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系統識別號 U0026-0608201210124500
論文名稱(中文) 聯合國糧農組織港口國措施協定之發展與影響
論文名稱(英文) FAO Port State Measures Agreement: Its Development and Influence
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 海洋科技與事務研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Ocean Technology and Marine Affairs
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 陳思穎
研究生(英文) Szu-Ying Chen
學號 Na6971059
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 118頁
口試委員 指導教授-胡念祖
口試委員-王冠雄
口試委員-高聖惕
中文關鍵字 不受管制漁捕  未報告漁捕  非法漁捕  區域漁業管理組織  港口國措施協定  魚群協定  聯合國糧農組織 
英文關鍵字 Fish Stocks Agreement  Illegal Fishing  Port State Measures Agreement  Regional Fisheries Management Organizations  United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization  Unregulated Fishing  Unreported Fishing 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近年來,非法、未報告和不受管制漁捕(IUU fishing)是一個受到高度關注的全球漁業議題,因為其不僅威脅海洋生物資源、破壞海洋生態環境,亦對人類食物安全造成危害。為此,聯合國糧農組織於二○○九年通過了「預防、制止及消除非法、未報告和不受管制漁捕之港口國措施協定」(簡稱「港口國措施協定」)。該協定是自一九九五年聯合國通過「履行一九八二年十二月十日聯合國海洋法公約有關跨界魚群與高度洄游魚群相關條款之協定」後,國際間再度通過的一個具有法律約束力之全球性國際文件。「港口國措施協定」賦予港口國管制公海漁船之權利與義務,更改變了現行僅以船旗國及沿海國作為養護與管理公海漁業資源之主要行為者的局面。

本論文之目的即在檢視「港口國措施協定」在全球層級上的發展進程,以及在區域層級上,該協定對五大鮪魚區域漁業管理組織(IATTC、ICCAT、CCSBT、IOTC和WCPFC)之影響。最後,本論文再由全球和區域層級分別評估港口國措施對我國遠洋漁業未來可能產生之衝擊。

本論文之研究方法主要為文獻分析法,首先檢視「港口國措施協定」之發展進程,再檢視上述各鮪魚區域漁業管理組織內部所通過或已有討論之港口國措施決議案或提案草案之內容,以瞭解各該組織實踐「港口國措施協定」之程度。最後,本論文再以質化研究方式,評估五大鮪魚區域漁業管理組織徹底實踐港口國措施後,對我國遠洋漁業所產生之衝擊為何。

本研究發現,除CCSBT迄今尚未有港口國措施之提案草案外,IOTC業已通過其港口國措施決議,IATTC、ICCAT與WCPFC均有港口國措施之提案草案存在。由我國在這些區域漁業管理組織管轄水域中的漁業活動現況觀之,如果這些組織均通過並徹底實踐「港口國措施協定」之規定,則以WCPFC將會對我國遠洋漁業造成最大衝擊,其次依序為ICCAT、IATTC、IOTC和CCSBT。
英文摘要 In recent years, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU fishing) has become a highly concerned global fisheries issue for its threat to marine living resources, damage to the marine eco-environment and detriment to the human food security. For this, in 2009 the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization adopted an “Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter, and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing” (the PSM Agreement). This is another legally binding international instrument on the global level adopted by the international community since the adoption of the “Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks” (the UN Fish Stocks Agreement) by the United Nations in 1995. The PSM Agreement bestows the rights and duties to port States to control high seas fishing vessels, and changes the current situation in which flag States and coastal States are the primary actors in conserving and managing high seas fisheries resources.

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the development process of the PSM Agreement on the global level and the impact of such Agreement to the five major tuna regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs) (i.e., IATTC, IOTC, CCSBT, IOTC, and WCPFC) on the regional level. Finally, this thesis assesses the potential impact of port State measures to the ocean going fisheries of this country from a global and a regional perspective, respectively.

Content analysis is a major research methodology undertaken in this thesis that firstly examines the development process of the PSM Agreement and further examines the content of the resolution or the draft proposals on port States measures adopted or discussed internally by each of the above-mentioned tuna RFMOs so as to understand the degree of implementation of the PSM Agreement within each of these RFMOs. Finally, with a qualitative research method, this thesis further assesses the potential impact to the ocean going fisheries of this country once these five major tuna RFMOs thoroughly put port States measures into their practices.

