進階搜尋


 
系統識別號 U0026-0602202000580900
論文名稱(中文) 套管式離岸風機支撐結構含地震作用下的最佳化設計
論文名稱(英文) Optimal design of Jacket-type offshore wind turbine support structures under earthquakes
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 108
學期 1
出版年 109
研究生(中文) 黃郁誠
研究生(英文) Yu-Cheng Huang
學號 N68011041
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 147頁
口試委員 指導教授-朱聖浩
口試委員-倪勝火
口試委員-劉光晏
口試委員-鍾興陽
口試委員-吳淑珍
口試委員-徐偉朝
中文關鍵字 離岸風機  最佳化設計  疲勞設計  土壤-結構互制  多元調諧質量阻尼  Powell’s Method 
英文關鍵字 Offshore wind turbine  Optimal design  Fatigue design  soil-structure interaction  multiple tuned mass damper  Powell’s Method 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究基於IEC 61400-3規範,對具有風,浪,海流,地震和其他環境條件下的套管式海上風力發電機支撐結構在土壤-結構互制作用下進行了有限元素分析並進行了鋼用量的最佳化設計中,比較了地表加速度(PGA)為0.32 g和0.52 g的地震,並得出了地震荷載在設計中控制設計的結論。另外,為了提高計算效率,由於IEC規範內設計需要考量許多載重組合,因此進行了最終鋼設計的平行運算工作,提出了三種方案來克服過多的計算時間。從測試案例中可以看出,儘管要考慮的載重組合很多,但鋼設計卻受數量有限的負載情況的支配。在這項研究中,開發了鮑威爾(Powell’s Method)方法來確定疲勞載荷下海上風力發電機支撐結構中採用多調諧質量阻尼器(MTMD)的最佳剛度和阻尼係數。適當地使用這些阻尼器可以有效優化OWT支撐結構的疲勞問題。在本研究中使用NREL 5-MW OWT建立的葉片參數,並使用DTU 10-MW參考之一進行對照驗證。基於額定功率與葉片重量和支撐結構的鋼重量之間的關係,額定功率為9到15 MW的OWT是經濟與成本上最佳的設計尺寸範圍。並得到12兆瓦的是最佳選擇的結論,而15兆瓦以上的風機是不經濟的。研究中也設定了在兩次人工地震PGA = 0.32g和PGA = 0.36g的條件下,進行了在不同關閉時間下緊急關閉對支撐結構設計的影響。值得注意的是,在200秒後關閉風機可減少地震隊運作中風機的影響,而在地震預警後於地震發生前關閉風機可得到最佳的設計。結論證明,適當的停機時間設定可以在地震下獲得最佳的鋼結構設計。電腦輔助分析程式由 朱聖浩教授研究團隊所開發,分析程式與研究成果皆為公開資源。
英文摘要 This study performs the finite element analysis of the jacket-type offshore wind turbine (OWT) support structure under the wind, wave, sea current, seismic loads and other environmental conditions with soil-structure interaction based on IEC 61400-3 code. In the optimal steel design process, earthquakes with a peak ground acceleration (PGA) 0.32 g and 0.52g are compared and the amplification of the seismic load dominates the design is concluded. Also, for the design efficiency, due to many required loads by IEC design load cases, the parallel computing work of ultimate steel design is also conducted that three schemes are proposed to overcome excessive computer time. From the test cased which indicated that although there are many loads to be considered, steel design is governed by a limited number of load cases. In this research, Powell’s method was developed to determine the optimal stiffness and damping of multi-tuned mass dampers (MTMD) in OWT support structures under fatigue loads. The appropriate use of these TMDs can be effective for the fatigue problem of OWT support structures. The blade parameters established using the NREL 5-MW baseline OWT and validated using the DTU 10-MW reference one. Based on the relationship between the rated power with the blade weight and the steel weight of the support structure, OWTs with a rated power ranging from 9 to 15 MW are suitable. The 12-MW one should be optimal, and those over 15 MW are not economic is conclude. The emergency shut-down effect on the support structure design is studied with different shut-down times under two artificial earthquakes of PGA=0.32g and PGA=0.36g. It is noted that shut down at 200 s can provide an alarm warning to shut the turbine down before the earthquake. This conclusion is proof that an appropriate shut-down time set can get the optimal steel design under an earthquake. All the computer program used in this thesis are developed by Shen-Haw Ju’s research team, and which are free for used and can be accessed at the website: http://myweb.ncku.edu.tw/~juju/.
