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系統識別號 U0026-0708201919255600
論文名稱(中文) 網路學生出題與練習對成人華語學習之成效分析
論文名稱(英文) The Effects of Online Student-Generated Questions with Drill-and-Practice Activities on Learning for Chinese Langauge Adult Learners
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 教育研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Education
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 李怡慧
研究生(英文) Yi-Hui Li
學號 U36044111
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 178頁
口試委員 指導教授-于富雲
口試委員-吳純萍
口試委員-楊琬琳
中文關鍵字 成人華語  線上學習活動  線上學生出題  線上練習  學習成效 
英文關鍵字 learning effects  online drill-and-practice  online learning activity  online question-generation  Teaching Chinese as a Second/Foreign Language to adult learners 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究之研究目的有五,第一、探討網路學生出題策略對(初級、中級)不同學習階段外籍成人華語學習成效(學習動機、學習焦慮、學習華語的態度、感知有用性、感知易用性與滿意度)之影響;第二、探討網路學生出題結合練習策略對(初級、中級)不同學習階段外籍成人華語學習成效之影響;第三、探討感知有用性與感知易用性對(初級、中級)不同學習階段外籍成人華語滿意度之預測效果;第四、了解(初級、中級)不同學習階段外籍成人華語學習者對網路學生出題與練習的看法;第五、了解網路學生出題對(初級、中級)不同學習階段外籍成人華語學習者詞彙、語法(句式)使用之影響。
本研究採混合研究法,以南部某一國立大學華語中心的初級(33人)與中級(15人)外籍學生作為研究對象,實驗前四週每週一次以網路學習系統進行網路出題,期中考後四週為每週一次的網路出題結合練習,共進行八週的實驗活動。針對研究目的一、二,以量化的方式,採單組前後測實驗研究法,採t檢定和Wilcoxon檢定針對研究假設進行考驗,探討學生出題有無結合練習在學習動機、學習焦慮、學習華語的態度、感知易用性、感知有用性、滿意度上的影響情形。針對研究目的三,採迴歸分析探討感知有用性與感知易用性對於滿意度是否存在正面顯著預測效果。針對研究目的四,以質性研究的方式,透過結構式訪談以了解學生對出題與練習的看法。針對研究目的五,透過分析學生所出的題目,探討融入策略對華語詞彙與語法(句式)使用之影響。
量化分析結果顯示,一、融入網路學生出題策略,對於初級學習者而言,在學習動機、學習華語的態度、學習焦慮、感知有用性、感知易用性與滿意度上皆有正向影響,此外,融入網路學生出題後,華語學習動機中的自我效能顯著提升,而學習焦慮上顯著下降。對於中級學習者而言,在學習動機、學習華語的態度、感知有用性、感知易用性與滿意度上皆有正向影響,而在華語學習動機、學習焦慮與學習華語的態度上無顯著差異;二、結合網路學生練習活動前後,融入學生出題策略前後,對於初級學習者而言,在學習動機、學習焦慮、學習華語的態度、感知有用性、感知易用性與滿意度上皆有正向影響,而在華語學習動機中的自我效能、感知有用性、感知易用性與滿意度上有顯著正向差異,對於中級學習者而言,在學習動機、學習華語的態度、感知有用性、感知易用性與滿意度上皆有正向影響,另外,結合網路學生練習活動後,在華語學習動機中的融合性動機顯著降低,而滿意度顯著提升;三、感知有用性與感知易用性對滿意度有正向顯著之預測效果。質性分析結構性訪談內容,主要發現:一、多數訪談學生認為學生出題有助於學習。二、多數中級生認為學生出題結合練習,有助於了解詞彙與語法運用,而多數初級生認為學生出題能增加會話能力,而練習同儕的題目有助於中文聽力。最後,將研究參與者所出的題目進行分析後,得知學生出題的確能提供更多華語詞彙、語法(句式)的使用機會。本研究結果顯示,網路學生出題結合練習策略對華語學習具有正面的影響。文末,根據本研究結果,提出教學與研究建議。
英文摘要 The Effects of Online Student-Generated Questions with Drill-and-Practice Activities on Learning for Chinese Langauge Adult Learners
Yi-Hui Li
Fu-Yun Yu
Institute of Education & College of Social Science
SUMMARY
This study will adopt a mixed-methods research methodology. The subjects of this study are foreign students from the beginner (n=33) and intermediate (n=15) levels studying at the Chinese language center of a national university located in the southern area of Taiwan. The results showed that the online student-generated questions strategy with drill-and-practice activities had positive influences on Chinese language learning.

Keywords: learning effects、online drill-and-practice、online learning activity、online question-generation、Teaching Chinese as a Second/Foreign Language to adult learners
INTRODUCTION
There are five main goals in this study. First, investigate the effects of an online student-generated question strategy on assisting Chinese language adult learners (beginner and intermediate proficiency levels). Specifically, its effects on learners’ Chinese language learning motivation, learning anxiety, learning attitude, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and learning satisfaction of Chinese language adult. Second, to investigate the effects of an online student-generated question strategy with drill-and-practice activities on assisting Chinese language adult learners (beginner and intermediate proficiency levels). Third, investigate the predictive power of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use measures on learning satisfaction in different proficiency levels (beginner and intermediate). Fourth, to understand Chinese language adult learners’ opinion toward online student-generated question strategy and online student-generated question strategy with drill-and-practice activities in different proficiency levels (beginner and intermediate). Fifth, to investigate the effects of an online student-generated question strategy on using Chinese vocabulary sets and grammatical structures in different proficiency levels (beginner and intermediate).

MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study will adopt a mixed-methods research methodology. The subjects of this study are foreign students from the beginner (n=33) and intermediate (n=15) levels studying at the Chinese language center of a national university located in the southern area of Taiwan. This study lasted for eight weeks, and consisted of two phases:the first phase used the online student-generated question strategy, and the second phase used the online student-generated question strategy with drill-and-practice activities. For the first and the second research goals, the researcher adopted a single-group pretest-posttest design and the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test using a qualitative approach to investigate the effects of an online student-generated question strategy with drill-and-practice activities on learning Chinese language. For attaining the third goal using regression analyses were performed to investigate whether perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use measures had a significantly positive effect on learning satisfaction in different proficiency level.For the fourth research goal, the researcher adopted a qualitative research methodology, using structured interview to understand the students’ opinions and feeling toward online student-generated question strategy with drill-and-practice activities. For the fifth goal, the researcher analyzed the questions generated by students to investigate the effects of the online student-generated question strategy on using Chinese vocabulary sets and grammatical structures.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The main quantitative results were as follows:
1. Participation of the students from the beginner level in the online question-generating strategy, significant positive effect on learning motivation, learning anxiety, learning attitude, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and learning satisfaction on Chinese language adult learners were noticed. In addition, students significantly improved self-efficacy and decreased learning anxiety when comparing pre and post measures. For the students from intermediate level, significant positive effect on learning motivation, learning attitude, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and learning satisfaction of Chinese language adult learners were found, but there were no statistically significant differences when comparing pre and post measures
2. Participation of the students from the beginner level in the online question-generating strategy with online drill-and-practice activities, significant positive effect on learning motivation, learning attitude, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and learning satisfaction on Chinese language adult learners were evidenced. In addition, students significantly improved Chinese learning motivation self-efficacy, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use performed when comparing pre and post measures. For the students from intermediate level, significant positive effect on learning attitude, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and learning satisfaction of Chinese language adult learners were found. In addition, students significantly decreased Chinese learning motivation integrative orientation but significantly improved learning satisfaction.
3. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use had a significantly positive effect on learning satisfaction for different proficiency level students.
The main Qualitative results were as follows:
1. Most of the participants from the beginner and intermediate proficiency levels thought the question-generation strategy as helpful.
2. Most of the students in the intermediate proficiency level thought that the online question-generating strategy with online drill-and-practice can help them to know how to use Chinese vocabulary sets and grammatical structures properly. Most of the students in the beginner proficiency level think question-generating strategy can improve their speaking ability and that the online drill-and-practice activities can improve their listening ability.
Conclusion
Finally, after analyzing the questions generated by the students, it was found that the online student-generated question strategy can provide multiple opportunities for students to use Chinese vocabulary sets and grammatical structures.The results showed that the online student-generated questions strategy with drill-and-practice activities had positive influences on Chinese language learning. Futhermore, based on these results of this study, some suggestions for future teaching and research are proposed.
論文目次 中文摘要 iii
英文摘要 iv
表目錄 x
圖目錄 xi
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 2
第二節 待答問題 8
第三節 研究貢獻 10
第四節 名詞釋義 10
第五節 研究限制 13
第貳章 文獻探討 15
第一節 華語教學概況 15
第二節 學生出題之定義、功能及實證研究 20
第三節 網路學生出題的理論基礎 29
第四節 網路學生出題融入練習的理論基礎 34
第五節 小結 36
第參章 研究方法 37
第一節 研究方法 37
第二節 研究假設 37
第三節 研究對象與教學情境概況 38
第四節 研究設計 42
第五節 網路出題與練習活動安排之教學設計 45
第六節 學習系統 52
第七節 研究工具 62
第八節 資料分析 69
第肆章 研究結果 73
第一節 網路學生出題策略對(初級、中級)不同學習階段外籍成人華語學習成效之影響 73
第二節 網路學生出題結合練習對(初級、中級)不同學習階段外籍成人華語學習成效之影響 77
第三節 感知有用性與感知易用性對(初級、中級)不同學習階段外籍成人華語滿意度之預測效果 82
第四節 (初級、中級)不同學習階段外籍成人華語學習者對網路 學生出題與練習的看法 84
第五節 網路學生出題對(初級、中級)不同學習階段外籍成人華語學習者詞彙、語法(句式)使用之影響 94
第六節 (初級、中級)不同學習階段外籍成人華語學習者之出題與練習數 99
第伍章 討論與建議 101
第一節 討論 101
第二節 結論 111
第三節 建議 113
參考書目 116
一、中文部分 116
二、西文部分 121
附錄 126
附錄一 國內學生出題實證研究整理表 127
附錄二 國外學生出題實證研究整理表 129
附錄三 初級會話選修課之各主題的生詞與句式 130
附錄四 中級小班課的各課生詞與語法 132
附錄五 專家效度名單 134
附錄六 QuARKS系統學生使用說明 135
附錄七 華語學習動機、焦慮與態度量表之構念與各題翻譯 144
附錄八 學習動機、焦慮與態度量表之翻譯與修改對照表 146
附錄九 網路學生出題與練習活動之有用性、易用性及滿意度量表之構念與各題翻譯 151
附錄十 網路學生出題與練習活動之有用性、易用性及滿意度翻譯與修改對照表 153
附錄十一 華語學習動機、焦慮與態度量表 157
附錄十二 網路練習活動之有用性、易用性及滿意度量表 161
附錄十三 華語學習動機、學習焦慮與態度量表之統計使用標號與構念對應 165
附錄十四 網路學生出題之有用性、易用性及滿意度量表之統計使用標號與構念對應 167
附錄十五 於2012-2014 華語領域中與教育科技相關之文獻 169
附錄十六 初級會話選修課題目分析-以「買了衣服想退貨」為例 170
附錄十七 中級小班課之題目分析-以第三冊第十課為例 174
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