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系統識別號 U0026-0609201110332500
論文名稱(中文) 不同強度阻力運動訓練對中老年人骨質密度與等速肌力之影響
論文名稱(英文) Effects of different intensity of resistance training on bone mineral density and isokinetic strength in middle-aged and elderly adults
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 體育健康與休閒研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Physical Education, Health & Leisure Studies
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 謝閔繐
研究生(英文) Min-Hui Hsieh
學號 RB6981067
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 98頁
口試委員 指導教授-林麗娟
口試委員-姚維仁
口試委員-蔡佳良
中文關鍵字 中老年人  骨質密度  等速肌力  阻力訓練  劑量適應 
英文關鍵字 middle-aged and elderly  bone mineral density  isokinetic strength  resistance training  dose-response 
學科別分類
中文摘要 目的:老年人藉由阻力訓練的介入,有刺激骨骼健康與促進肌力的可能,然而在不同訓練強度的阻力訓練和不同性別所產生的結果可能也不盡相同,本研究將探討在相同訓練量情況下,不同訓練強度的阻力訓練對不同性別的中老年人骨質密度與等速肌力之影響。
方法:本研究共有23位男性和37位女性中老年人參與並完成實驗,年齡介於52~68歲,經隨機配對分成六組,其中男控制組8人〈64±3.4歲〉、男中強度運動組8人〈64.1±3歲〉、男高強度運動組7人〈63.8±2.3歲〉、女控制組10人〈58.7±2.5歲〉、女中強度運動組13人〈60.4±5.9歲〉及女高強度運動組14人〈57.5±2.4歲〉,藉由廿四週、每週二次的全身性機械阻力運動介入,比較介入前(0週)和介入後(25週)藉由雙能χ光吸收儀(dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)所測量之骨質密度、身體組成及Biodex System 4 PRO測得的上下肢最大力矩、相對力矩、總作功量和平均動力之變化。以獨立樣本雙因子共變數分析(性別×強度),探討性別和阻力運動強度對中老年人骨質密度、身體組成和肌肉力量之影響。
結果:腿部的骨質密度男性進步幅度顯著高於女性(p<.05);上肢肌肉量則是高強度組和中強度組顯著高於控制組(p<.05),運動組間則無顯著差異;男性上肢肌力(肱二頭肌和肱三頭肌)和下肢肌力(股四頭肌和腿後肌群)的進步幅度顯著高於女性,如腿後肌群總作功量:男性進步幅度35.6%>女性29.8%(p<.05)〉;在不同運動強度的組別間,僅股四頭肌60°/秒,有高強度顯著高於中強度組〈高強度組進步15.3%、中強度組進步9.6%(p<.05)〉,多數的依變項結果為運動組進步幅度顯著高於控制組〈如肱三頭肌180°/秒最大力矩值,高強度組進步22.9%、中強度組22.2%和控制組-5.22%(p<.05);高角速度如股四頭肌180°/秒最大力矩值,高強度組進步12.7%、中強度組9%和控制組0.2%(p<.05)〉但訓練組間無顯著差異。
結論:經過廿四週的阻力運動介入後,對於中老年腿部骨質密度有直接的助益,並可以增加小肌群的肌肉質量;在等速肌力部分多數變項男性進步幅度較女性大,且以高速運動的肌耐力與較不常用的拮抗肌群進步幅度較大。此外,負荷強度中等、高反覆次數的阻力性訓練,對於骨質密度和等速肌力的影響與效益,與訓練量相同但高強度負荷、低反覆次數的訓練處方有相似的劑量適應,而男性則較女性有較大的進步幅度。
英文摘要 Purpose: To explore the effects of resistance training on bone mineral density and isokinetic strength with same training volume but different intensities in middle-aged and elderly adults.
Methods: Participants were 23 men and 37 women (52-68-year-old) volunteers, assigned to 6 groups (male of control group, n=8, 64±3.4yrs; male of moderate-intensity group, n=8, 64.1±3yrs; male of high- intensity group, n=7, 63.8±2.3yrs; female control group, n=10, 58.7±2.5yrs; female of moderate-intensity group, n=13, 60.4±5.9yrs and female of high- intensity group, n=14, 57.5±2.4yrs). The training program consisted of gradual increase in weight-resistance exercise 2 sessions per week under supervision , and the pre-test (0 week) and the post-test (25 weeks) data, including bone mineral density and body composition and elbow, knee extensors and flexors isokinetic strength and isometric strength’s peak torque, peak torque/ weight, total work and average power were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and Biodex System 4 PRO. Two-way ANCOVA (gender × intensities) was used to analyze effects on bone mineral density, body composition, and muscle strength in middle-aged and elderly adults.
Results: The leg BMD had significant difference between gender (men showed significantly higher than women), the arm lean mass had significant difference among groups (high and moderate groups showed significantly higher than control group) (p<.05). Most of the upper body strength ( biceps, triceps) and the lower body strength ( quadriceps, hamstring) had shown significant differences between gender, such as the hamstring’s total work at 180°/s: men improved 35.6%, women were 29.8% (p<.05); among groups, like the antagonist muscle: triceps’ peak torque at 180°/s: high- intensity group improved 22.9%, moderate-intensity group increased 22.2%, then control group decreased 5.2%(p<.05), high speed velocity of quadriceps at 180°/s, high- intensity group improved 12.7%, moderate-intensity group increased 9%, and control group was 0.2%(p<.05). There were no significant differences between exercise groups. The isokinetic strength in quadriceps’ peak torque at 60°/s: the improvement in high-intensity was significantly higher than moderate-intensity, high-intensity group increased 15.3%, and moderate-intensity was 9.6%(p<.05)
Conclusion: After 24 weeks of training leg bone mineral density and arm lean mass were increased. The high speed isokinetic strength of the antagonist muscle of limbs improved more.Furthermore, it had also shown the similar responded and effect of bone mineral density and isokinetic strength between middle-intensity with high repetitions and high-intensity with low repetitions but male show a greater response at the depend variable than female.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 V
表目錄 VIII
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究目的 4
第三節 研究假設 5
第四節 操作型定義 5
第五節 研究範圍與限制 6
第六節 研究重要性 6
第貳章 文獻探討 8
第一節 老化對於骨骼的影響 8
第二節 老化所導致肌肉力量的衰退 10
第三節 阻力運動訓練對中老年人骨質密度與肌力的影響 12
第四節 阻力運動強度對中老年人的影響 17
第五節 等速肌力評估的影響與特色 18
第参章 研究方法 20
第一節 實驗參與者 20
第二節 實驗設計 21
第三節 實驗流程 23
第四節 測量方法與儀器 24
第五節 運動介入 25
第六節 資料處理與統計分析 26
第肆章 結果 28
第一節 受試者基本資料 28
第二節、骨質密度與身體組成數值的改變 28
第三節 上肢肘關節肌力數值的改變 33
第四節 下肢膝關節肌力數值的改變 47
第伍章 討論 65
第一節骨質密度與身體組成的影響 65
第二節 等速肌力 68
第陸章 結論與建議 72
第一節 結論 72
第二節 建議 72
參考文獻 73
附錄一 宣傳單 85
附錄二 實驗說明 86
附錄三 受試者同意書 88
附錄四 流程總表 89
附錄五 基本資料表 90
附錄六 理學檢查 91
附錄七 阻力訓練記錄表 93
附錄八 統計分析摘要整理 94
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