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系統識別號 U0026-0708201315553900
論文名稱(中文) 降雨特性對水力傳導異向性土壤邊坡之研究
論文名稱(英文) Rainfall characteristics for anisotropic conductivity of soil slope
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 資源工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Resources Engineering
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 沈岡陵
研究生(英文) KANG-LING SHEN
學號 N46004044
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 103頁
口試委員 指導教授-李振誥
口試委員-徐國錦
口試委員-譚義績
口試委員-羅偉誠
中文關鍵字 水力傳導異向性  降雨特性  信賴度指數  邊坡穩定 
英文關鍵字 Anisotropic of hydraulic conductivity  Rainfall characteristics  Reliability index  Slope stability 
學科別分類
中文摘要 當降雨入滲至邊坡土體時,淺層土壤內的基質吸力隨降雨入滲而改變,導致許多推估邊坡穩定性的土壤參數不確定性增加。傳統的邊坡穩定分析在處理這些參數的不確定性大多採用平均值或是過去經驗值輸入極限平衡法來求取安全係數,再以容許安全係數(一般均大於1.0)來概括參數的不確定性,即當安全係數大於容許值時才認定其為安全。本研究在邊坡穩定分析中,考慮各種變數或參數本身之變異性,利用邊坡穩定可靠度分析模式,評估邊坡破壞機率及信賴度指數(reliability index)來判定邊坡穩定。未飽和殘積土經過許多地質作用而形成,因此在各方向存在著不同的水力傳導係數,多數的研究對於土壤水力傳導係數的大多考慮為均向性(isotropy),對於異向性(anisotropy)的滲流機制的瞭解較不足。因此本研究將針對水力傳導係數的均向性以及異向性進行探討。

本研究設計不同研究案例,應用數值分析軟體Geo-Studio模擬降雨入滲至未飽和均質土壤邊坡內部,以SEEP/W套件進行暫態分析,再將所得的孔隙水壓資料代入SLOPE/W套件分析邊坡穩定,進而探討不同的降雨特性對於異向性水力傳導邊坡的影響機制。首先,本研究考量均向性水力傳導之砂土、粉土及黏土等三種土壤邊坡,並設計三種不同的降雨型態,分別為降雨強度尖峰最先到達的前峰雨型、降雨強度尖峰值位於中間的中峰雨型和降雨強度尖峰位於後段的後峰雨型。研究案例結果指出,不同土壤邊坡於降雨事件發生時,砂土邊坡安全係數下降幅度最大,次為粉土,最後為黏土邊坡。而分別在前峰、中峰及後峰不同雨型的狀態下,對於邊坡穩定發生下降的時間影響最為顯著,穩定性下降時間先後順序為前峰雨型、中峰雨型,最後為後峰雨型。

在探討異向性水力傳導的案例中,結果顯示砂土邊坡對於水力傳導係數的異向性最為敏感。水力傳導係數的異向性對於黏土邊坡的影響不甚顯著。最後,本研究考量當降雨強度改變下,土壤水力傳導係數大於降雨強度時,於降雨事件開始信賴指數就發生明顯下降,於降雨事件開始6小時後,下降幅度趨於平緩,下降為初始信賴指數的23%。另外,當土壤水力傳導係數小於降雨強度時,降雨入滲發生時,信賴指數有一段7小時的遲滯,其後發生一大幅度的下降,下降為初始信賴指數的65%。本研究模擬結果指出當氣候變異造成一強降雨發生時,如果土壤水力傳導係數小於降雨強度時,邊坡發生不穩定的時間會相對降雨強度小較早發生。本研究之分析結果可以提供坡地防災之參考。
英文摘要 The stability of slopes decreases due to the suction decreases occurring with rainfall infiltration. Traditional studies of slope stability have used a general limit equilibrium method to calculate the safety factors and to determine whether a slope is safe. However, sometimes the failure of slope may occur even though the safety factor is more than unity (FS > 1) because the input soil parameters are considered to be the mean value for slope stability analysis. As a result, when many parameters are used in analysis, the level of uncertainty increases. The probability approach used to study geotechnical issues offers a systematic way to treat uncertainties, especially in the case of slope stability problems. In this study, probability analysis is used to evaluate the stability of unsaturated soil slopes. The geological formation of residual soils is mostly in distinctive layers that may have different hydraulic conductivity (ks) in different directions. Furthermore much of the research on this topic has assumed the ks to be isotropic. Therefore, in this thesis, the effect of anisotropic of ks on the slope seepage under the condition of rainfall infiltration is examined.

