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系統識別號 U0026-0608201617315600
論文名稱(中文) 以可調適都市網絡的規劃方法來改進印尼西加里滿丹松巴省的策略區域
論文名稱(英文) Applying Adaptive Network Urbanism to Improve Strategic Areas in Sambas Regency, West Kalimantan, Indonesia
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 都市計劃學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Urban Planning
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 辛彥甫
研究生(英文) Syaiful Muazir
電子信箱 syaifulmuazir@gmail.com
學號 P28007079
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 191頁
口試委員 指導教授-謝宏昌
召集委員-何東波
口試委員-鄒克萬
口試委員-周志龍
口試委員-劉曜華
中文關鍵字 none 
英文關鍵字 adaptive  urban  network  strategic  sambas 
學科別分類
中文摘要 none
英文摘要 Indonesia has endorsed spatial planning law and introduced “strategic areas” to promote development in lagging regions. One of the regencies that have strategic values is Sambas regency. Sambas regency has two border areas which are assigned as “national strategic activity center”: as a primary node of border area development and as a “state’s gate”. Besides, from the perspective of national tourism agendas, Sambas regency is also included as “tourism strategic area”.

This study attempts to explore the “overlap” interaction between strategic areas which possibly encourages regional growth. A network analysis was conducted as the analysis tool. In more detail, this research used “urban network” types (technical, business, and social) and criteria (topological, kinetic, and adaptive) as the variables and network analysis as a tool of analysis (e.g. degree/density, closeness, centrality, cluster, and structural). Ultimately, this research emphasized the final criteria of urban network or network urbanism (adaptive) which tries to adapt and prepare multiple choices and scenarios for future development of the urban networks.

From the findings, there are two different main orientations on each strategic area. Residents’ activities in the border area tend to be oriented to the neighboring countries (Sarawak-Malaysia), while in tourism strategic areas (regency’s capital city), the activities tend to be oriented to the southern part towards the province’s capital city. Based on the orientation, it is necessary to improve "the potency" of interaction among strategic areas by increasing their interaction and creating multiple choices and allowing partial transfer to other areas. Based on the adaptive “experiment”, there are 5 types of “adaptive" approaches considered possible to be developed in strategic areas, such as (1) network transforms or new link, (2) network extension, (3) addition of (new) nodes, (4) other supporting network as a supplement network, and (5) inter-country cooperation and connection. A direct connection between strategic areas has the higher impact of benefit (in terms of score increasing and position inside the block). However, as one of the considerations, the connection to other areas (in-between the strategic areas) can also be applied to provide and share benefits to certain areas.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Passing Certificate i
Abstract ii
Acknowledgments iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Tables vi
List of Figures viii

Chapter 1 Research Background 1
1.1 National Spatial Plan and Strategic Areas 1
National Strategic Activity Center (Borderland) in West Kalimantan 4
Tourism Strategic Areas in West Kalimantan 6
1.2 Sambas Regency as a Strategic Region 8
1.3 Initial Identification and Issue: Network in Strategic Areas 10
1.4 Interaction Exploration through Network Logic 13
1.5 Problems Formulation and Research Questions 14
Research Questions and Contributions 15

Chapter 2 Theoretical Framework 16
2.1 Regional (Development) Planning and Interaction 16
2.2 Network Approach and Urban Network 19
Network Data 21
Network Analysis 22
Urban Network and Types 26
Urban Network Planning Approaches 28
2.3 Adaptive Network in Regional Development 30
2.4 Notes and Summary 33

Chapter 3 Research Methodology 35
3.1 Research Approach an Analytic Technique 35
Analytic Technique and Measurement 36
Interpretation and Discussion 38
3.2 Research Data 39
Study Area and Node Representation 39
Research Variable and Required Data 41
Data Collection 43
Population and Samples 45

Chapter 4 Urban Networks in Strategic Areas 46
4.1 (Physical) Infrastructure Networks in Sambas Regency 46
Road 46
Public (Land) Transportation 54
Public (Sea/River) Transportation 62
Airport 69
Railway 70
Water Supply 71
Energy (Electricity) 75
Waste Management 81
Telecommunication 87
4.2 Notes and Summary 93
4.3 Business/Trading Network: Distribution and Direction in Strategic Areas 94
Business/Trading Distribution and Direction in Sambas 96
Business/Trading Distribution and Direction in Temajuk/Paloh 99
4.4 Notes and Summary 101
4.5 Social Network: Distribution and Movement in Strategic Areas 102
Social Distribution in Sambas 104
Social Activity Movement in Sambas 106
Social Contact (by media) in Sambas 108
Social Activity, Infrastructure, and Direction in Sambas 110
Social Distribution in Temajuk/Paloh 111
Social Activity Movement in Temajuk/Paloh 113
Social Contact (by media) in Temajuk/Paloh 115
Social Activity, Infrastructure, and Direction in Temajuk/Paloh 117
Visitor/Tourist Origin-Destination in Tourism Strategic Area 118
4.6 Notes and Summary 120