This study finds that, other than the CCSBT in which no draft proposal on port States measures has yet existed, IOTC has already adopted its resolution on port State measures and IATTC, ICCAT and WCPFC all have their draft proposals on port State measures. From the perspective of the current fisheries activities of this country within the waters under the jurisdiction of these RFMOs, the greatest impact to the ocean going fisheries of this country will be generated from within the WCPFC, followed by ICCAT, IATTC, IOTC and CCSBT in a descending order, once these RFMOs all adopt and thoroughly implement the rules of the PSM Agreement.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 V
目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 IX
第一章 前言 1
第一節 研究緣起 1
第二節 研究目的 6
第三節 文獻回顧 7
第四節 研究方法與流程 9
第五節 研究範圍與限制 11
第二章 國際漁業法律體制中「港口國措施」之發展與演進 13
第一節 一九八二年聯合國海洋法公約 14
第二節 一九九三年糧農組織促進公海漁船遵守國際養護與管理措施協定 15
第三節 一九九五年聯合國魚群協定 17
第四節 一九九五年糧農組織責任漁業行為規約 20
第五節 聯合國糧農組織預防、嚇阻和消除IUU漁捕國際行動計畫 22
第六節 聯合國糧農組織打擊IUU漁捕之港口國措施範本方案 25
第七節 結語 30
第三章 聯合國糧農組織港口國措施協定 33
第一節 港口國措施協定之緣起 33
第二節 港口國措施協定之規範與內涵 36
第三節 協定現況 45
第四節 結語 48
第四章 港口國措施協定在區域漁業管理組織之實踐 51
第一節 美洲熱帶鮪魚委員會(IATTC) 51
第二節 大西洋鮪類保育國際委員會(ICCAT) 56
第三節 南方黑鮪保育委員會(CCSBT) 62
第四節 印度洋鮪魚委員會(IOTC) 67
第五節 中西太平洋漁業委員會(WCPFC) 73
第六節 結語 79
第五章 港口國措施協定對我國遠洋漁業可能產生之衝擊 83
第一節 組織地位面 84
第二節 漁船數量面 86
第三節 漁獲配額面 89
第四節 我國漁船之違法或違規態樣面 93
第五節 結語 100
第六章 結論 103
參考文獻 109
參考文獻 中文部份
1. 中華民國對外漁業合作發展協會,國際間抵制IUU漁業活動趨勢座談會會議資料,台北:中華民國對外漁業發展協會,2002年5月。
2. 王冠雄,「國際漁業法政環境之變遷:以養護與管理跨界與高度洄游魚種之發展為例」,二○○九年漁業外交研習會課程講義,台北市:行政院農業委員會漁業署,頁85-93,2009年10月。
3. 胡念祖,「國際漁業法體制之演進趨勢與轉變:兼論我國因應之道」,第三屆漁業政策研討會論文集,台北市:中華民國漁業合作對外發展協會,頁1-1至1-33,1996年6月。
4. 高世明,「一九九五年聯合國魚群協定與責任漁業行為規約對區域漁業管理組織發展與決策之影響」,國立台灣大學海洋資源管理研究所碩士論文,2006年1月。
5. 黃鴻燕、郭宗海,「美洲熱帶鮪魚委員會第81屆委員會會議概況」,國際漁業資訊月刊,第216期,頁54-56,2010年11月。


