||How Leader Member Exchange and Social Capital Leads to Job Performance and OCB: A Moderator role of Perceived Organizational Support
||How Leader Member Exchange and Social Capital
Leads to Job Performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Moderator Role of Perceived Organizational Support
||Institute of International Management
Job Performance:Organizational Citizenship Behavior:Social Capital:Leader Member Exchange(LMX):Perceived Organizational Support(POS):Big Five Personality traits:Leader Characteristics.
The purpose of this study was to verify possibility findings in previous research on characteristics and job performance. Hierarchical Regression Analysis was used to study (a) how LMX mediates leader characteristics including the “Big Five” personality factors influence of Social Capital on Job performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior., (b) the moderating effects of Perceived Organization Support, affect the moderating roles of LMX quality and Social Capital which leads to Job Performance. Successfully collected response results were identified from 236 independent samples, in 77 groups. Consistent with previously assumed results of studies using Hierarchical Regression Analysis method to test all hypotheses and determine effect of mediator (follower LMX) and moderator (POS) to Job Performance. Hierarchical Regression results show that there is a significant relationship between the Leader Characteristic and Social Capital, the moderator effect of POS towards Leader-Member Exchange to Social Capital. Limitation in this study are noted, recommendations and contributions for future research in this area are provided
TABLE OF CONTENTS I
LIST OF TABLES V
LIST OF FIGURES VII
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation. 1
1.2 Research Objectives and Contributions. 5
1.3 Research Procedure. 5
1.4 The Structure of This Study. 7
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 Definition of Research Constructs. 8
2.1.1 Leader-Member Exchange (LMX). 8
2.1.2 Perceived Organizational Support (POS). 12
2.1.3 Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB). 13
2.1.4 Social Capital (SC). 14
2.1.5 Job Performance (JP). 15
2.2 Hypotheses Development. 15
2.2.1 The Relationship Between Follower and Leader Characteristic and Leader Member Exchange (LMX). 15
2.2.2 The Relationship Between Leader Member Exchange (LMX) and Social Capital (SC). 17
2.2.3 The Mediating effect of fLMX on the relationship Between Leader Characteristic and Social Capital(SC). 18
2.2.4 The Relationship Between Social Capital(SC) and Job Performance(JP). 19
2.2.5 The relationship between Social Capital(SC) and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB). 20
2.2.6 The relationship between Perceived Organizational Support(POS), Leader Member Exchange (LMX) and Social Capital(SC). 21
2.3 Summary of Hypotheses. 22
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 24
3.1 The Conceptual Framework. 24
3.2 Research Hypotheses. 25
3.3 Questionnaire Design and Construct Measurement. 26
3.3.1 Leader – Member Exchange Quality. 26
3.3.2 Leader Characteristics. 27
3.3.3 Perceived Organizational Support. 28
3.3.4 Social Capital. 29
3.3.5 Job Performance. 31
3.3.6 Organizational Citizenship Behavior(OCB) 31
3.4 Questionnaire Development and Sampling Process. 32
3.5 Data Analysis Procedures. 32
3.5.1 Reliability Test and Factor Analysis. 33
3.5.2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). 33
3.5.3 Hierarchical Regression Analysis. 34
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 35
4.1 Analysis of study: Pre-test. 35
4.2 Descriptive Analysis. 35
4.2.1 Sample and data collection. 35
4.2.2 Characteristics of Respondents. 36
4.2.3 Reliability Test. 37
4.2.4 Factor Analysis. 39
4.3 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). 41
4.3.1 CFA of Leader Characteristic 41
4.3.2 CFA of follower LMX 42
4.3.3 CFA of Perceived Organization Support 42
4.3.4 CFA of Organizational Citizenship Behavior 43
4.3.5 CFA of Social Capital 43
4.3.7 Overall CFA 44
4.4 Hierarchical Analysis Results 47
4.4.1 Relationship between Leader Characteristic and fLMX, and Mediating effect of fLMX on the relationship between Leader Characteristic and Social Capital. 48
4.4.2 Relationship between Social Capital and Job Performance. 52
4.4.3 Relationship between Social Capital and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. 53
4.4.4 The Moderating Effect of Perceived Organizational Support on the relationship between Follower LMX and Social Capital. 54
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIRONS 56
5.1 Research Conclusions. 56
5.1.1 Discussion. 57
5.2 Research Limitations. 59
5.3 Research Implication and Contributions. 60
5.3.1 Academic Implication. 60
5.3.2 Managerial Implication. 60
AbuAlRub, R. F. (2004). Job stress, job performance, and social support among hospital nurses. Journal of nursing scholarship, 36(1), 73-78.
Amintojjar, H., Shekari, G.-A., & Zabihi, M. R. (2015). The effect of social capital on organizational citizenship behavior: A case study of employees in Mashhad Municipality. International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 4(2).
Ansari, S., Munir, K., & Gregg, T. (2012). Impact at the ‘bottom of the pyramid’: The role of social capital in capability development and community empowerment. Journal of Management Studies, 49(4), 813-842.
Antonakis, J., & Day, D. V. (2017). The nature of leadership: Sage publications.
Arora, R., & Rangnekar, S. (2016). Moderating mentoring relationships and career resilience: Role of conscientiousness personality disposition. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 31(1), 19-36.
Arregle, J. L., Hitt, M. A., Sirmon, D. G., & Very, P. (2007). The development of organizational social capital: Attributes of family firms. Journal of management studies, 44(1), 73-95.
Bambale, A. J. a. (2011). Marketing And Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Review Of Literature. Contemporary Marketing Review, 1, 01-09.
Bapuji, H., & Crossan, M. (2005). CO-EVOLUTION OF SOCIAL CAPITAL AND KNOWLEDGE: AN EXTENSION OF THE NAHAPIET AND GHOSHAL (1998) FRAMEWORK. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Proceedings.
Barrick, M. R. (2005). Yes, personality matters: Moving on to more important matters. Human performance, 18(4), 359-372.
Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: a meta‐analysis. Personnel psychology, 44(1), 1-26.
Basu, E., Pradhan, R. K., & Tewari, H. R. (2017). Impact of organizational citizenship behavior on job performance in Indian healthcare industries: The mediating role of social capital. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 66(6), 780-796.
Bauer, T. N., & Green, S. G. (1996). Development of leader-member exchange: A longitudinal test. Academy of management journal, 39(6), 1538-1567.
Blau. (1964). Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: John Wiley. .
Bledow, R., Schmitt, A., Frese, M., & Kühnel, J. (2011). The affective shift model of work engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(6), 1246.
Bolino, M. C., Harvey, J., & Bachrach, D. G. (2012). A self-regulation approach to understanding citizenship behavior in organizations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 119(1), 126-139.
Bolino, M. C., Turnley, W. H., & Bloodgood, J. M. (2002). Citizenship behavior and the creation of social capital in organizations. Academy of management review, 27(4), 505-522.
Boshoff, C., & Arnolds, C. (1995). Some antecedents of employee commitment and their influence on job performance: A multi foci study. South African Journal of Business Management, 26(4), 125-135.
Breevaart, K., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & van den Heuvel, M. (2015). Leader-member exchange, work engagement, and job performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(7), 754-770.
Burt, R. S. (2017). Structural holes versus network closure as social capital Social capital (pp. 31-56): Routledge.
Cabrera, E. F., & Cabrera, A. (2005). Fostering knowledge sharing through people management practices. The international journal of human resource management, 16(5), 720-735.
Callea, A., Urbini, F., & Chirumbolo, A. (2016). The mediating role of organizational identification in the relationship between qualitative job insecurity, OCB and job performance. Journal of Management Development, 35(6), 735-746.
Camps, J., Stouten, J., & Euwema, M. (2016). The relation between supervisors’ big five personality traits and employees’ experiences of abusive supervision. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 112.
Chow, W. S., & Chan, L. S. (2008). Social network, social trust and shared goals in organizational knowledge sharing. Information & management, 45(7), 458-465.
Chumg, H.-F., Seaton, J., Cooke, L., & Ding, W.-Y. (2016). Factors affecting employees' knowledge-sharing behaviour in the virtual organisation from the perspectives of well-being and organisational behaviour. Computers in Human Behavior, 64, 432-448.
Cohen, West, & Aiken. (2014). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences: Psychology Press.
Cohen, D., Prusak, L., & Prusak, L. (2001). In good company: How social capital makes organizations work (Vol. 15): Harvard Business School Press Boston, MA.
Costa Jr, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and individual differences, 13(6), 653-665.
Costa, M. (1992). Four ways five factors are basic
Personality and individual differences.
Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of management, 31(6), 874-900.
Cullen, K. L., Edwards, B. D., Casper, W. C., & Gue, K. R. (2014). Employees’ adaptability and perceptions of change-related uncertainty: Implications for perceived organizational support, job satisfaction, and performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29(2), 269-280.
Dansereau, F., Graen, G., & Haga, W. J. (1975). A vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership within formal organizations: A longitudinal investigation of the role making process. Organizational behavior and human performance, 13(1), 46-78.