論文目次 摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS III
CONTENTS IV
LIST OF TABLES VI
LIST OF FIGURES VIII
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Purpose 1
1.2 Objective and Scope of Research 2
1.3 Organization and Dissertation 2
Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 4
2.1 Research correlated to OWT structure 4
2.2 Fatigue problem of OWTs structure 9
2.3 Tuned mass damper applied to OWTs structure 12
Chapter 3 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN PROCEDURE 16
3.1 Environmental conditions 16
3.1.1 Wind load 16
3.1.2 Wave load 21
3.1.3 Sea current load 22
3.1.4 Water level 24
3.2 Seismic load 26
3.3 Soil-structure interaction 28
3.4 Finite element analysis and optimal design procedure 34
Chapter 4 PARALLEL ANALYSIS OF OFFSHORE WIND TURBINE STRUCTURES UNDER ULTIMATE LOADS 40
4.1 Efficient schemes for the design of OWT structures 40
4.2 Optimal parallel ultimate design procedures for OWT support structures 44
4.3 Study of 10-MW OWT under IEC 61400-3 loads with earthquake and typhoon 49
4.4 Summary 57
Chapter 5 ANALYSES OF OWT STRUCTURES WITH SOIL-INTERACTION UNDER EARTHQUAKES 59
5.1 Illustration of environmental loads of an OWT located at the seismic zone 59
5.2 Parametric study due to earthquake effect 63
5.3 Summary 78
Chapter 6 MTMD TO INCREASE FATIGUE LIFE FOR OWT JACKET STRUCTURES USING POWELL’S METHOD 80
6.1 Illustration of the fatigue analysis 80
6.2 Structural control using MTMD 83
6.3 Powell’s method for optimal design of MTMD for OWTs 84
6.4 Optimal MTMD design for the 5-MW OWT support structures 87
6.5 Summary 103
Chapter 7 STUDE OF OPTIMAL LARGE-SCALE OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES 106
7.1 Illustration of developed wind turbines from 5 to 17 MW 106
7.2 Comparisons of the 10-MW OWT results between the DTU and proposed turbines 109
7.3 Optimal wind turbine support structures for 5 to 16 MW 113
7.4 Summary 121
Chapter 8 DYNAMIC RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF OWTs UNDER EARTHQUAKE SHUTDOWN CONDITIONS 123
8.1 A seismic analysis scheme for OWT support structures 123
8.2 The effect of earthquake PGA coupling with shut-down condition 124
8.3 Summary 127
Chapter 9 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 129
9.1 Conclusions 129
9.2 Recommendations for future research 130
REFERENCES 132
APPENDIX A 144
參考文獻 [1] IEC 61400-1, in International Standard Wind turbines – Part 1: Design requirements (3rd edition.), International Electrotechnical Commission, 2005.
[2] 4C offshore 2019, https://www.4coffshore.com/windfarms/windspeeds.aspx
[3] Ju, S.H., Huang, Y.C. and Hsu, H.H., Parallel analysis of offshore wind turbine structures under ultimate load. Applied Science, Vol. 9, No.4708, 2019.
[4] Ju, S.H and Huang, Y.C., Analyses of offshore wind turbine structures with soil-structure interaction under earthquakes. Ocean Engineering, Vol.187, No.106190, 2019.
[5] Ju, S.H. and Huang, Y.C., MTMD to increase fatigue life for OWT jacket structures using Powell’s method. Marine Structures, Vol. 71, No. 102726, 2020.
