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系統識別號 U0026-0607201123181700
論文名稱(中文) 熱拌瀝青混凝土品質管制與品質保證之比較
論文名稱(英文) Comparison of Quality Control and Quality Assurance for Hot-Mix Asphalt Concrete
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 王慶雄
研究生(英文) Ching-Hsiung Wang
學號 n6894110
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 164頁
口試委員 口試委員-蔡攀鰲
口試委員-陳偉全
口試委員-蕭志銘
共同指導教授-陳景文
指導教授-陳建旭
中文關鍵字 品質管制(QC)  品質保證(QA)  合格率(PWL)  瀝青含量  篩分析  黏度  再再生瀝青回收料(R2AP)  再再生瀝青混凝土 
英文關鍵字 quality control (QC)  quality assurance (QA)  percent within limits(PWL)  asphalt content  aggregate gradation  viscosity  recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RRAP)  recycling of reclaimed asphalt concrete (RRAC) 
學科別分類
中文摘要 國內道路鋪面主要採用熱拌瀝青混凝土(hot mix asphalt mixture,HMA)鋪築,以提供車輛行駛,為了確保鋪面材料品質能達到鋪面設計需求,必須檢驗瀝青混凝土品質是否有符合預期設計標準,進而確保瀝青混凝土鋪面長期服務績效。一般檢驗方式可分為施工廠商的試驗品質管制(quality control,QC),及工程主辦機關為確認品質所採用之品質保證(quality assurance,QA)。
經由統計分析QC和QA試驗值計量結果,得知QA試驗數據的變異性較QC為高,並發現QC和QA試驗不管在變異數或平均值,都有部份材料性質試驗數據有顯著差異性存在。另外,目前國內各道路主管機關現行驗收規範,僅依據試驗平均值作為允收標準,未將試驗數據間變異性納入考量,有其不足之處。本文應用合格率之品質檢驗,同時考量試驗數據平均值與標準差結合,利用品質合格率(percent within limits,PWL)量化檢驗品質水準,並參考AASHTO R42實務所列範例之付款因子模式,可較為均衡施工廠商及主辦機關雙方對於品質接受與否之風險。
瀝青混凝土各項性質品質檢驗之容許界限標準,國內各道路主管機關規範各有不同認定標準。本文應用不同專案計畫品質試驗資料,發展使用試驗標準差來重新訂定規範容許界限,本文以瀝青含量容許界限為實例,參考AASHTO R9-05驗收抽樣計畫以統計方法分析試驗數據,建立製程標準差及目標值偏移標準差之典型結合標準差,並考量依AASHTO R42-06在常態分布90%時品質允收水準,訂定合理瀝青含量及粒料級配各篩號試驗容許界限,以提昇材料製程品質。
回收瀝青混凝土鋪面(reclaimed asphalt pavement,RAP)當達到最終服務壽命時被刨除並再利用,RAP再利用稱為二次回收瀝青混凝土,再再生瀝青回收料(recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement)在本文定義為R2AP,R2AP添加分為10個等級含量,添加4個不同軟化劑或再生劑混合應用;經利用鋪築時間與老化指數之關係,研究RAP及R2AP之區別,得知AC-10與AC-20之老化指數分別達到8時,可視為RAP;分別達到21.8及17.3,即可視為R2AP。再生瀝青混凝土選用軟化劑應低於目標黏度之次一等級瀝青,添加重油之再再生瀝青混凝土無論間接張力強度或抗水侵害能力皆不佳,不建議使用重油作為軟化劑。另外,再再生瀝青混凝土添加40%含量的R2AP,不會顯著改變混合料工程性質,反之,含量高於40%,由於R2AP老化瀝青將造成混合料性質有顯著變化,當R2AP含量增加,全部混合料呈現能量損失的增加,相對較高能量損失者,表示著存有較高水侵害的機率。
再生瀝青混凝土黏度範圍一直是產、官、學界都想瞭解的問題,尤其瀝青混凝土回收料多次使用後,黏度範圍變化更大及更難掌握;為合適訂定黏度檢驗區間,以QC/QA角度來探討,施工中盆料進行品質管制(QC)黏度試驗,及施工後現地切割再生瀝青混凝土進行品質保證(QA)黏度試驗,經研究發現二者存有極大差異性;利用統計觀念從中尋得適宜之允收黏度檢驗範圍。此外,為驗證黏度檢驗建議範圍之合理性,於2010年期間從37個省道路段之不同再生瀝青混凝土鋪築工程,依規定於工程完成後進行現場鑽心取樣,從中獲得黏度試驗數值,以統計方法驗證本文建議允收黏度品質檢驗範圍,結果顯示建議再生瀝青混凝土黏度範圍有良好之相對應性。
英文摘要 Hot mix asphalt mixture (HMA) is the major material for motorway pavements in Taiwan. The material needs to be examined for its quality as well as long-term performance. Regular examination includes quality control (QC) performed by the contractor and quality assurance (QA) performed by the competent government agencies.
A typical quality assurance (QA) is the process by which highway construction elements are sampled and tested by agencies to ensure compliance with specifications. The results of quality control (QC) performed by contractors for tests of mix properties of hot-mix asphalt concrete are increasingly used in the acceptance decision by highway agencies. An analysis of the QC and QA results during construction season was undertaken for quality test measures including asphalt content and aggregate gradation. Differences between QC and QA test results for hot-mix asphalt concrete were shown to be statistically significant for some of mix properties. On quality characteristics in which statistically significant differences occurred, the QA values were typically larger. QA and QC comparisons indicated less variable and more favorable contractor test results that would give more favorable acceptance outcomes. A process to determine a typical standard deviation value was developed for the quality characteristics of asphalt mixtures. Revised specification limits were recommended to take into account the variability of both QC and QA data. These findings would help highway agencies structure their quality assurance programs, specifically the use of contractor-performed tests for acceptance decisions.
Recycling of pavement materials has become a viable alternative for highway construction, maintenance and rehabilitation. However, the use of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) may be seriously limited because of wide variability of RAP. Concerns are also raised regarding how to distinguish recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RRAP) from RAP. Various contents of RAP were used to mix with recycling agents and softening agents and compacted to Marshall specimens, called recycling of reclaimed asphalt concrete (RRAC). Results show that asphalt concrete could be regarded as RAP when the aging index (AI) of AC-10 and AC-20 both reached 8. When the AI value of AC-10 and AC-20 reached 21.8 and 17.3, respectively, it is called RRAP. When SA was used as an additive agent, it should be one grade lower than the desirable viscosity of asphalt and Heavy oil is not proposed to use. Results from residue strength indicate that mixtures added with RA performed better in terms of resistance to moisture damage than ones with SA. The usage of RAP can also be increased when using RA.
Viscosity range of reclaimed asphalt mixture has been a research topic for the industry, the government and the academic. Especially when asphalt mixture is recycled for multiple times, the range of viscosity becomes wider and harder to obtain. To determine an appropriate range of viscosity testing, this study discussed viscosity from a perspective of QC/QA. The QC viscosity test of new asphalt mixture and the QA viscosity test of reclaimed asphalt mixture showed significant difference. An appropriate range of viscosity testing was developed with statistical analysis. To test validity of the range, 37 pavement projects using RAP in year 2010 were sampled and tested. The viscosity test results showed that the range of quality acceptance for viscosity developed by this study was valid and practical.
論文目次 摘要 Ⅰ
Abstract Ⅲ
誌謝 Ⅴ
目錄 Ⅵ
表目錄 ⅩⅠ
圖目錄 ⅩⅢ