In this study, the finite element computer program Geo-Studio is used to simulate the process of rainwater infiltrate to the slope. The pore-water pressure results evaluated from seepage analysis (SEEP/W) are imported into the slope stability program (SLOPE/W). In order to quantify the slope stability results probabilistically, the soil strength parameters are provided with a range.

The results of the designed case study indicated that in the case of sand, the rainfall pattern controlled the time for the occurrence of instability of the slope under consideration. The rate of decrease in safety factor versus time was found to be faster in the case of the advanced pattern, followed by the normal and delayed patterns. The results for the anisotropic ratio of hydraulic conductivity indicated that when the anisotropic ratios become higher, the reduction in the reliability index is insignificant. Cases for the sand slope under different rainfall intensities (I) were designed. It was found that while the ks was greater than I, the reliability index decreased immediately, and there was also a decrease in the reliability index by nearly a quarter because the event after 6 hours remained stable. When, the ks was less than I, the reliability index stayed at the beginning level. About 7 hours later, there was found to be a marked downward trend. The reliability index fell by 65%. In the other case, the simulation results indicated that when the ks was less than I, the percentage probability of the occurrence of a landslide was larger than when the ks was greater than I. Finally, in the cases of anisotropic ks, the stability of the high ratio soil slopes was not found to be sensitive to the reliability index variation during the simulation period. Moreover, when the ks was greater than I, the stability of the slope decreased earlier than was the case in the opposite situation.
論文目次 Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background and Literature Review 1
1.2 Research Methodology 5
Chapter 2 Theory 8
2.1 Vertical profiles of matric suction of unsaturated soils 8
2.2 Evaluating the profile of water content in unsaturated soil 11
2.3 The shear strength of unsaturated soils 15
2.4 Numerical modeling to analyze slope stability problem 17
2.4.1 Conductivity function estimate methods 17
2.4.2 Soil Water Characteristic Curve estimate methods 24
2.4.3 Slope stability analysis 33
2.4.4 Probabilistic slope stability analysis 46
Chapter 3 Influence of Rainfall Patterns on Soil Slopes 53
3.1 Rainfall pattern 54
3.2 Numerical model 56
3.2.1 Geometry and hydraulic boundary conditions 56
3.2.2 Soil properties 57
3.3 Results and discussion 60
3.3.1 The Influence of Rainfall Patterns on the Minimum Factor of Safety of an Isotropic Slope 60
3.3.2 Reliability analysis of the anisotropic hydraulic conductivity of shallow landslides under different rainfall patterns 66
Chapter 4 Rainfall intensity and hydraulic conductivity 74
4.1 Reliability analysis of precipitation variation impact on unsaturated slopes 76
4.1.1 Case 1 (Different hydraulic conductivities) 76
4.1.2 Case 2 (Different rainfall intensity) 79
4.1.3 Summary 81
4.2 Reliability analysis of precipitation variation impact on anisotropic hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated slope 82
4.2.1 Case 1 83
4.2.2 Case 2 85
4.2.3 Summary 87
Chapter 5 Conclusions and recommendations 89
5.1 Conclusions 89
5.2 Recommendations 90
Reference 91