[6] Jonkman, J., Butterfield S., Musial, W. and Scott, G., Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development, Technical Report NREL/TP-500-38060.National Renewable Energy Laboratory; 2009.
[7] Bac, C., Zahle, F., Bitsche, R., Kim, T., Yde, A., Hendriksen, L.C., Natarajan, A. and Hensen, M.H., Description of the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine, DTU Wind Energy Report-I-0092, 2013.
[8] Oest, J., Sørensen, R., Overgaard, L. and Lund, E., Structural optimization with fatigue and ultimate limit constraints of jacket structures for large offshore wind turbines. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, Vol. 55, pp. 779–793, 2017.
[9] Kaveh, A. and Sabeti, S., Optimal design of jacket supporting structures for offshore wind turbines using CBO and ECBO algorithms. Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering, Vol. 62, No. 3, pp. 545-554, 2018.
[10] AlHamaydeh, M., Barakat, S. and Nasif, O., Optimization of support structures for offshore wind turbines using genetic algorithm with domain-trimming. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2017.
[11] Ichter, B., Steele, A., Loth, E., Moriarty, P. and Selig, M.S., A morphing downwind‐aligned rotor concept based on a 13‐MW wind turbine, Wind Energy, Vol. 19, pp. 625–637, 2016.
[12] Gentils, T., Wong, L. and Kolios, A., Integrated structural optimisation of offshore wind turbine support structures based on finite element analysis and genetic algorithm, Applied Energy, Vol. 199, pp. 187–204, 2017.
[13] Kooijman, H.J.T., Lindenburg, C., Winkelaar, D. and Hooft, E.L., Aero-elastic modelling of the DOWEC 6 MW pre-design in PHATAS, DOWEC 6 MW PRE-DESIGN, 2003.
[14] Bak, C., Bitsche, R., Yde, A., Kim, T., Hansen, M.H. and Behrens, T., Light Rotor: The 10-MW reference wind turbine. In Proceedings of EWEA 2012 - European Wind Energy Conference & Exhibition European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), 2012.
[15] Cox, K. and Echtermeyer, A., Structural design and analysis of a 10MW wind turbine blade. Energy Procedia 24, pp. 194 – 201, 2012.
[16] Desmond, C., Murphy, J., Blonk, L. and Haans, W., Description of an 8 MW reference wind turbine. The Science of Making Torque from Wind (TORQUE 2016), Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 753, No. 092013, 2016.
[17] Bengga, G., Guma, G., Lutz, T. and Krämer, E., Numerical simulations of a large offshore wind turbine exposed to turbulent inflow conditions. Wind Engineering, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 88-96, 2018.
[18] Mo, W., Li, D., Wang, X. and Zhong, C., Aeroelastic coupling analysis of the flexible blade of a wind turbine, Energy, Vol. 89, pp. 1001-1009, 2015.
[19] Richards, P.W., Griffith, D.T. and Hodges, D.H., Aeroelastic design of large wind turbine blades considering damage tolerance. Wind Energy, Vol. 20, pp. 159–170, 2017.
[20] Hand, B. and Cashman, A., Aerodynamic modeling methods for a large-scale vertical axis wind turbine. Renewable Energy, Vol. 129, pp. 12-31, 2018.
[21] Lian, J., Jia, Y., Wang, H. and Liu, F., Numerical Study of the Aerodynamic Loads on Offshore Wind Turbines under Typhoon with Full Wind Direction, Energies, Vol. 9, No. 613, 2016.
[22] Armirinia, G. and Jung, S., Buffeting response analysis of offshore wind turbines subjected to hurricanes. Ocean Engineering, Vol. 141, pp. 1–11, 2017.
[23] Zhang, J., Guo, L., Wu, H., Zhou, A., Hu, D. and Ren, J., The influence of wind shear on vibration of geometrically nonlinear wind turbine blade under fluid-structure interaction. Ocean Engineering, Vol. 84, pp. 14-19, 2014.
