-647.
McDonagh, M., & Davies, C. (1984). Adaptive response of mammalian skeletal muscle to exercise with high loads. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology, 52(2), 139-155.
Nelson, M. E., Fiatarone, M. A., Layne, J. E., Trice, I., Economos, C. D., Fielding, R. A., Evans, W. J. (1996). Analysis of body-composition techniques and models for detecting change in soft tissue with strength training. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 63(5), 678-686.
Nelson, M. E., Fiatarone, M. A., Morganti, C. M., Trice, I., Greenberg, R. A., & Evans, W. J. (1994). Effects of high-intensity strength training on multiple risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association, 272(24), 1909-1914.
Nikander, R., Sievänen, H., Heinonen, A., Daly, R., Uusi-Rasi, K., & Kannus, P. (2010). Targeted exercise against osteoporosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis for optimising bone strength throughout life. BioMed Central Medicine, 8(1), 47.
O'Riordan, Michael. (2008).ACSM/AHA Updates Physical Activity Recommendations, Including Guidelines for Older Adults." Heart Wire. 3 Dec 2008 .
Oberbach, A., Tönjes, A., Klöting, N., Fasshauer, M., Kratzsch, J., Busse, M. W., Blüher, M. (2006). Effect of a 4 week physical training program on plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance. European Journal of Endocrinology, 154(4), 577-585.
Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Curtin, L. R., McDowell, M. A., Tabak, C. J., & Flegal, K. M. (2006). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association, 295(13), 1549-1555.
Ozaki, H., Sakamaki, M., Yasuda, T., Fujita, S., Ogasawara, R., Sugaya, M., Abe, T. (2011). Increases in thigh muscle volume and strength by walk training with leg blood flow reduction in older participants. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 66(3), 257.
Peng, X. D., Xie, H., Zhao, Q., Wu, X. P., Sun, Z. Q., & Liao, E. Y. (2008). Relationships between serum adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin levels and bone mineral density, and bone biochemical markers in Chinese men. Clinica Chimica Acta, 387(1-2), 31-35.
Pines, A., & Berry, E. (2007). Exercise in the menopause-an update. Climacteric, 10(Supplement 2), 42-46.
Pischon, T., Girman, C. J., Hotamisligil, G. S., Rifai, N., Hu, F. B., & Rimm, E. B. (2004). Plasma adiponectin levels and risk of myocardial infarction in men. JAMA-The journal of the American Medical Association, 291(14), 1730-1737.
Pitukcheewanont, P., Punyasavatsut, N., & Feuille, M. (2009). Physical activity and bone health in children and adolescents. Pediatric endocrinology reviews: PER, 7(3), 275-282.
Poehlman, E. T., Goran, M. I., Gardner, A. W., Ades, P. A., Arciero, P. J., Katzman-Rooks, S. M.,Sutherland, P. T. (1993). Determinants of decline in resting metabolic rate in aging females. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism, 264(3), E450-E455.
Raj, I. S., Bird, S. R., & Shield, A. J. (2010). Aging and the force–velocity relationship of muscles. Experimental gerontology, 45(2), 81-90.
Ravn, P., Cizza, G., Bjarnason, N., Thompson, D., Daley, M., Wasnich, R., Christiansen, C. (1999). Low body mass index is an important risk factor for low bone mass and increased bone loss in early postmenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 14(9), 1622-1627.
Richards, J., Valdes, A., Burling, K., Perks, U., & Spector, T. (2007). Serum adiponectin and bone mineral density in women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 92(4), 1517-1523.
Riesco, E., Choquette, S., Audet, M., Lebon, J., Tessier, D., & Dionne, I. J. (2012). Effect of exercise training combined with phytoestrogens on adipokines and C-reactive protein in postmenopausal women: a randomized trial. Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental, 61(2), 273-280.
Ruhl, C. E., & Everhart, J. E. (2002). Relationship of serum leptin concentration with bone mineral density in the United States population. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 17(10), 1896-1903.
Ryan, A., Nicklas, B., Berman, D., & Elahi, D. (2003). Adiponectin levels do not change with moderate dietary induced weight loss and exercise in obese postmenopausal women. International journal of obesity, 27(9), 1066-1071.
Ryan, A., Treuth, M., Hunter, G., & Elahi, D. (1998). Resistive training maintains bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Calcified tissue international, 62(4), 295-299.
Ryan, A. S., Pratley, R. E., Elahi, D., & Goldberg, A. P. (1995). Resistive training increases fat-free mass and maintains RMR despite weight loss in postmenopausal women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 79(3), 818-823.
Ryan, A. S., Pratley, R. E., Elahi, D., & Goldberg, A. P. (2000). Changes in plasma leptin and insulin action with resistive training in postmenopausal women. International journal of obesity, 24(1), 27-32.
Sööt, T., Jürimäe, T., Jürimäe, J., Gapeyeva, H., & Pääsuke, M. (2005). Relationship between leg bone mineral values and muscle strength in women with different physical activity. Journal of bone and mineral metabolism, 23(5), 401-406.