Chapter 5 Adaptive Planning in Strategic Areas 122
5.1 Connection, Interaction, and Adaptive 122
5.2 Multiple Choices and Proposed Network Plans 124
Road Network 127
Public (Land) Transportation 136
Public (Sea/River) Transportation 145
Water Supply 146
Electricity 154
Waste Management 160
Telecommunication 167
5.3 Notes and Summary 168

Chapter 6 Discussion and Conclusion 169
6.1 Benefits from Strategic Areas Interaction 169
6.2 Networks in Strategic Ares and Connectivity Improvement 170
6.3 Adaptive Urban Network in Strategic Areas 172
6.4 Benefits, Limitations, and Further Research 174

References 175
Appendix 186

LIST OF TABLES
Chapter 2
Table 2.1 General Network Data Definition/Concept 21
Table 2.2 Network Analysis Tools 23
Table 2.3 Analysis Tools and Definition 24
Table 2.4 Urban System Comparison 29
Table 2.5 Adaptive Application/Implementation 31

Chapter 3
Table 3.1 Network Data and Required Data 42
Table 3.2 Research Variable and Required Data 43
Table 3.3 Data Collection and Content/Target 44
Table 3.4 Number of Samples 45

Chapter 4
Table 4.1 Inter-Village Land Transportation Routes 54
Table 4.2 Inter-City Land Transportation Routes 55
Table 4.3 Inter-Border Land Transportation Routes 56
Table 4.4 Terminal in Sambas Regency 57
Table 4.5 Port/Piers in Sambas Regency 62
Table 4.6 River (Inland) Transportation Routes 62
Table 4.7 Landfills in Sambas Regency 84
Table 4.8 Mobile Telecommunication Tower Distribution 89
Table 4.9 Network in Business 94
Table 4.10 Basic Business/Service Demography in Sambas District (National Tourism Strategic) 94
Table 4.11 Basic Business/Service Demography in Temajuk Village/Paloh District (National Strategic Activity Center) 95
Table 4.12 Supporting Infrastructure and Interaction with Border Area in Sambas 97
Table 4.13 Supporting Infrastructure and Interaction with Border Area in Temajuk/Paloh 100
Table 4.14 Basic Respondent Demography in Sambas District (National Tourism Strategic) 103
Table 4.15 Basic Respondent Demography in Temajuk/Paloh (National Strategic Activity Center) 103
Table 4.16 Supporting Infrastructure and Orientation Detail in Sambas 110
Table 4.17 Supporting Infrastructure and Orientation Detail in Temajuk/Paloh 117
Table 4.18 Visitor/Tourist Origin and Destination 115

Chapter 5
Table 5.1 Business/Trading and Social Activity Distribution and Direction in Strategic Areas 123
Table 5.2 (Physical) Infrastructure in Sambas Regency 123
Table 5.3 District Profile in Sambas Regency 126
Table 5.4 Network Comparison in Road Network 129
Table 5.5 Network Comparison, Changes, and Impact in Road Network 131
Table 5.6 Existing Block, Changes, and Impacts in Road Network 133
Table 5.7 Score Rank in Road Network 135
Table 5.8 Network Comparison in Public (Land) Transportation 138
Table 5.9 Network Comparison, Changes, and Impacts in Public (Land) Transportation 140
Table 5.10 Existing Block, Changes, and Impact in Public (Land) Transportation 142
Table 5.11 Score Rank in Public (Land) Transportation 144
Table 5.12 Network Comparison in Water Supply Network 150
Table 5.13 Network Comparison, Changes, and Impacts in Water Supply Network 151
Table 5.14 Existing Block, Changes, and Impact in Water Supply Network 152
Table 5.15 Score Rank in Water Supply Network 153
Table 5.16 Network Comparison in Electricity Grid Network 156
Table 5.17 Network Comparison, Changes, and Impacts in Electricity Grid Network 157
Table 5.18 Existing Block, Changes, and Impact in Electricity Grid Network 158
Table 5.19 Network Comparison in Waste Management Network 163
Table 5.20 Network Comparison, Changes, and Impacts in Waste Management Network 164
Table 5.21 Existing Block, Changes, and Impact in Waste Management Network 165
Table 5.22 Score Rank in Waste Management Network 166

Chapter 6
Table 6.1 Network Improvement on the Existing Network 172

LIST OF FIGURES
Chapter 1
Figure 1.1 Indonesian Border Areas 3
Figure 1.2 National Strategic Activity Centers (Border Areas) in West Kalimantan 5
Figure 1.3 National Tourism Strategic Areas in Indonesia and West Kalimantan 7
Figure 1.4 Kalimantan Island and Sambas Regency 8
Figure 1.5 Sambas Administrative Boundaries (in districts) and Strategic Areas ( 9
Figure 1.6 Initial (Social) Network Structure and Orientation in Sambas (left) and Temajuk/Paloh (right) 11
Figure 1.7 Urban Activity Center Hierarchy in Sambas Regency 12
Figure 1.8 Research Issues 15

Chapter 2
Figure 2.1 Shortcut Concept Illustration 18
Figure 2.2 Network Graph 20
Figure 2.3 Network without Structural Holes (left), and with Structural Holes (right) 26
Figure 2.4 Network Operators 27
Figure 2.5 Mono-centric Development (left) and Polycentric Development (right) 30
Figure 2.6 Dynamical Networks Basic (Single) 32
Figure 2.7 Dynamical Networks Basic (Group) 33
Figure 2.8 Theoretical Framework/Analytic Scheme 34

Chapter 3
Figure 3.1 Research Approach and Flow-chart 35
Figure 3.2 Existing Urban Networks Exploration and Measurement 36
Figure 3.3 Adaptive Approach and Measurement 37
Figure 3.4 Interpretation and Discussion 38
Figure 3.5 Sambas Regency Connectivity (Road Network) 40
Figure 3.6 Sambas Regency Connectivity (Road Network) at District Level 41