[24] Zuo, Y., Cheng, Z., Sandvik, P.C. and Gao, Z. An integrated dynamic analysis method for simulating installation of single blades for wind turbines, Ocean Engineering, Vol. 152, pp. 72–88, 2018.
[25] Noyes, C., Qin, C. and Loth, E., Pre-aligned downwind rotor for a 13.2 MW wind turbine. Renewable Energy, Vol. 116, pp. 749-754, 2018.
[26] AlHamaydeh, M., Barakat, S. and Nasif, O., Optimization of Support Structures for Offshore Wind Turbines Using Genetic Algorithm with Domain-Trimming, Mathematical Problem in Engineering. No. 5978375, 2017.
[27] Loth, E., Steele, A., Qin, C., Ichter, B., Selig, M.S. and Moriarty, P., Downwind pre‐aligned rotors for extreme‐scale wind turbines. Wind Energy. Vol. 20, pp. 1241–1259, 2017.
[28] Liu, J., Thomas, E., Manuel, L., Griffith, D., Ruehl, K. and Barone, M., Integrated System Design for Large Wind Turbine Supported on a Moored Semi-submersible Platform. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. Vol. 6, No. 9, 2018.
[29] Wang, X., Zeng, X., Yang, X. and Li, J., Feasibility study of offshore wind turbines with hybrid monopile foundation based on centrifuge modeling, Applied Energy, Vol. 209, pp. 127-139, 2018.
[30] Qin, C., Saunders, G. and Loth, E., Offshore wind energy storage concept for cost-of-rated-power savings. Applied Energy, Vol. 201, pp.148-157, 2017.
[31] Alati, N., Failla, G., Arena, F., Seismic analysis of offshore wind turbines on bottom-fixed support structures. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Science, Vol. 373, 2015.
[32] Mardfekri, M. and Gardoni, P., Multi-hazard reliability assessment of offshore wind turbines. Wind Energy, Vol. 18, pp.1433-1450, 2015.
[33] Anastasopoulos, I. and Theofilou, M. Hybrid foundation for offshore wind turbines: Environmental and seismic loading. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 80, pp. 192–209, 2016.
[34] Santangelo, F., Failla, G., Arena, F. and Ruzzo, C., On time-domain uncouple analyses for offshore wind turbines under seismic loads. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering. Vol. 16, pp. 1007-1040, 2018.
[35] Prowell, I., Elgamal, A., Uang, C.M., Enrique, L.J., Romanowitz, H. and Duggan, E. Shake table testing and numerical simulation of a utility-scale wind turbine including operational effects. Wind Energy. Vol. 17, pp. 997–1016, 2014.
[36] Mo, R., Kang, H., Li, H. and Zhao, X., Seismic fragility analysis of monopole offshore wind turbines under different operational conditions. Energies, Vol. 10, No. 1037, 2017.
[37] Patil, A., Jung, S. and Kwon, O., Structural performance of a parked wind turbine tower subjected to strong ground motions. Engineering Structure, Vol. 120, pp. 92–102, 2016.
[38] Asareh, M., Schonber, W. and Volz, J., Fragility analysis of a 5-MW NREL wind turbine considering areo-elastic and seismic interaction using finite element method. Finite Element in Analysis and Design, Vol. 120, pp. 57-67, 2016.
[39] Yuan, C., Chen, J., Li, J., Xu, Q., Fragility analysis of large-scale wind turbines under the combination of seismic and aerodynamic loads. Renewable Energy Vol. 113, pp. 1122-1134, 2017.
[40] Haciefendioglu, K., Stochastic seismic response analysis of offshore wind turbine including fluid-structure-soil interaction. The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, Vol. 12, pp. 867-878, 2012.
[41] Harte, M., Basu, B. and Nielsen, S., Dynamic analysis of wind turbines including soil-structure interaction. Engineering Structures, Vol. 45, pp. 509–518, 2014.
[42] Ku, C., Chien, L., Modeling of Load Bearing Characteristics of Jacket Foundation Piles for Offshore wind turbines in Taiwan. Energies, Vol. 9, No. 8, pp. 625, 2016.