Sahin, G., Guler, H., Incel, N., Sezgin, M., & As, I. (2006). Soft tissue composition, axial bone mineral density, and grip strength in postmenopausal turkish women with early rheumatoid arthritis: Is lean body mass a predictor of bone mineral density in rheumatoid arthritis? International journal of fertility and women's medicine, 51(2), 70-74.
Şahin, G., Polat, G., Bağiş, S., Milcan, A., Bağdatoğlu, Ö., Erdoğan, C., & Camdeviren, H. (2003). Body composition, bone mineral density, and circulating leptin levels in postmenopausal Turkish women. Rheumatology international, 23(2), 87-91.
Sato, M., Takeda, N., Sarui, H., Takami, R., Takami, K., Hayashi, M., Yasuda, K. (2001). Association between serum leptin concentrations and bone mineral density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover in adult men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 86(11), 5273-5276.
Schwarz, P., Jorgensen, N. R., Jensen, L. T., & Vestergaard, P. (2011). Bone mineral density difference between right and left hip during ageing. European Geriatric Medicine, 2(2), 82-86.
Singh, M. A. F. (2000). Exercise, Nutrition and the Older Woman: Wellness for Women Over Fifty. Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press, 37-104.
Stefan, N., Vozarova, B., Funahashi, T., Matsuzawa, Y., Weyer, C., Lindsay, R. S., Bogardus, C. (2002). Plasma adiponectin concentration is associated with skeletal muscle insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, and low plasma concentration precedes a decrease in whole-body insulin sensitivity in humans. Diabetes, 51(6), 1884-1888.
Steib, S., Schoene, D., & Pfeifer, K. (2010). Dose-response relationship of resistance training in older adults: a meta-analysis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42(5), 902-914.
Taaffe, D., Pruitt, L., Pyka, G., Guido, D., & Marcus, R. (1996). Comparative effects of high‐and low‐intensity resistance training on thigh muscle strength, fiber area, and tissue composition in elderly women. Clinical Physiology, 16(4), 381-392.
Teede, H., Lombard, C., & Deeks, A. (2010). Obesity, metabolic complications and the menopause: an opportunity for prevention. Climacteric, 13(3), 203-209.
Thomas, T., Burguera, B., Melton, L. J., Atkinson, E. J., O'Fallon, W., Riggs, B. L., & Khosla, S. (2000). Relationship of serum leptin levels with body composition and sex steroid and insulin levels in men and women. Metabolism, 49(10), 1278-1284.
Toth MJ, Beckett T, Poehlman ET. (1999). Physical activity and the progressive
change in body composition with aging: current evidence
and research issues. Med Sci Sports Exerc ,31(11 suppl):S590–6.
Troiano, R., Frongillo Jr, E., Sobal, J., & Levitsky, D. (1996). The relationship between body weight and mortality: a quantitative analysis of combined information from existing studies. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders: journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 20(1), 63.
Verschueren, S. M. P., Roelants, M., Delecluse, C., Swinnen, S., Vanderschueren, D., & Boonen, S. (2004). Effect of 6‐Month Whole Body Vibration Training on Hip Density, Muscle Strength, and Postural Control in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 19(3), 352-359.
Villareal, D. T., Fontana, L., Weiss, E. P., Racette, S. B., Steger-May, K., Schechtman, K. B., Holloszy, J. O. (2006). Bone mineral density response to caloric restriction-induced weight loss or exercise-induced weight loss: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of internal medicine, 166(22), 2502.
Vincent, K. R., & Braith, R. W. (2002). Resistance exercise and bone turnover in elderly men and women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(1), 17-23.
Walsh, M. C., Hunter, G. R., & Livingstone, M. B. (2006). Sarcopenia in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with osteopenia, osteoporosis and normal bone mineral density. Osteoporosis International, 17(1), 61-67.
Winters, K., & Snow, C. (2000). Body composition predicts bone mineral density and balance in premenopausal women. Journal of women's health & gender-based medicine, 9(8), 865.
Yamauchi, T., Kamon, J., Ito, Y., Tsuchida, A., Yokomizo, T., Kita, S.,Tsunoda, M. (2003). Cloning of adiponectin receptors that mediate antidiabetic metabolic effects. Nature, 423(6941), 762-769.
Yarasheski, K. E. (2003). Review article: Exercise, aging, and muscle protein metabolism. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 58(10), M918-M922.
Zoico, E., Di Francesco, V., Mazzali, G., Vettor, R., Fantin, F., Bissoli, L., Zamboni, M. (2004). Adipocytokines, fat distribution, and insulin resistance in elderly men and women. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 59(9), M935-M939.
Zoico, E., Zamboni, M., Adami, S., Vettor, R., Mazzali, G., Tosoni, P., Bosello, O. (2003). Relationship between leptin levels and bone mineral density in the elderly. Clinical endocrinology, 59(1), 97-103.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2018-09-13起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw