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系統識別號 U0026-0609201122513600
論文名稱(中文) 銀髮族網頁設計的應用認知研究
論文名稱(英文) Applying Cognitive Research to Web Design for the Elderly
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 認知科學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Cognitive Science
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 黃婉貞
研究生(英文) Wan-Chen Huang
學號 u7697108
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 142頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳振宇
口試委員-簡聖芬
口試委員-成戎珠
中文關鍵字 銀髮族  網頁設計  應用認知 
英文關鍵字 the elderly  web design  applying cognitive 
學科別分類
中文摘要 在網路世界的使用人口中,若以年齡來區分,目前成長最快速的當屬銀髮族族群。然而銀髮族會因為自身在生理與認知功能方面的退化,對某些網頁設計方式感到窒礙難行。過去文獻雖已針對銀髮族在網頁設計上提出某些設計原則,然而有些是英文文字的原則,無法套用於中文文字上。在過去雖也出現中文方面的研究,遺憾的是研究不夠全面化,僅以個別元素來探討而已。本研究將依據過去文獻提出的設計原則,並實作一個中文版的銀髮族網站,將各項網頁元素整合起來探討,提出一套適用於中文的銀髮族網頁易用性建置準則。
第一個實驗讓受試者從三種字型(新細明體、標楷體、微軟正黑體)搭配三種字體大小(26px、21px、16px),總共九篇同樣內容的網頁文章中,挑選出最喜愛的前三名,然後再以受試者自己挑選第一名的字型組合,針對同一篇網頁文章做五次行距的縮放,藉此求得該受試者對行距的最適大小。結果以平均來說,26px的微軟正黑體最受歡迎,最適行距為41.55px。根據實驗一得到的結果,與過去文獻中所提出適合銀髮族使用的網頁的設計原則,本研究為台南市松柏育樂中心製作了新版的網頁,新版網頁以舊版網頁為基礎,在內容上擴增,並改以階層式分類的方式呈現資訊,導覽方式也與舊版不同。第二個實驗讓受試者在新版網頁與舊版網頁上進行易用性測試,給予十項任務在時限內完成,最後填寫對於兩種版本網頁的滿意度問卷。
實驗二的易用性測試結果顯示,十項任務的前半部份受試者在舊版的完成時間較短,而後半部份則是在新版的完成時間較短,可知新版網頁入門的門檻較高,但當受試者習慣了以後,反而能比舊版更快找到資訊。新版網頁在錯誤點擊次數方面有七項任務比舊版的次數多,可見隨著網頁的階層增加,可點擊的次數也增加,但根據題目的特性,可看出新版的某些設計方法相當良好,而某些設計方法也相當拙劣,才會使受試者點擊了多次的錯誤連結。有趣的是在同一項任務裡,新版與舊版的逾時失敗人數一樣多,顯示使用者對於一項概念會有不同的認知連結,而好的設計則應該囊括所有的認知連結。在滿意度方面,新版在六項指標全數高於舊版,顯示受試者的確比較喜歡套用適合銀髮族使用的網頁的設計原則的新版網頁。
從過去文獻中所提出適合銀髮族使用的網頁的設計原則,整合兩次實驗所得到的結果,並根據實驗結果對某些原則稍加修改,本研究提出一套銀髮族網頁易用性建置準則。依照這套準則可以建構出適合銀髮族使用的網頁,但也需注意在實作時套用準則的設計方法,仍需經過測試才知是否設計良好,如同本研究採用階層與分類取代單純的視覺搜尋,若能讓使用者理解則成效卓越,若無法讓使用者理解則大打折扣。期望本研究能促進官方與產業界在未來更加重視銀髮族專用網頁的設置。
英文摘要 The use of the internet population in the world, in terms of age, the fastest growing group is undoubtedly senior population in the current. However, some web design methods are recurrent problems for senior citizens because of their physical and cognitive function in the degradation. Although previous studies in web design for senior citizens raised some design principles, some principles were only for English text, Chinese text cannot be applied on. In the past, while there was also Chinese researches appeared, unfortunately, they were not comprehensive, only considered individual elements. In this study, based on the design principles that past literature raised, I build a seniors website of Chinese version. The study integrates many elements, then provides a set of web usability guidelines for senior citizens. Of course, the guidelines suits to Chinese text.
In the first experiment, the subjects selected their most favorite top three from nine pages in the same content. The pages were composed of three fonts(新細明體、標楷體、微軟正黑體) from three font sizes(26px, 21px, 16px). Then they reproduced the spacing for the article of five scales, according to the first font combination they chose. The average spacing was the optimal size for the subject. For the results, the most popular one was 26px 微軟正黑體, and the optimum spacing is the line height of 41.55px. I built a new version of web site for Tainan Senior Citizen Center grounded on the results of the first experiment, and the web design principles for senior citizens raised in previous studies. The new web site was old web-based, the content amplified, and switching to a hierarchical classification of information presented. The navigation of new version was totally different from old version. In the second experiment, the subjects had to complete ten tasks in limitation of time on both old web site and new web site. This was usability test. Finally they wrote questionnaire of satisfaction for the two web sites.
The results of the second experiment showed that subjects spent shorter time on old web page in the first half of ten tasks, but spent shorter time on new web page in the second half of ten tasks. We can see there is higher barrier to entry in new web page. But when subjects were used of it, they could find information faster on new web page than on old web page. Error clicks on new web page were seven the number of tasks more than on old web page. It is visible as the page classes increasing, the number of clicks also increases. According to the characteristics of the tasks, we can see some design methods of the new version were very good, but some were quite poor so that made subjects click several times in error. Interestingly, in the same task, there was as many subjects failed on new web as on old web. It shows users will have different cognitive connections to a concept. So a good design should include all cognitive connections potential. In satisfaction, new version were all higher than old version in the six indicators, indicating the subjects did prefer the new web page applied for senior citizens web page design principles.
Raised in the literature from the past for seniors to use the web design principles, integrating the two experimental results obtained, and certain principles based on experimental results slightly modified, this study proposes a senior citizens building web usability guidelines. The guidelines can be constructed in accordance with the use of the website for senior citizens, but also need to pay attention to the criteria applied when implementing the design, I discovered that it still tested well-designed. As this study instead of pure class and the classification of visual search, if the user understands and effective delivery, if users can not understand is greatly reduced. Expect this study to promote government and industry in the future pay more attention to senior citizens dedicated web page settings.
論文目次 中文摘要 i
Abstract iii
致謝 vi
目錄 viii
表目錄 x
圖目錄 xiii
第一章緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 銀髮族上網的現況分析 4
第三節 打造適合銀髮族使用的網路世界 8
第四節 松柏育樂中心介紹 10
第五節 研究方法的摘要 11
第六節 論文章節說明 12
第二章 文獻回顧 13
第一節 探討銀髮族使用網站易用性的研究回顧 13
第二節 分析專為銀髮族所設計的網頁元素與方針 31
第三章 研究方法 59
第一節 現今銀髮族網站易用性分析 59
第二節 研究流程 71
第三節 實驗一 73
1 實驗材料 74
2 實驗工具 75
3 實驗設計 75
4 實驗程序 76
5 實驗結果 76
6 討論 79
第四節 建構松柏育樂中心網頁 80
第五節 實驗二 93
1 實驗材料 93
2 實驗工具 93
3 實驗設計 93
4 實驗程序 95
5 實驗結果 95
6 討論 117
第四章 結論 124
參考文獻 130
中文部份 130
英文部分 130
網路部分 133
附錄一實驗一問卷 135
附錄二實驗一指導語 136
附錄三實驗二基本資料表 138
附錄四實驗二指導語 140
附錄五實驗二喜愛度問卷 141
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網路部分
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行政院研究發展考核委員會(2010)。我的E政府銀髮館。取自:http://elders.www.gov.tw/
行政院研究發展考核委員會(2010)。無障礙網頁開發規範前言。取自:http://www.webguide.nat.gov.tw/wSite/ct?xItem=36593&ctNode=14409&mp=1
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