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系統識別號 U0026-0701202019402500
論文名稱(中文) 基於DSM進行LOD-1三維建物模塑及其品質與精度評估
論文名稱(英文) Quality and Accuracy Evaluation of LOD-1 3D Building Modeling Based on DSM
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 測量及空間資訊學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Geomatics
學年度 108
學期 1
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 蘇帕默
研究生(英文) Theo Prastomo Soedarmodjo
學號 P66077068
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 82頁
口試委員 指導教授-饒見有
口試委員-林昭宏
口試委員-趙鍵哲
中文關鍵字 none 
英文關鍵字 3D Building Model  LOD-1  DSMs 
學科別分類
中文摘要 none
英文摘要 The 3D building model is a product of the 3D city model. Geometric information from the 3D building model is very important to know the quality of the modeling product. There are various data sources that can produce 3D building models such as Digital Surface Models (DSMs) data, where DSMs are raster data reflecting the elevation information above the earth's surface. DSMs can be produced from various sources such as professional aerial photogrammetry, airborne laser scanning (ALS) and even unmanned aerial photogrammetry (UAV). Each data has its advantages of making the 3D building model. CityGML is an international standardization in 3D city modeling. In CityGML, the level-of-detail (LOD) is a scale used to represent the detail in modeling an object. Among which the LOD-1 building model describe a building with flat roof and vertical façade. In this study, we perform 3D building modeling based on the LOD-1 CityGML standard using different data sources. The object-based segmentation is carried out to each DSMs data then the results were compared with reference data that were manually delineated from UAV true-ortho image. Then the outcomes are evaluated to assess the behavior of the data employed. The quality and accuracy evaluation procedures were performed to analyze the results, including the total number of extracted roof objects, completeness, planimetric error accuracy, and elevation accuracy of several building footprints. This research was conducted in the area around the NCKU campus, Tainan City, Taiwan.
論文目次 ABSTRACT I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS II
TABLE OF CONTENTS III
LIST OF TABLES VI
LIST OF FIGURES VII
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. Motivation 1
1.2. Research Objectives 2
1.3. Thesis Structure 3
CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 4
2.1. 3D City Modeling 4
2.1.1. 3D City from Aerial Photogrammetry 5
2.1.2. 3D City from Satellite Photogrammetry 5
2.1.3. 3D City from Close-range Photogrammetric processing 6
2.1.4. 3D City from Aerial Laser Scanning 6
2.1.5. 3D City from Terrestrial Laser Scanning 7
2.2. CityGML Standard 8
2.3. LOD-1 3D Building Model 10
2.4. Accuracy Evaluation 11
CHAPTER 3. MATERIAL AND STUDY AREA 13
3.1. Digital Surface Models 13
3.1.1 Professional Aerial Photogrammetry 13
3.1.2 Airborne Laser Scanning 19
3.1.3 Unmanned Aerial Photogrammetric Survey 20
3.2. Building Block Boundary 21
3.3. Reference Data 23
3.4. Study Area 24
CHAPTER 4. METHODOLOGY 26
4.1. LOD-1 3D Building Model Reconstruction 26
4.2. OHM Extraction 27
4.3. Resampling 28
4.4. Segmentation 29
4.5. Regularization of Building Footprint 37
4.6. LOD-1 Building Models 38
4.7. Clipping 38
4.8. Quality Evaluations 39
4.9. Accuracy Assessments 41
4.9.1. Total number of extracted roof objects analysis 42
4.9.2. Completeness (omitted/committed) analysis 42
4.9.3. Planimetric error analysis 43
4.9.4. Elevation accuracy analysis 45
CHAPTER 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 47
5.1. Quality Evaluation on 2D aspect from building footprints 47
5.1.1. Quality Evaluation 2D aspect of 100cm OHM building footprints 47
5.1.2. Quality Evaluation 2D aspect of 25cm OHM building footprints 51
5.1.3. Quality Evaluation 2D aspect of 10cm OHM building footprints 55
5.2. Quality Evaluation 3D Aspect from LOD-1 Building Models Extraction 58
5.2.1. Quality Evaluation 3D aspect of OHM-100cm LOD-1 3D Building Model 58
5.2.2. Quality Evaluation 3D aspect of OHM-25cm LOD-1 3D Building Model 61
5.2.3. Quality Evaluation 3D aspect of OHM-10cm LOD-1 3D Building Model 64
5.3. Accuracy Assessment 2D Aspect from Building Footprint 66
5.3.1. Total number of extracted roof objects analysis 66
5.3.2. OHM 100cm analysis 67
5.3.3. OHM 25cm Analysis 69
5.3.4. OHM 10cm Analysis 72
CHAPTER 6. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 75
REFERENCES 79
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