[43] Santangelo, F., Failla, G., Santini, A. and Arena, F., Time-domain uncoupled analyses for seismic assessment of land-based wind turbines. Engineering Structures, Vol. 123, pp. 275-299, 2016.
[44] Wang, W., Gao, Z., Li, X. and Moan, T., Model test and numerical analysis of a multi-pile offshore wind turbine under seismic, wind, wave, and current loads. Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Vol. 139, issue 3, 2017.
[45] Austin, S. and Jerath, S., Effect of soil-foundation-structure interaction on seismic response of wind turbines. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 323–331, 2017.
[46] Huo, T., Tong, L., Zhang, Y., Dynamic response analysis of wind turbine tubular towers under long-period ground motions with the consideration of soil-structure interaction. Advanced Steel Construction, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 227-250, 2018.
[47] Kjørlaug, R.A. and Kaynia, A.M., Vertical earthquake response of megawatt-sized wind turbine with soil-structure interaction effects. Earthquake Engineering Structural Dynamics, Vo. 44, No. 13, pp. 2341–2358, 2015.
[48] Vatanchian, M. and Shooshtari, A., Investigation of soil-structure interaction effects on seismic response of a 5MW wind turbine. International Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol.16, pp.1-17, 2018.
[49] Alamo, G.M., Aznarez, J.J., Padron, L.A., Martínez-Castro, A.E., Gallego, R., Maeso, O., Dynamic soil-structure interaction in offshore wind turbines on monopiles in layered seabed based on real data. Ocean Engineering, Vol. 156, pp. 14-24, 2018.
[50] Zhang, P., Xiong, K., Ding, H., Le, C., Anti-liquefaction characteristics of composite bucket foundations for offshore wind turbines. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Vol. 6, 053102, 2014.
[51] Zhang, P., Ding, H. and Le, C., Seismic response of large-scale prestressed concrete bucket foundation for offshore wind turbines. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Vol. 6, 2014.
[52] IEC 61400-3, in International Standard Wind turbines - Part 3: Design requirements for offshore wind turbines (1st ed.). International Electrotechnical Commission, 2009.
[53] DNVGL-ST-0437, Loads and site conditions for wind turbines, Det Norske Veritas: Norway, 2016.
[54] DNV-RP-C205, Environmental Conditions and Environmental Load, Det Norske Veritas: Norway, 2010.
[55] DNVGL-RP-C203, Fatigue design of offshore steel structures, Det Norske Veritas: Norway, 2016.
[56] DNVGL-RP-0034, Steel forgings for subsea applications, Det Norske Veritas: Norway, 2015.
[57] DNVGL-ST-0126, Support structures for wind turbines, Det Norske Veritas: Norway, 2016.
[58] El-Reedy, M.A., Chapter 4 - Offshore structures design, in Marine Structural Design Calculations, Butterworth-Heinemann: Oxford. pp. 85-187, 2015.
[59] Leblanc, C., B.W. Byrne, and G.T. Houlsby, Response of stiff piles to random two-way lateral loading. Geotechnique, Vol. 60, No. 9, pp. 715-721, 2010.
[60] Lee, Y.-L. and T. Tjhung, Chapter 3 - Rainflow Cycle Counting Techniques, in Metal Fatigue Analysis Handbook, Butterworth-Heinemann: Boston, 2012.
[61] Al Shamaa, D. and K. Geissler, Generalized consideration of endurance limit for fatigue stress analysis by means of fatigue life curves. Stahlbau, Vol. 82, No. 2, pp. 87-96, 2013.
[62] Rafsanjani, H.M. and J.D. Sorensen, Reliability Analysis of Fatigue Failure of Cast Components for Wind Turbines. Energies, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 2908-2923, 2015.
[63] Yeter, B., Y. Garbatov, and C.G. Soares, Fatigue damage assessment of fixed offshore wind turbine tripod support structures. Engineering Structures, Vol. 101, pp. 518-528, 2015.