第一章 緒論 1-1
1.1研究背景與緣起 1-1
1.2研究動機 1-2
1.3研究的目 1-4
1.3.1新鮮瀝青混凝土之研究目的 1-5
1.3.2再生瀝青混凝土之研究目的 1-6
1.4研究範圍 1-7

第二章 文獻回顧 2-1
2.1QC/QA之品質管理 2-1
2.1.1公共工程之QC與QA規範制度 2-2
2.1.2 QC規範的定義 2-3
2.1.3 QA規範的定義 2-4
2.1.4瀝青混凝土品質檢驗管理 2-4
2.2國內公共工程三級品管制度 2-5
2.3國內道路主管機關鋪面檢驗規範 2-8
2.3.1交通部高速公路局及國道新建工程局-施工技術規範 2-8
2.3.2交通部公路總局-施工說明書 2-9
2.3.3內政部營建署-施工規範 2-9
2.3.4台北市政府-施工規範補充要點及瀝青道路施工規範 2-10
2.3.5高雄市政府-道路工程施工說明書彙編 2-11
2.3.6國內瀝青混凝土之施工規範執行比較 2-12
2.3.7國內道路主管機關回收瀝青黏度檢驗標準 2-14
2.3.8小結 2-17
2.4國外瀝青混凝土品質管理現況與發展 2-18
2.4.1國外瀝青混凝土材料QC/QA執行成效 2-18
2.4.2 QC/QA統計方法應用 2-25
2.5再生瀝青混凝土特性 2-30
2.5.1回收料再利用特性 2-30
2.5.2 RAP混合物特性 2-31
2.5.3再生瀝青混凝土老化性質 2-32
2.5.4黑石頭行為 2-33