Deinert, A., Homan, A. C., Boer, D., Voelpel, S. C., & Gutermann, D. (2015). Transformational leadership sub-dimensions and their link to leaders' personality and performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(6), 1095-1120.
Dienesch, R. M., & Liden, R. C. (1986). Leader-member exchange model of leadership: A critique and further development. Academy of management review, 11(3), 618-634.
Dulebohn, J. H., Bommer, W. H., Liden, R. C., Brouer, R. L., & Ferris, G. R. (2012). A meta-analysis of antecedents and consequences of leader-member exchange: Integrating the past with an eye toward the future. Journal of management, 38(6), 1715-1759.
Eisenberger, R., Malone, G. P., & Presson, W. D. (2016). Optimizing perceived organizational support to enhance employee engagement. Society for Human Resource Management and Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
Eisenberger, R., Shoss, M. K., Karagonlar, G., Gonzalez‐Morales, M. G., Wickham, R. E., & Buffardi, L. C. (2014). The supervisor POS–LMX–subordinate POS chain: Moderation by reciprocation wariness and supervisor's organizational embodiment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(5), 635-656.
Eisenberger, R., & Stinglhamber, F. (2011). Perceived organizational support: Fostering enthusiastic and productive employees: Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.
Ellinger, A. E., Musgrove, C. C. F., Ellinger, A. D., Bachrach, D. G., Baş, A. B. E., & Wang, Y.-L. (2013). Influences of organizational investments in social capital on service employee commitment and performance. Journal of Business Research, 66(8), 1124-1133.
Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. N. (2014). Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory: The Relational Approach to. The Oxford handbook of leadership and organizations, 407.
Ferris, G. R., Liden, R. C., Munyon, T. P., Summers, J. K., Basik, K. J., & Buckley, M. R. (2009). Relationships at work: Toward a multidimensional conceptualization of dyadic work relationships. Journal of Management, 35(6), 1379-1403.
Gerstner, C. R., & Day, D. V. (1997a). Meta-Analytic review of leader–member exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues: American Psychological Association.
Gerstner, C. R., & Day, D. V. (1997b). Meta-Analytic review of leader–member exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues. Journal of applied psychology, 82(6), 827.
Gil de Zúñiga, H., Jung, N., & Valenzuela, S. (2012). Social media use for news and individuals' social capital, civic engagement and political participation. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 17(3), 319-336.
Graen. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective
Graen, & Scandura. (1987). Toward a psychology of dyadic organizing. . Research in organizational behavior.
, 9(0), 175-208.
Graen, G. (1976). Role-making processes within complex organizations. Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, 1201, 1245.
Grant, A. M. (2013). Rethinking the extraverted sales ideal: The ambivert advantage. Psychological Science, 24(6), 1024-1030.
Hair, J. F. (2010). Black, WC, Babin, BJ, & Anderson, RE (2010). Multivariate data analysis, 7.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis 6th ed. Uppersaddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Hau, Y. S., Kim, B., Lee, H., & Kim, Y.-G. (2013). The effects of individual motivations and social capital on employees’ tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intentions. International Journal of Information Management, 33(2), 356-366.
Henson, J. A., & Beehr, T. (2018). Subordinates’ core self-evaluations and performance predict leader-rated LMX. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 39(1), 150-168.
Hoerger, M., Coletta, M., Sörensen, S., Chapman, B. P., Kaukeinen, K., Tu, X., & Duberstein, P. R. (2016). Personality and perceived health in spousal caregivers of patients with lung cancer: the roles of neuroticism and extraversion. Journal of aging research, 2016.
Hofmeyer, A. (2003). A moral imperative to improve the quality of work-life for nurses: building inclusive social capital capacity. Contemporary Nurse, 15(1-2), 9-19.
Huang, Q., Chen, X., Ou, C. X., Davison, R. M., & Hua, Z. (2017). Understanding buyers' loyalty to a C2C platform: the roles of social capital, satisfaction and perceived effectiveness of e‐commerce institutional mechanisms. Information Systems Journal, 27(1), 91-119.
Ilies, R., Nahrgang, J. D., & Morgeson, F. P. (2007a). Leader-member exchange and citizenship behaviors: a meta-analysis: American Psychological Association.
Ilies, R., Nahrgang, J. D., & Morgeson, F. P. (2007b). Leader-member exchange and citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of applied psychology, 92(1), 269.
Ireland, R. D., Hitt, M. A., & Vaidyanath, D. (2002). Alliance management as a source of competitive advantage. Journal of management, 28(3), 413-446.
Judge, T. A., & Bono, J. E. (2001). Relationship of core self-evaluations traits—self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability—with job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of applied Psychology, 86(1), 80.
Judge, T. A., Bono, J. E., Ilies, R., & Gerhardt, M. W. (2002). Personality and leadership: a qualitative and quantitative review. Journal of applied psychology, 87(4), 765.
Judge, T. A., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D. (2012). On the value of aiming high: The causes and consequences of ambition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(4), 758.
Judge, T. A., & Long, D. M. (2012). Individual differences in leadership. The nature of leadership, 2, 179-217.
Judge, T. A., Rodell, J. B., Klinger, R. L., Simon, L. S., & Crawford, E. R. (2013). Hierarchical representations of the five-factor model of personality in predicting job performance: integrating three organizing frameworks with two theoretical perspectives. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(6), 875.
Kaiser, R. B., Hogan, R., & Craig, S. B. (2008). Leadership and the fate of organizations. American Psychologist, 63(2), 96.
Koopman, J., Matta, F. K., Scott, B. A., & Conlon, D. E. (2015). Ingratiation and popularity as antecedents of justice: A social exchange and social capital perspective. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 131, 132-148.
Korschun, D., Bhattacharya, C. B., & Swain, S. D. (2014). Corporate social responsibility, customer orientation, and the job performance of frontline employees. Journal of Marketing, 78(3), 20-37.
Kraimer, M. L., Seibert, S. E., & Astrove, S. L. (2015). 14 High LMX: Career Mobility and Success. The Oxford handbook of leader-member exchange.
Kurtessis, J. N., Eisenberger, R., Ford, M. T., Buffardi, L. C., Stewart, K. A., & Adis, C. S. (2017). Perceived organizational support: A meta-analytic evaluation of organizational support theory. Journal of Management, 43(6), 1854-1884.
Li, A. N., & Liao, H. (2014). How do leader–member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(5), 847.
Liden, R. C., & Maslyn, J. M. (1998). Multidimensionafity of leader-member exchange: An empirical assessment through scale development. Journal of management, 24(1), 43-72.
Liden, R. C., Sparrowe, R. T., & Wayne, S. J. (1997). Leader-member exchange theory: The past and potential for the future. Research in personnel and human resources management, 15, 47-120.
Lin, N. (2017). Building a network theory of social capital Social capital (pp. 3-28): Routledge.
Lord, R. G., & Maher, K. J. (1991). Cognitive theory in industrial and organizational psychology. Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, 2, 1-62.
Martin, R., Guillaume, Y., Thomas, G., Lee, A., & Epitropaki, O. (2016). Leader–Member exchange (LMX) and performance: A Meta‐Analytic review. Personnel Psychology, 69(1), 67-121.
Maslyn, J. M., & Uhl-Bien, M. (2001). Leader–member exchange and its dimensions: Effects of self-effort and other's effort on relationship quality. Journal of applied psychology, 86(4), 697.
Miller, J. D., Hoffman, B. J., Gaughan, E. T., Gentile, B., Maples, J., & Keith Campbell, W. (2011). Grandiose and vulnerable narcissism: A nomological network analysis. Journal of personality, 79(5), 1013-1042.
Organ. (1998). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome: Lexington Books/DC Heath and Com.
Paillé, P., & Raineri, N. (2015). Linking perceived corporate environmental policies and employees eco-initiatives: The influence of perceived organizational support and psychological contract breach. Journal of Business Research, 68(11), 2404-2411.
Pillai, R., Schriesheim, C. A., & Williams, E. S. (1999). Fairness perceptions and trust as mediators for transformational and transactional leadership: A two-sample study. Journal of management, 25(6), 897-933.
Putnam, R. D. (1995). Tuning in, tuning out: The strange disappearance of social capital in America. PS: Political science & politics, 28(4), 664-684.
Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: America’s declining social capital Culture and politics (pp. 223-234): Springer.
Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: a review of the literature. Journal of applied psychology, 87(4), 698.
Riggle, R. J., Edmondson, D. R., & Hansen, J. D. (2009). A meta-analysis of the relationship between perceived organizational support and job outcomes: 20 years of research. Journal of business research, 62(10), 1027-1030.
Ristig, K. (2009). The impact of perceived organizational support and trustworthiness on trust. Management Research News, 32(7), 659-669.
Saeed, I., Waseem, M., Sikander, S., & Rizwan, M. (2014). The relationship of turnover intention with job satisfaction, job performance, leader member exchange, emotional intelligence and organizational commitment. International Journal of Learning and Development, 4(2), 242-256.
Schyns, B. (2015). Leader and follower personality and LMX The Oxford Handbook of Leader-Member Exchange (pp. 119-138): Oxford University Press New York, NY.
Schyns, B., Maslyn, J. M., & van Veldhoven, M. P. (2012). Can some leaders have a good relationship with many followers? The role of personality in the relationship between leader-member exchange and span of control. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 33(6), 594-606.
Sears, G. J., & Hackett, R. D. (2011). The influence of role definition and affect in LMX: A process perspective on the personality–LMX relationship. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84(3), 544-564.
Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., & Liden, R. C. (2001). A social capital theory of career success. Academy of management journal, 44(2), 219-237.
Shaw, W. S., Reme, S. E., Pransky, G., Woiszwillo, M. J., Steenstra, I. A., & Linton, S. J. (2013). The pain recovery inventory of concerns and expectations: a psychosocial screening instrument to identify intervention needs among patients at elevated risk of back disability. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 55(8), 885-894.
Shih, H.-A., Chiang, Y.-H., & Hsu, C.-C. (2013). High performance work system and HCN performance. Journal of Business Research, 66(4), 540-546.
Shockley, K. M., Ispas, D., Rossi, M. E., & Levine, E. L. (2012). A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between state affect, discrete emotions, and job performance. Human Performance, 25(5), 377-411.
Siddiqi, M. A., & Ahmed, O. (2016). Perceived Organizational Support and Employee Citizenship Behaviors an Intermediating Variable between LMX and Service Performance. Asian Journal of Management, 7(1), 27-35.
Sin, H.-P., Nahrgang, J. D., & Morgeson, F. P. (2009). Understanding why they don’t see eye to eye: An examination of leader–member exchange (LMX) agreement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 1048.
Snodgrass, S. E., Hecht, M. A., & Ploutz-Snyder, R. (1998). Interpersonal sensitivity: Expressivity or perceptivity? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(1), 238.
Sparrowe, R. T., Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Kraimer, M. L. (2001). Social networks and the performance of individuals and groups. Academy of management journal, 44(2), 316-325.
Tekleab, A. G., Takeuchi, R., & Taylor, M. S. (2005). Extending the chain of relationships among organizational justice, social exchange, and employee reactions: The role of contract violations. Academy of Management Journal, 48(1), 146-157.
Thomas, S. (2008). Toward a further understanding of the relationships between perceptions of support and work attitudes: A meta-analysis
Group & Organization Management
Tierney, P. (2008). Leadership and employee creativity. Handbook of organizational creativity, 95123.
Tsai, W., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital and value creation: The role of intrafirm networks. Academy of management Journal, 41(4), 464-476.
Verbeke, J. M., Nadgir, N. M., Ruetsch, G. R., Sharapov, I. A., Vernik, M. J., & Trang, V. (2008). System and method for submitting and performing computational tasks in a distributed heterogeneous networked environment: Google Patents.
Wolff, H.-G., & Kim, S. (2012). The relationship between networking behaviors and the Big Five personality dimensions. Career Development International, 17(1), 43-66.
Yang, J., Gong, Y., & Huo, Y. (2011). Proactive personality, social capital, helping, and turnover intentions. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 26(8), 739-760.
Yeo, M., & Ananthram, S. (2008). A TEST OF FOUR WESTERN SCALES IN A SINGAPOREAN SERVICE ORGANISATION. Research & Practice in Human Resource Management, 16(2).
Zablah, A. R., Franke, G. R., Brown, T. J., & Bartholomew, D. E. (2012). How and when does customer orientation influence frontline employee job outcomes? A meta-analytic evaluation. Journal of Marketing, 76(3), 21-40.
Zaccaro, S. J., LaPort, K., & José, I. (2013). The attributes of successful leaders: A performance requirements approach.
Zhang, Z., Wang, M., & Shi, J. (2012). Leader-follower congruence in proactive personality and work outcomes: The mediating role of leader-member exchange. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1), 111-130.
Zhao, L., Lu, Y., Wang, B., Chau, P. Y., & Zhang, L. (2012). Cultivating the sense of belonging and motivating user participation in virtual communities: A social capital perspective. International Journal of Information Management, 32(6), 574-588.
Zivnuska, S., Kacmar, K. M., & Valle, M. (2017). The mechanisms of regulatory focus: mindfulness, leader-member exchange, and motivational outcomes. Career Development International, 22(1), 37-49.