[64] Saini, D.S., D. Karmakar, and S. Ray-Chaudhuri, A review of stress concentration factors in tubular and non-tubular joints for design of offshore installations. Journal of Ocean Engineering and Science, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp.186, 2016.
[65] Wang, K.P., Ji, C.Y., Xue, H.X. and Tang, W.T., Fatigue damage characteristics of a semisubmersible-type floating offshore wind turbine at tower base. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 16, 2016.
[66] Yeter, B., Garbatov Y., and Soares C.G., Evaluation of fatigue damage model predictions for fixed offshore wind turbine support structures. International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 87, pp. 71-80, 2016.
[67] Remani, C., Numerical Methods for Solving Systems of Nonlinear Equations, in Mathematical Sciences, Lakehead University: Ontario, Canada, 2012.
[68] Dong, W.B., Moan T., and Gao, Z., Long-term fatigue analysis of multi-planar tubular joints for jacket-type offshore wind turbine in time domain. Engineering Structures, Vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 2002-2014, 2011.
[69] Schaumann, P., Lochte-Holtgreven S., and Steppeler, S., Special fatigue aspects in support structures of offshore wind turbines. Materialwissenschaft Und Werkstofftechnik, Vol. 42, No. 12, pp. 1075-1081, 2011.
[70] Zhao, R.Y., Shen W.Z., Knudsen, T. and Bak, T., Fatigue distribution optimization for offshore wind farms using intelligent agent control. Wind Energy, Vol.15, No. 7, pp. 927-944, 2012.
[71] Brennan, F. and I. Tavares, Fatigue design of offshore steel mono-pile wind substructures. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Energy, 167(4): p. 196-202, 2014.
[72] Zwick, D. and Muskulus, M., The simulation error caused by input loading variability in offshore wind turbine structural analysis. Wind Energy, Vol. 18, No. 8, Pp. 1421-1432, 2015.
[73] Dührkop, J., von Borstel, T., Pucker, T. and Nielsen, M., Influence of soil and structural stiffness on the design of jacket type substructures. Stahlbau, Vol.85, No. 9, pp. 612, 2016.
[74] Zwick, D. and Muskulus, M., Simplified fatigue load assessment in offshore wind turbine structural analysis. Wind Energy, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 265-278, 2016.
[75] Marino, E., Giusti, A. and Manuel, L., Offshore wind turbine fatigue loads: The influence of alternative wave modeling for different turbulent and mean winds. Renewable Energy, Vol. 102, pp. 157-169, 2017.
[76] Hafele, J., Huebler, C., Gebhardt, C.G. and Rolfes, R., A comprehensive fatigue load set reduction study for offshore wind turbines with jacket substructures. Renewable Energy, Vol.118, pp. 99-112, 2018.
[77] Tibaldi, C., Kim, T., Larsen, T.J., Rasmussen, F., de Rocaa Serra, R. and Sanz, F., Investigation on wind turbine resonant vibration. Wind Energy, Vol. 19, pp. 847-859, 2016.
[78] Zhang, Z., Nielsen, S., Balaabjerg, F. and Zhou, D., Dynamics and control of lateral tower vibrations in offshore wind turbines by means of active generator torque. Energies, Vol.7, pp. 7746-7772, 2017.
[79] Manikandan, R. and Saha, N., Dynamic modelling and non-linear control of TLP supported offshore wind turbine under environmental loads. Marine Structures, Vol. 64, pp. 263-294, 2019.
[80] Zheng, M., Yang, Z., Yang, S. and Still, B., Modeling and mitigation of excessive dynamic responses of wind turbines founded in warm permafrost. Engineering Structures; Vol. 148, pp.36-46, 2017.
[81] Nigdeli, S.M. and Bekdas, G., Optimum tuned mass damper design in frequency domain for structures. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 912-922, 2017.