英文部份
1. Aqorau, Transform (2000), “The Draft Convention for the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean,” 15 The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law., pp. 111-150.
2. Edeson, William (2006), “Some Future Directions for Fishing Entities in Certain Regional Fisheries Management Bodies,” Ocean Development & International Law 37, pp. 245-264.
3. Hayashi, Moritaka (1995), “The 1995 Agreement on the Conservation and management of Straddling and highly Migratory Fish Stocks: Significance for the Law of the Sea Convention,” Ocean and Coastal Management 29, Nos 1-3, pp. 51-69.
4. Juda, Lawrence (1997), “The 1995 United Nations Agreement on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks: A Critique,” Ocean Development and International Law, 28, pp. 147-166.
5. Kuemlangan, Blaise and Press, Michael (2010), “FAO Preventing, Deterring and Eliminating IUU Fishing—Port State Measures,” Environmental Policy and Law 40 (6), pp. 262-268.
6. Molenaar, Erik Jaap (2005), “New Areas and Gaps—How to Address Them,” Working Paper of the Conference on the Governance of High Seas Fisheries and the UN Fish Agreement – Moving from Words to Action, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada May 1-5, http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/fgc-cgp/documents/molenaar_e.pdf.
7. Nandan, Satya N. (2005), “Current Fisheries Governance,” Conference on the Governance of High Seas Fisheries and the United Nations Fish Agreement-Moving from Word to Action, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. John’s Newfoundland and Labrador, May 1-5.
8. Schmidt, Carl-Christian (2005), “Economic Drivers of Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing,” Conference on the Governance of High Seas Fisheries and the United Nations Fish Agreement-Moving from Word to Action, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, May 1-5, http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/fgc-cgp/documents/presentations/nandan_e.pdf.
9. Sydnes, Are K. (2001), “Regional Fishery Organization: How and Why Organizational Diversity Matters,” Ocean Development & International Law 32, pp. 349-372.
10. Sydnes, Are K. (2002), “Regional Fishery Organizations in Developing Regions: Adapting to Changes in International Fisheries Law,” Marine Policy 26, pp. 373-381.
11. Terje Lobach (2003), “Port State Control of Foreign Fishing Vessels,” FAO Fisheries Circular No. 987, Rome, FAO.
12. Van Dyke, Jon M. (2000), “Sharing Ocean Resources─in a Time of Scarcity and Selfishness”, Law of the Sea: The Common Heritage and Emerging Challenges, (Netherlands: Kluwer Law International), pp. 1-36.


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68. IOTC第10/11號決議案
http://www.ofdc.org.tw/fishserv/File/Rule/IOTC_Resolutions_E/10-11.pdf.
69. IPOA-IUU全文
http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/y1224e/y1224e00.htm.
70. MHLC on South Pacific Tuna Fisheries歷史
http://www.unescap.org/mced2000/pacific/background/mhlc.htm.
71. Pew Environmental Group Port State Performance
http://www.portstateperformance.org/index.php/_templates/content/results.
72. Report of the Eighth Session of the IOTC Working Party on Data Collection and Statistics
http://www.iotc.org/files/proceedings/2011/wpdcs/IOTC-2011-WPDCS08-R[E].pdf.
73. Report of the Expert Consultation to Draft a Legally-Binding Instrument on Port State Measures
ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a1375e/a1375e00.pdf.
74. Report of the Expert Consultation to Review Port State Measures to Combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing
ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/y8104e/Y8104e00.pdf.
75. Report of the Technical Consultation to Draft a Legally-Binding Instrument on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing
http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1122e/i1122e00.pdf.
76. Report of the Technical Consultation to Review Port State Measures to Combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing
http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5787e/y5787e00.htm.
77. Report of the Twenty-Eighth Session of the Committee on Fisheries
ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/012/i1017e/i1017e00.pdf.
78. Report of the Workshop on Exchange of Information and Maintenance of the Consolidated List of Authorized Vessels of Tuna Regional Fisheries Management Organizations
http://www.tuna-org.org/Documents/other/TRFMO_CLAV_2011.pdf.
79. The state of the world highly migratory, straddling and other high seas fish stocks, and associated species
http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/a0653e/a0653e05.htm#bm05.1.
80. WCPFC CMM 2007/03
http://www.ofdc.org.tw/organization/01/wcpfc/0703.pdf.
81. WCPFC CMM 2009/03
http://www.wcpfc.int/doc/cmm-2009-03/conservation-and-management-swordfish.
82. WCPFC CMM 2010/04
http://www.wcpfc.int/node/3407.
83. WCPFC TCC第3次定期會議摘要報告
http://www.wcpfc.int/doc/edited-tcc3-summary-report-and-attachments.
84. WCPFC TCC第4次定期會議摘要報告
http://www.wcpfc.int/meetings/2008/4th-regular-session-technical-and-compliance-committee.
85. WCPFC TCC第5次定期會議摘要報告
http://www.wcpfc.int/doc/summary-report-and-attachments-edited-version.
86. WCPFC公約全文
http://www.wcpfc.int/key-documents/convention-text.
87. WCPFC第5屆年度會議報告
http://www.wcpfc.int/doc/summary-report-final.
88. WCPFC第6屆年度會議摘要報告
http://www.wcpfc.int/doc/wcpfc6-summary-report-final.
89. WCPFC第7屆年度會議摘要報告
http://www.wcpfc.int/node/3403.
90. WCPFC鮪魚年鑑
http://www.wcpfc.int/node/1759.
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