Chapter 4
Figure 4.1 Road Network in Sambas Regency 47
Figure 4.2 Road Network in Sambas Regency (District Level) 48
Figure 4.3 Road Network (Graph) 49
Figure 4.4 Closeness Centrality in Road Network 49
Figure 4.5 Centrality in Road Network 50
Figure 4.6 Cliques in Road Network 51
Figure 4.7 Blocks in Road Network 52
Figure 4.8 Structural Holes in Road Network 53
Figure 4.9 Public (Land) Transportation Route Network in Sambas Regency 55
Figure 4.10 Public (Land) Transportation Terminal Network in Sambas Regency 56
Figure 4.11 Public (Land) Transportation Route Network in Sambas Regency (District Level) 57
Figure 4.12 Public (Land) Transportation Network (Graph) 58
Figure 4.13 Closeness Centrality in Public (Land) Transportation Network 59
Figure 4.14 Centrality in Public (Land) Transportation Network 59
Figure 4.15 Clique in Public (Land) Transportation Network 60
Figure 4.16 Blocks in Public (Land) Transportation Network 61
Figure 4.17 Structural Holes in Public (Land) Transportation Network 61
Figure 4.18 Ports and Piers Network in Sambas Regency 64
Figure 4.19 Ports and Piers Network in Sambas Regency (District Level) 65
Figure 4.20 Public (Sea/River) Transportation Network (Graph) 66
Figure 4.21 Closeness Centrality in Public (Sea/River) Transportation Network 66
Figure 4.22 Centrality in Public (Sea/River) Transportation Network 67
Figure 4.23 Blocks in Public (Sea/River) Transportation 67
Figure 4.24 Structural Holes in Public (Sea/River) Transportation 68
Figure 4.25 Flight Routes in West Kalimantan 69
Figure 4.26 Railway Network Plan in Sambas Regency 70
Figure 4.27 Water Supply Coverage (Districts) in Sambas Regency 71
Figure 4.28 Water Supply Network in Sambas Regency (District Level) 72
Figure 4.29 Water Supply Network (Graph) 73
Figure 4.30 Closeness Centrality in Water Supply 73
Figure 4.31 Centrality in Water Supply Network 74
Figure 4.32 Blocks in Water Supply 74
Figure 4.33 Structural Holes in Water Supply 74
Figure 4.34 “Khatulistiwa” Electricity System in West Kalimantan 75
Figure 4.35 Electricity System in Sambas Regency 76
Figure 4.36 Electricity System Network in Sambas Regency (District Level) 77
Figure 4.37 Electricity Grid Network (Graph) 78
Figure 4.38 Closeness Centrality in Electricity Grid Network 78
Figure 4.39 Centrality in Electricity Grid Network 79
Figure 4.40 Clique in Electricity Grid Network 79
Figure 4.41 Blocks in Electricity Grid Network 80
Figure 4.42 Structural Holes in Electricity Grid Network 81
Figure 4.43 Waste Management Coverage in Sambas Regency 82
Figure 4.44 Waste Management Network in Sambas Regency (District Level) 83
Figure 4.45 Waste Management Network (Graph) 84
Figure 4.46 Closeness Centrality in Waste Management 85
Figure 4.47 Centrality in Waste Management 85
Figure 4.48 Blocks in Waste Management 86
Figure 4.49 Structural Holes in Waste Management 86
Figure 4.50 Telecommunication Network Illustration Coverage in Sambas Regency 87
Figure 4.51 Telecommunication Network in Sambas Regency (District Level)Regency 88
Figure 4.52 Telecommunication Network (Graph) 89
Figure 4.53 Closeness Centrality in Telecommunication Network 90
Figure 4.54 Centrality in Telecommunication Network in Sambas Regency 90
Figure 4.55 Clique in Telecommunication Network 91
Figure 4.56 Blocks in Telecommunication Network 92
Figure 4.57 Structural Holes in Telecommunication Network 92
Figure 4.58 Business/Trading Distribution-Movement (Graph) in Sambas 96
Figure 4.59 Out/In Degree in Business/Trading Distribution-Movement in Sambas 96
Figure 4.60 Origin-Destination in Business/Trading Distribution-Movement in Sambas 97
Figure 4.61 Business/Trading Distribution-Movement (Graph) in Temajuk/Paloh 99
Figure 4.62 Out/In Degree in Business/Trading Distribution-Movement in Temajuk/Paloh 99
Figure 4.63 Origin-Destination in Business/Trading Distribution-Movement in Temajuk/Paloh 100
Figure 4.64 Family/Friend Distribution (Graph) in Sambas 105
Figure 4.65 Out/In Degree in Family/Friend Distribution in Sambas 105
Figure 4.66 Origin-Destination in Family/Friend Distribution in Sambas 106
Figure 4.67 Social Activity Movement (Graph) in Sambas 107
Figure 4.68 Out/In Degree in Social Activity Movement in Sambas 107
Figure 4.69 Origin-Destination in Social Activity Movement in Sambas 108
Figure 4.70 By-phone Interaction (Graph) in Sambas 109
Figure 4.71 Out/In Degree in By-Phone Interaction in Sambas 109
Figure 4.72 Origin-Destination in By-Phone Interaction in Sambas 110
Figure 4.73 Family/Friend Distribution (Graph) in Temajuk/Paloh 112
Figure 4.74 Out/In Degree in Family/Friend Distribution in Sambas 112
Figure 4.75 Origin-Destination in Family/Friend Distribution in Temajuk/Paloh 113
Figure 4.76 Social Activity Movement (Graph) in Temajuk/Paloh 114
Figure 4.77 Out/In Degree in Social Activity Movement in Temajuk/Paloh 114
Figure 4.78 Origin-Destination in Social Activity Movement in Temajuk/Paloh 115
Figure 4.79 By-phone Interaction (Graph) in Temajuk/Paloh 116
Figure 4.80 Out/In Degree in By-Phone Interaction in Temajuk/Paloh 116
Figure 4.81 Origin-Destination in By-Phone Interaction in Sambas 117
Figure 4.82 Tourist/Visitors Origin and Destination 118

Chapter 5
Figure 5.1 Different Orientation, Area Group, and Connection Concept 125
Figure 5.2 Proposed/Alternative Networks for Road Network 127
Figure 5.3 Proposed/Alternative Networks for Public (Land) Transportation 136
Figure 5.4 Public (Sea/River) Transportation Network 145
Figure 5.5 The Wave Height Average in Indonesia 146
Figure 5.6 Network Development for Water Supply (Government Plan) 147
Figure 5.7 Proposed/Alternative Networks for Water Supply Network (Government Plan) 148
Figure 5.8 Proposed/Alternative Networks for Water Supply Network (Government Plan Extension) 149
Figure 5.9 Proposed/Alternative Networks for Electricity Grid Network 154
Figure 5.10 Proposed/Alternative Networks for Waste Management Network (Extension Plan) 161
Figure 5.11 Proposed/Alternative Networks for Waste Management Network (Extension Plan and New Development) 162
Figure 5.12 Constraints on the Telecommunication Network 167

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