List of Figures
Fig 1 1 An example of changes in the factor of safety with time (Popescu 2005) 3
Fig 1 2 Flowchart for research work 7
Fig 2 1 Matric suction of saturation profiles under various vertical unsaturated flow rates in various representative soils: (a) sand, (b)silt, and (c) clay 10
Fig 2 2 Effective degree of saturation profiles under various vertical unsaturated flow rates in various representative soils: (a) sand, (b)silt, and (c) clay 13
Fig 2 3 Extended Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope for unsaturated soils (Fredlund and Rahardjo 1993) 16
Fig 2 4 Forces acting on a slice through a sliding mass with a circular slip surface (Krahn 2004) 37
Fig 2 5 Forces acting on a slice through a sliding mass with a composite slip surface (Krahn 2004) 37
Fig 2 6 Forces acting on a slice through a sliding mass defined by a fully specified slip surface (Krahn 2004) 38
Fig 3 1 Designed rainfall patterns: (a) advanced rainfall pattern; (b) normal rainfall pattern; (c) delayed rainfall pattern 55
Fig 3 2 Geometry of slope and boundary condition 57
Fig 3 3 SWCC of the three typical soils 58
Fig 3 4 Factor of safety variation with time, for different rainfall patterns: (a) sand slope; (b) silt slope; (c) clay slope 62
Fig 3 5 Pore-water pressure distribution caused by antecedent rainfall at crest (A-A’) and toe (B-B’) cross section for sand slope: (a) advanced rainfall pattern at crest; (b) advanced rainfall pattern at toe; (c) normal rainfall pattern at crest; (d) normal rainfall pattern at toe; (e) delayed rainfall pattern at crest; (f) delayed rainfall pattern at toe. 63
Fig 3 6 Pore-water pressure distribution caused by antecedent rainfall at crest (A-A’) and toe (B-B’) cross section for silt slope: (a) advanced rainfall pattern at crest; (b) advanced rainfall pattern at toe; (c) normal rainfall pattern at crest; (d) normal rainfall pattern at toe; (e) delayed rainfall pattern at crest; (f) delayed rainfall pattern at toe. 64
Fig 3 7 Pore-water pressure distribution caused by antecedent rainfall at crest (A-A’) and toe (B-B’) cross section for clay slope: (a) advanced rainfall pattern at crest; (b) advanced rainfall pattern at toe; (c) normal rainfall pattern at crest; (d) normal rainfall pattern at toe; (e) delayed rainfall pattern at crest; (f) delayed rainfall pattern at toe. 65
Fig 3 8 Flow chart for reliability analysis of the anisotropic hydraulic conductivity of shallow landslides under different rainfall patterns. 67
Fig 3 9 Variation of reliability index of sand at different of anisotropic ratio (a) advanced rainfall; (b) normal rainfall; (c) delayed rainfall 69
Fig 3 10 The pore-water pressure profile of sand slope under the advance rainfall condition (a) kx/ky = 2; (b) kx/ky = 10; (c) kx/ky = 20 70
Fig 3 11 Variation of reliability index under different anisotropic ratios in silt slope (a) advanced rainfall; (b) normal rainfall; (c) delayed rainfall 71
Fig 3 12 Variation of reliability index under different of anisotropic ratios in clay slope (a) advanced rainfall; (b) normal rainfall; (c) delayed rainfall 72
Fig 4 1 Time serial of annual data of (a)Taipei and (b)Tainan stations from 1897 to 2010. (Wu 2012) 75
Fig 4 2 Reliability variation with time considering the same rainfall intensity 78
Fig 4 3 Variation of pore-water pressure with time considering different hydraulic conductivities. (H0 point: surface of the toe, H1 point: depth 1m from the surface of the toe, H2 point: depth 2m from the surface of the toe and H3 point: depth 3m from the surface of the toe.) 79
Fig 4 4 Reliability variation with time under different rainfall intensity 80
Fig 4 5 Pore-water pressure distribution of case 2 at toe of slope (a) ks < I (b) ks > I 81
Fig 4 6 Variation of reliability index under different anisotropic ratios. (ks > I) 84
Fig 4 7 Pore-water pressure profile of different anisotropic ratio with time. 85
Fig 4 8 Variation of reliability index under different anisotropic ratio. (ks < I) 86
Fig 4 9 Pore-water pressure profile of different anisotropic ratio with time. 87

List of Tables
Table 2 1 Representative hydrologic parameters for sand, silt, and clay 14
Table 2 2 Summary of known quantities in solving for a safety factor 39
Table 2 3 Summary of unknown quantities in solving for a safety factor 40
Table 3 1 Representative hydrologic parameters for sand, silt, and clay 59
Table 3 2 Range of strength properties for various soils 59
Table 4 1 Representative hydrologic parameters for sand and silt 76
Table 4 2 Range of strength properties for sand and silt 76
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