||Trust and Willingness to Disclose Personal Information: From the Perspective of Social Commerce Users
||Trust and Willingness to Disclose Personal Information: From the Perspective of Social Commerce Users
||Institute of International Management
||Erik Paolo S. Capistrano
Personal information disclosure
Big Five personality factors
This study presents an integrated framework involving social exchange theory, self-disclosure theory, social learning theory, privacy calculus, and the “Big Five” personality traits to analyze the different factors influencing trust and willingness to disclose personal information. This integration was made through an extensive discussion of relationship marketing. The framework was applied in the context of social commerce, which integrates some features and functions of traditional e-commerce and the relatively newer social networking. Three-hundred eighty-five (385) respondents validated the framework. SEM-PLS results indicate that nine of the eighteen hypotheses are supported, providing additional evidence on the overwhelming influence of trust and self-efficacy on personal information disclosure. Further hierarchical analysis results suggest that familiarity with the firm is an overriding influence towards trust over all other factors. Of the five personality factors, neuroticism is found to be consistently influential towards personal information disclosure based on the different statistical analyses made, while extraversion potentially influences to some extent as well. Further discussions, conclusions, and implications are made at the end of this study.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS XI
LIST OF TABLES XVI
LIST OF FIGURES XVIII
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background. 1
1.1.1 Introduction. 1
1.1.2 Research Contributions. 5
1.1.3 Research Questions and Research Objectives. 8
1.2 Facts and Figures of Behavior in Online Shopping and Social Networking. 11
1.2.1 Internet and Online Demographics. 11
1.2.2 Online Shopping and Social Networking Market Figures. 14
1.3 Research Scope. 22
1.4 Research Structure. 23
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 25
2.1 Theoretical Background. 25
2.1.1 Theory of Reasoned Action in Information Privacy Research. 27
2.1.2 Relationship Marketing and Information Privacy. 28
2.1.3 Social Exchange Theory and Information Privacy. 30
2.1.4 Self-Disclosure Theory, Social Learning Theory, and Information Privacy. 31
2.1.5 The Privacy Calculus. 33
2.2 Consumer Concerns and Reactions to Increased Information Collection. 35
2.3 Defining Privacy and Providing Personal Information. 37
2.4 Trust and Consumer Willingness to Provide Information. 38
2.5 Self-Efficacy, Prior Experience, and Willingness to Disclose. 40
2.6 Theory Integration and Discussion. 41
2.7 Describing Customer Characteristics, Attitudes, and Behaviors. 43
2.7.1 Classifying Consumers based on Privacy Perceptions. 43
2.7.2 Research Context – The Emergence of Social Commerce. 44
2.7.3 Changing Trust and Privacy Issues. 48
2.7.4 Research Context – High-Usage Customers. 50
2.8 Personality Factors – Focus on “The Big Five”. 52
2.9 Construct Definition and Hypothesis Development. 55
2.9.1 Defining the Research Constructs. 55
2.9.2 Relationship between Information Sensitivity and Concerns for Privacy. 57
2.9.3 Relationship between Concerns for Privacy and Trust. 58
2.9.4 Relationship between Concerns for Privacy and Willingness to Disclose Personal Information. 59
2.9.5 Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Willingness to Disclose Personal Information. 60
2.9.6 Relationship between Prior Experience to Trust, and Prior Experience to Willingness to Disclose Personal Information. 61
2.9.7 Relationship of Perceptions on the Firm to Trust and Perceptions on the Firm Relationship to Trust. 62
2.9.8 Relationship between Trust and Willingness to Disclose Personal Information. 65
2.9.9 Effects of Personality Factors. 66
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 70
3.1 Summary of Research Hypotheses. 70
3.2 Research Framework. 71
3.3 Research Operationalization. 74
3.3.1 Construct Measurements. 74
3.3.2 Sampling Frame and Sample Design. 76
3.4 Data Analysis Methods. 78
3.4.1 Descriptive Statistics. 78
3.4.2 Structural Equation Modeling – ConfirmatoryFactor Analysis. 78
3.4.3 Structural Equation Modeling – Structural Path Modeling. 79
3.4.4 Hierarchical Multiple Regression. 79
3.5 Pre-Test Procedure and Results. 80
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS 90
4.1 Description of Survey Respondents. 90
4.2 Analyzing for Homogeneity 94
4.3 Analyzing for Common Method Bias. 95
4.4 Descriptive Statistics and Confirmatory Factor Loading Results. 96
4.5 Correlation Matrix. 105
4.6 Hypotheses Testing: Structural Equation Modeling – Partial Least Squares (SEM-PLS). 107
4.6.1 Integrated Research Model. 107
4.6.2 Research Model based on Social Exchange Theory. 112
4.6.3 Research Model based on Self-Disclosure Theory. 114
4.6.4 Research Model based on Social Learning Theory. 115
4.6.5 Research Model based on Privacy Calculus. 116
4.6.6 Personality Factors on Trust and Willingness to Disclose Personal Information. 118
4.6.7 Testing for Mediating Effects of Trust 120
4.7 Hierarchical Regression. 123
4.8 Summary of Research Results. 127
4.9 Post Hoc Analysis and Results. 131
4.9.1 Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). 131
4.9.2 SEM-PLS Multi-Group Analyses. 133
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSIONS 137
5.1 Conclusions and Discussions. 137
5.1.1 On Personality Factors. 141
5.1.2 On Trust. 142
5.1.3 On Privacy Concerns. 143
5.1.4 On Familiarity with the Firm. 144
5.1.5 On Self-Efficacy and Prior Experience. 146
5.1.6 On Information Sensitivity. 147
5.2 Academic Implications. 148
5.3 Managerial Implications. 152
5.4 Limitations and Directions for Future Research. 154
Appendix 1: Type of Personal Information Available in Facebook 168
Appendix 2: Pre-Test Survey Questionnaire 173
Appendix 3: Levene’s Test of Homogeneity 180
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