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系統識別號 U0026-0707201916561200
論文名稱(中文) 開發一套基於無線通訊技術與低頻超音波之智慧居家照顧系統
論文名稱(英文) Development of a Smart Home Care System Based on Wireless Communication Technology and Low Frequency Ultrasonic Sensor
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 生物醫學工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of BioMedical Engineering
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 許哲瑋
研究生(英文) Che-Wei Hsu
電子信箱 p86061249@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 P86061249
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 57頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳天送
口試委員-陳培展
口試委員-黃至誠
口試委員-閻漢琳
口試委員-陳啟杰
中文關鍵字 智慧居家照顧  無線通訊技術  低頻超音波感測器  藍牙技術  第四代行動通訊技術 
英文關鍵字 Smart home care  Wireless communication  Low frequency ultrasonic sensor  Bluetooth technology  4G mobile communication technology 
學科別分類
中文摘要 由於少子化之趨勢,獨居老人的增加,使無人照顧時發生意外的可能性大大提升。根據衛服部統計,2018年台灣獨居老人人數就超過4萬人,意外死亡之案例就有2000筆以上。根據統計,會發生意外死亡的高風險群,以行動不便者或是無家屬陪伴者居多。現今雖然可透過加裝攝影機來監測使用者的活動狀況,但攝影機就有侵犯隱私的疑慮。因此,開發一套簡易的意外監測系統,且價格便宜又方便安裝,這成了獨居安全的一個重要項目。
事故經常發生如獨居老人在家中摔倒,幾天後被發現的時候已經死亡。獨居老人意外於自己家中死亡的情況並不少見,這些人多半不會常與家人或是鄰居聯絡,在家中去世後通常過了一段時間後,才因為屍體腐爛的惡臭溢出才被鄰居發現,且類似的情況也很常發生。為監測獨居老人在家中發生意外,智能看護是現今重大之議題。現今常見的警報裝置,例如設置於廁所的緊急按鈕,但如果患者跌倒在廁所中甚至陷入昏迷狀態,他就無法按下緊急呼叫按鈕來尋求幫助。在目前的情況下,這個領域確實沒有預警系統。因此,意外監控系統可以計算在室內度過的時間並發出警告是非常重要。
該研究提出了一套區域感測系統,無需擔心任何隱私侵犯問題。將家中分成多個空間區域,例如分成兩個房間一個客廳與一間廁所,藉由偵測目前使用者所處的區域來判定是否有異常。該系統使用兩對超音波感測器來檢測是否有人進入或離開房間或廁所,然後通過無線通信技術連接所有設備,並計算用戶在室內所花的時間。在該系統中,藍牙用於傳輸每個房間中監視設備之資料至接收端。系統的接收部分可以設置時間,如果進入室內的時間超過預先設定的預警時間,監護人員可以接收到緊急通知。並且系統可以通過4G無線通信技術的SIM卡向家屬發送警報消息。
結果表明,為了減少兩組超音波感測器偵測之間的重疊區域,兩組傳感器必須分別向外旋轉一定角度來區別兩顆超音波探頭發射出的波束,但兩組傳感器之間會有一些無法檢測到的死角,所以要測試的區域需要距離設備20cm以避開死角。此研究中使用4公尺之步行速度偵測裝置之精準度,並且在一般步行速度(<2 m / s)下,測量精度可以達到幾乎100%。最後,意外事故監測系統的技術不僅可以使用在獨居老人之家庭安全。該設備還可用於病房內,或移動不便的人。
英文摘要 Due to the trend of declining birthrate, the increase of solitary elderly number has greatly increased the possibility of accidents when no one is taking care of them. According to Ministry of Health and Welfare reports, the number of elderly people living alone in Taiwan exceeded 40,000 in 2018, and there were more than 2,000 cases of accidental death. According to the statistics, there are high-risk groups of accidental deaths, mostly those with limited mobility or those without family members. Although it is now feasible to monitor the user's activity by installing a camera, the camera has doubts about privacy violations. Therefore, the development of a simple accident monitoring system, which is cheap and easy to install, has become an important project for the safety of solitary living.
Accidents often occur to solitary elderly falls at home and already die when they are discovered a few days later. It’s common that solitary elderly dies in his own home. Most of these people seldom contact their family or neighbors after dying for a while, it was discovered by neighbors because of the stench of rot. In order to monitor the accidents of solitary elderly, smart home care is a major issue nowadays. A common alarm device nowadays, such as an emergency button placed in a toilet, but if the user falls in the toilet or even falls into a coma, he cannot press the emergency call button for help. There is no early warning system in current field. Therefore, it is very important that the accident monitoring system can calculate the time spent indoors and issue a warning.
The study proposes an accident monitoring system that does not need to be worry about any privacy invading concern. The home is divided into a plurality of space areas, for example, divided into two rooms, a living room and a toilet, and it is determined whether there is an abnormality by detecting the area where the user is currently located. The system uses two pairs of ultrasonic sensors to detect if someone is entering or leaving the room or toilet, then connecting all devices by wireless communication technology and calculating the time the user spends indoors. In this system, Bluetooth is used to transmit the data of the monitoring equipment in each room to the receiving end. The receiving end of the system can set a time. If the time of entering the room exceeds the preset warning time, the guardian can receive the emergency notification, and the system can send an alarm message to the family through the SIM7600CE chip of the 4G wireless communication technology.
The results indicated that in order to reduce the overlap between the two sets of ultrasonic sensor, these two sensors must be rotated outward by a certain angle to distinguish the beams emitted by the two ultrasonic sensors. There are some undetectable blind angles between the two sets of sensors, so tested area requires at least 20 cm away from the device to avoid blind angles. In this study, 4 meters of walking speed detection was used. At a normal walking speed (<2 m/s), the measurement accuracy can achieve a high accuracy. Finally, the technology of the smart home care accident monitoring system may not only use in the home safety, but also for use in wards or people with limited mobility.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract III
致謝 V
List of Figures VIII
List of Tables X
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Statistics on Elderly People Living Alone 1
1.2 The Background of the Accident 3
1.2.1 Fall and Fainting 4
1.3 Accident Detection Equipment and Systems 5
1.3.1 Image Monitoring Device 5
1.3.2 Wearable Device 6
1.3.3 Environmental Sensor 8
1.4 Literature Review 11
1.4.1 Problems Under Realistic Conditions 11
1.4.2 Personal Privacy 12
1.4.3 Comparison of Environmental Sensors 13
1.5 Motivation and Aim 14
Chapter 2  Material and Methods 15
2.1 System Configuration 15
2.2 System Structure 16
2.2.1 Inward and Outward Movement Detecting Device 16
2.2.2 Wireless Communication Control Unit 22
2.3 Experimental Design 25
2.3.1 Detection Area 26
2.3.2 Detection Test 27
2.4 Algorithm 30
Chapter 3 Results and Discussion 32
3.1 Algorithm Testing 32
3.1.1 Raw Data 32
3.1.2 Data Analysis and Correction 33
3.2 Accuracy 38
3.3 Device Appearance and Verification 40
3.4 Transmit and Receive Message 42
3.5 System Automatic Calibration 46
Chapter 4 Conclusion 47
References 48
Appendix I 51
Appendix II 53
Appendix III 55
Appendix IV 56

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