第三章 研究計畫 3-1
3.1研究方法 3-1
3.2瀝青混凝土材料相關規範 3-2
3.2.1密級配瀝青混凝土材料 3-2
3.2.2多孔性瀝青混凝土材料 3-3
3.2.3再生瀝青混凝土材料 3-8
3.3瀝青混凝土相關品質試驗 3-9
3.3.1瀝青含量試驗 3-10
3.3.2篩分析試驗 3-10
3.3.3瀝青黏度測定法 3-11
3.4再生瀝青混凝土工程性質試驗 3-12
3.4.1間接張力試驗 3-13
3.4.2抗水侵害試驗 3.14
3.4.3能量損失 3.14
3.5研究樣本品質檢驗之數據分析收集 3-16
3.5.1密級配瀝青混凝土數據收集 3-16
3.5.2多孔性瀝青混凝土數據收集 3-17
3.5.3再生瀝青混凝土黏度數據收集 3-19

第四章 統計方法應用於品質檢驗 4-1
4.1試驗數據抽樣分佈情形(常態分佈) 4-1
4.2樣本品質檢驗結果F檢定及t檢定分析 4-3
4.2.1樣本變異數的F檢定 4-3
4.2.2樣本平均值的t 檢定 4-3
4.3統計方法之允收應用 4-5
4.3.1合格率(PWL)之原理 4-5
4.3.2透過PWL計算付款因子(PF) 4-7
4.4結合標準差(combined standard deviation) 4-8
4.4.1製程標準差( ) 4-9
4.4.2目標值標準差( ) 4-10
4.5異常值之處理準則 4-11
4.5.1截頭去尾法(truncated method) 4-11
4.5.2盒狀圖法(boxplot) 4-12
4.6柏拉圖80/20法則 4-12
4.7品質管制圖 4-13

第五章 新鮮瀝青混凝土檢驗品質評估 5-1
5.1密級配瀝青混凝土研究結果與討論 5-1
5.1.1密級配瀝青混凝土之QC/QA管制圖比較 5-2
5.1.2密級配瀝青混凝土QC/QA試驗結果檢定 5-11
5.1.3密級配瀝青混凝土合格率(PWL)之應用 5-14
5.1.4探討密級配瀝青混凝土品質允收之付款標準 5-16
5.2多孔隙瀝青混凝土(PAC)研究結果與討論 5-17
5.2.1 PAC之QC及QA執行結果管制圖比較 5-17
5.2.2 PAC之QC及QA試驗值差異性檢定 5-20
5.2.3 PAC之合格率(PWL)應用 5-24
5.2.4 PAC品質允收之付款因子 5-27
5.3統計方法建立規範容許界限 5-28
5.3.1國內瀝青含量規範檢驗標準 5-29
5.3.2瀝青含量樣本QC/QA品質執行結果管制圖比較 5-31
5.3.3瀝青含量之QC/QA常態分布探討 5-34
5.3.4 瀝青含量之QC/QA試驗值變異數分析(ANOVA) 5-36
5.3.5瀝青含量之QC/QA試驗值檢定分析 5-38
5.3.6修正瀝青含量容許界限 5-40
5.3.7應用結合標準差建立瀝青含量容許界限 5-42
5.3.8驗證修正後瀝青含量容許界限之合理性 5-44
5.3.9評估粒料級配各篩號之容許界限 5-44
5.3.10建議PAC材料檢驗允收之容許界限 5-45
第六章 再生瀝青混凝土分析結果與討論 6-1
6.1再再生瀝青混凝土工程性質研究成果 6-1
6.1.1瀝青長期老化行為分析 6-1
6.1.2再再生瀝青回收料膠漿之性質 6-4
6.1.3再再生瀝青混凝土之間接張力 6-6
6.1.4擴散作用 6-8
6.1.5再再生瀝青混凝之抗水浸害 6-10
6.1.6能量損失 6-11
6.2統計分析再生瀝青混凝土之黏度合理範圍 6-12
6.2.1分析施工中QC及施工後QA之黏度變化 6-12
6.2.2黏度試驗結果之常態分佈檢定(K-S檢定) 6-14
6.2.3黏度值之變異數F及平均值t檢定 6-15
6.2.4建議合理再生瀝青混凝土黏度檢驗範圍 6-16
6.3驗證建議黏度合理範圍之執行成效 6-20
6.3.1黏度驗證值之管制圖 6-20
6.3.2黏度驗證值之常態分佈檢定 6-21
6.3.3柏拉圖80/20法則分析黏度驗證值合理區間 6-23

第七章 結論與建議 7-1
7.1結論 7-1
7.1.1新鮮瀝青混凝土研究結論 7-1
7.1.2再生瀝青混凝土研究結論 7-3
7.2建議 7-4
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