[82] Zhang, Z.L., Chen, J.B. and Li, J., Theoretical study and experimental verification of vibration control of offshore wind turbines by a ball vibration absorber. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 8, pp.1087-1100, 2013.
[83] Chen, J. and Georgakis, C.T., Tuned rolling-ball dampers for vibration control in wind turbines. Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 332, No. 21, pp. 5271-5282, 2013.
[84] Sun, C. and Jahagiri, V., Bi-directional vibration control of offshore wind turbines using a 3D pendulum tuned mass damper. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 105, pp. 338-360, 2018.
[85] He, E.M., Hu, Y.Q. and Zhang, Y., Optimization design of tuned mass damper for vibration suppression of a barge-type offshore floating wind turbine. Processing of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, part M, Vol. 231, No. 1, pp. 302-315, 2017.
[86] Stewart, G. and Lackner, M., Offshore wind turbine load reduction employing optimal passive tuned mass damping systems. IEEE Transactions on Control System Technology, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 1090-104, 2013.
[87] Fitzgerald, B. and Basu, B., Structural control of wind turbines with soil structure interaction included. Engineering Structures, Vol. 111, pp. 131-151, 2016.
[88] Lackner, M. and Rotea, M., Passive structural control of offshore wind turbines. Wind Energy, Vol. 14, pp. 373–388, 2011.
[89] Li, C., Zhuang, T., Zhou, S., Xiao, Y. and Hu, G., Passive vibration control of a semi-submersible floating offshore wind turbine. Applied Science, Vol. 7, pp. 509, 2017.
[90] Jiang Z., The impact of a passive tuned mass damper on offshore single-blade installation. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol. 176, pp. 65-77, 2018.
[91] Stewart, G. and Lackner, M., The impact of passive tuned mass dampers and wind-wave misalignment on offshore wind turbine loads. Engineering Structures, Vol. 73, pp. 54-61, 2014.
[92] Brodersen, M., Bjørke, A.S. and Høgsberg, J., Active tuned mass damper for damping of offshore wind turbines. Wind Energy, Vol. 20, pp. 783-796, 2017.
[93] Mensah, A. and Duenas-Osorio, L., Improved reliability of wind turbine towers with tuned liquid column dampers (TLCDs). Structural Safety, Vol. 47, pp. 78-86, 2014.
[94] Mousavi, S.A., Bargi, K. and Zahrai, S.M., Optimum parameters of tuned liquid column–gas damper for mitigation of seismic-induced vibrations of offshore jacket platforms. Structural Control and Health Monitoring, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 422–444, 2013.
[95] Bargi, K., Dezvareh, R. and Mousavi, S.A., Contribution of tuned liquid column gas dampers to the performance of offshore wind turbines under wind, wave, and seismic excitations. Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibrations, Vol. 15, pp. 551-561, 2016.
[96] Coudurier, C., Lepreux, O. and Petit, N., Passive and semi-active control of an offshore wind turbine using a tuned liquid column damper. IFAC-PapersOnLine, Vol. 48, No. 16, pp. 241–247, 2015.
[97] Jaksic, V., Wright, C.S., Murphy, J., Afeel, C., Ali, S.F., Mandic, D.P. and Pakrashi, V., Dynamic response mitigation of floating wind turbine platforms using tuned liquid column dampers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Science, Vol. 373, 2018.
[98] Hussan, M., Rahman, M.S., Sharmin, F., Kim, D. and Do, J., Multiple tuned mass damper for multi-mode vibration reduction of offshore wind turbine under seismic excitation. Ocean Engineering, Vo. 160, pp. 449-460, 2018.
[99] Satino, A. and Basu, B., Dynamics and control of vibrations in wind turbines with variable rotor speed. Engineering Structures, Vol. 56, pp. 58-67, 2013.
[100] Zheng, M., Yang, Z., Yang, S. and Still, B., Modeling and mitigation of excessive dynamic responses of wind turbines founded in warm permafrost. Engineering Structures, Vol. 148, pp. 36-46, 2017.
