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系統識別號 U0026-0702201815290200
論文名稱(中文) 以環境及船舶因子評估壓艙水引入外來種之風險研究
論文名稱(英文) Using the Environmental and Vessel Factors to Assess the Risk of Non-indigenous Species Introduced by Ships' Ballast Water
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 海洋科技與事務研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Ocean Technology and Marine Affairs
學年度 106
學期 1
出版年 107
研究生(中文) 蘇品瑄
研究生(英文) Ping-Hsuan Su
學號 na6054043
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 114頁
口試委員 指導教授-劉大綱
口試委員-陳璋玲
口試委員-張揚祺
中文關鍵字 外來物種  壓艙水管理  風險評估  船舶運輸型態 
英文關鍵字 ballast water management  non-indigenous species  risk assessment  vessel traffic pattern analysis 
學科別分類
中文摘要 地球上擁有多樣之生態環境,造就了豐富的生命,人類與生態系之穩定有著密切的關係,由於人口數量增加及全球經濟快速發展,使得遠距離之運輸貿易活動日漸頻繁,現今全球約有80%之貿易量透過海運運輸,本土物種及病原體即可藉船舶壓艙水或附著於船體結構進入到超越物種本身自然擴散範圍外之新環境中,並已於各地造成負面影響。有鑑於保護及維持生物多樣性及永續發展已成為普世價值,2004年國際海事組織制訂《國際船舶壓艙水及沉積物管理公約》,希望藉船舶壓艙水之管理,防止並控制外來種所帶來之危害。
由於壓艙水公約已於2017年9月8日正式生效,使各國必須正視此議題,進行壓艙水之管理與監督。高雄港為台灣最大之國際商港,海運運輸遍及全球五大洲,身為航運業發達之我國雖然並非國際海事組織成員,但已參照公約與東京備忘錄之規範進行船舶壓艙水管理,然而台灣港口國管制項目繁多且人力不足,如何以有限之資源達到保護我國海域生態之目標將成為執行管制所面臨的問題。故本研究以環境相似度及船舶運輸特性作為風險因子,建立船舶壓艙水引入外來種之風險評估模式,並將高雄港2013-2015年入港船舶資料帶入進行評估,判別船舶風險,探討高風險船舶特徵,以作為港口國管制優先檢查之依據與參考。
研究結果發現高雄港2013-2015年之入港船舶艘次中高達91.3%來自亞洲地區,船舶來源港有70.3%位於亞洲地區,顯示出高雄港與亞洲各國經濟活動之頻繁。經來源港初步溫鹽分析,於三年間418個港口中約有62.7%共262個來源港屬於與高雄港溫鹽環境具高相似度之港口,且約有七成位在日本、中國與南韓等亞洲國家。而經第二階段之7項風險因子的篩選後,屬於高風險船舶共有6,489艘次(1,365艘數),約佔19.6% (15%)。其中有90%來自於南中國海生態系之範圍內的香港、中國之福建省及廣東省港口,航程僅需1天內即可到達。約半數為貨櫃船,可能為壓艙水總排放量最多之船型,且64%屬於權宜船籍,增加了船旗國確實監督船舶合乎壓艙水管理標準之不確定性,而約35%之高風險船舶每年僅入港一次。於2013-2015年間每天約有8.2艘船舶入港,而經此研究之篩選結果,每天約有1.2艘高風險船舶入港,若能以此風險評估模型作為決策與執行管理之輔助工具,針對高風險船舶優先進行檢查,則能降低執行管理所需花費之成本,提升執行之效率。
英文摘要 The international Maritime Organization (IMO) and many countries around the world have implemented the relevant management to reduce the hazards of non-indigenous aquatic species (NIAS) introduced by the discharge of ballast water from ships. Taiwan as a global hub for marine transportation with frequent shipping, the potential of the problem with NIAS can not be ignored. Taiwan have followed these global developments and implemented ballast water management. However, no ballast water risk assessment method established to identify vessels with high risk for inspection seems to be obstacles for implementing Taiwan's port state control (PSC). This study used the environmental similarity and the characteristics of vessel as risk factors to establish a two-tiered risk assessment model for the incoming vessels to the port of Kaohsiung. According to the results of this study, there were 1,365 vessels in the high-risk category, representing about 15% of all the visiting vessels during 2013~2015. The risk assessment procedure developed in this study not only can identify the risk level of ships for the most appropriate treatment, but the resources required for PSC implementation can also be effectively reduced.
論文目次 摘要 i
Extended Abstract ii
誌謝 v
目錄 vi
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 x
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究背景與動機 1
1-2 研究目的 2
1-3 研究範圍與資料來源 3
1-4 研究架構 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2-1 船舶壓艙水引入外來種生物問題 5
2-1-1 船舶壓艙水 5
2-1-2 外來種入侵之影響 6
2-1-3 台灣高雄港外來種—似殼菜蛤 7
2-2 船舶壓艙水管理之規範 11
2-2-1 控制及管理船舶壓艙水及沉澱物國際公約 11
2-2-2 美國之壓艙水管理規範 14
2-2-3 中國之壓艙水管理規範 15
2-2-4 日本之壓艙水管理規範 15
2-2-5 韓國之壓艙水管理規範 16
2-2-6 台灣之壓艙水管理規範 17
2-3 船舶壓艙水引入外來種之風險評估方法 18
2-3-1 國際海事組織之風險評估指導方針 18
2-3-2 北海地區壓艙水引入外來種之風險因子 20
2-3-3 全球壓艙水管理計畫之評估方法 22
2-3-4 赫爾辛基委員會與奧斯陸-巴黎委員會之評估方法 24
2-3-5 波羅的海地區學者所提出之評估方法 29
2-3-6 台灣研究所提出之評估方法 35
2-3-7 風險評估方法綜整 38
第三章 研究方法 40
3-1 外來種侵襲風險評估 40
3-1-1 來源港初步溫鹽分析 40
3-1-2 船舶風險計算 42
第四章 結果與討論 47
4-1 入港船舶基本資料分析 47
4-2 外來種侵襲風險評估 50
4-2-1 來源港初步溫鹽分析 50
4-2-2 與高雄港環境相似之來源港 52
4-2-3 船舶風險計算 57
4-2-4 高風險船舶 72
4-3 綜合分析討論 78
4-3-1 高雄港之外來種侵襲風險評估 78
4-3-2 針對台灣實施船舶壓艙水管制之建議 81
第五章 結論與建議 85
5-1 結論 85
5-2 建議 87
參考文獻 88
附錄:高雄港入港船舶來源港 95
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