[101] Bekdas, G. and Nigdeli, S.M., Estimating optimum parameters of tuned mass dampers using harmony search. Engineering Structures, Vol. 33, pp. 2716-2723, 2011.
[102] Nigdeli, S.M. and Bekdas, G., Optimum tuned mass damper design in frequency domain for structures. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp.912-922, 2017.
[103] International Code Council. International Building Code 2006; International Code Council: Birmingham, AL, USA, 2006.
[104] MIT. SIMQKE: A Program for Artificial Motion Generation: User's Manual and Documentation. M.I.T. Department of Civil Engineering; 1976.
[105] Idriss, I.M., Sun, Joseph, I., User's manual for SHAKE91: a computer program for conducting equivalent linear seismic response analyses of horizontally layered soil deposits, Center for Geotechnical Modeling, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, California, 1993.
[106] Matlock, H. Correlations for design of laterally loaded piles in soft clay. Proceedings of the II Annual Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, (OTC 1204), pp. 577-594, 1970.
[107] American Petroleum Institute, “Recommended practice for planning, designing and constructing fixed offshore platforms,” API Recommended Practice 2A (RP-2A), 17th edition, 1987.
[108] Jonkman, J., Butterfield, S., Musial, W. and Scott, G., Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development. Technical Report NREL/TP-500-38060.National Renewable Energy Laboratory; 2009.
[109] Jonkman, B.J. and Buhl, M., TurbSim User’s Guide v2.00.00. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Technical Report No. NRELEL-500-36970, 2004
[110] Jonkman, B. and Jonkman, J., FAST v8.15.00a-bjj. National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Golden, CO 80401; 2016.
[111] Morison, J.R., Johnson, J.W. and Schaaf, S.A., The force exerted by surface waves on piles. Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 2, pp. 149–154, 1950.
[112] American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 6th ed.; with 2013 Interim Revisions; US Customary Units; American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials: Washington, DC, USA, 2013.
[113] American Society of Civil Engineers. ASCE 7: Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures; American Society of Civil Engineers: Reston, VA, USA, 2003.
[114] Certification of Wind Turbines for Tropical Cyclone Conditions; GL Renewables Certification Technical Note; DNV GL, 2013.
[115] Ju, S.H., Su, F.C., Jiang, Y.T. and Chiu, Y.C., Ultimate load design of jacket‐type offshore wind turbines under tropical cyclones. Wind Energy, Vol. 22, pp. 685–697, 2019.
[116] Bak, C., Zahle, F., Bitsche, R., Kim, T., Anders, Y. and Henriksen, L.C.; Natarajan, A. and Hansen, M.H., Description of the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine; Technical University of Denmark: Roskilde, Denmark, 2013.
[117] IEC 61400-3, in International Standard Wind turbines - Part 3: Design requirements for offshore wind turbines, International Electrotechnical Commission,2019.
[118] Sadek, F., Mohraz, B., Taylor, A.W., Chung, R.M., A method of estimating the parameters of tuned mass dampers for seismic applications. Earthquake Engineering Structural Dynamics, Vol. 26, pp. 617-635, 1997.
[119] Ju, S.H., Su, F.C., Ke, Y.P. and Xie, M.H., Fatigue design of offshore wind turbine jacket-type structures using a parallel scheme. Renewable Energy; Vol. 136, pp. 69-28, 2019.
[120] Ju, S.H., Lin, H.D., Hsueh, C.C. and Wang, S.L., A simple finite element model for vibration analyses induced by moving vehicles. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 68, No. 12, pp. 1232-1256, 2006.
[121] Powell, M. J. D. An efficient method for finding the minimum of a function of several variables without calculating derivatives, Computer Journal, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 155–162, 1964.
[122] Press, W.H., Flannery, B.P., Teukolsky, S.A. and Vettenling, W.T. Numerical recipes, the art of scientific computing. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1986.
[123] 黃隱玉,大型化套管式離岸風機支撐結構設計之研究,國立成功大學碩士論文, 2017.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2020-02-13起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2020-02-13起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw