||Optimal design of Jacket-type offshore wind turbine support structures under earthquakes
||Department of Civil Engineering
Offshore wind turbine
multiple tuned mass damper
本研究基於IEC 61400-3規範，對具有風，浪，海流，地震和其他環境條件下的套管式海上風力發電機支撐結構在土壤-結構互制作用下進行了有限元素分析並進行了鋼用量的最佳化設計中，比較了地表加速度（PGA）為0.32 g和0.52 g的地震，並得出了地震荷載在設計中控制設計的結論。另外，為了提高計算效率，由於IEC規範內設計需要考量許多載重組合，因此進行了最終鋼設計的平行運算工作，提出了三種方案來克服過多的計算時間。從測試案例中可以看出，儘管要考慮的載重組合很多，但鋼設計卻受數量有限的負載情況的支配。在這項研究中，開發了鮑威爾（Powell’s Method）方法來確定疲勞載荷下海上風力發電機支撐結構中採用多調諧質量阻尼器（MTMD）的最佳剛度和阻尼係數。適當地使用這些阻尼器可以有效優化OWT支撐結構的疲勞問題。在本研究中使用NREL 5-MW OWT建立的葉片參數，並使用DTU 10-MW參考之一進行對照驗證。基於額定功率與葉片重量和支撐結構的鋼重量之間的關係，額定功率為9到15 MW的OWT是經濟與成本上最佳的設計尺寸範圍。並得到12兆瓦的是最佳選擇的結論，而15兆瓦以上的風機是不經濟的。研究中也設定了在兩次人工地震PGA = 0.32g和PGA = 0.36g的條件下，進行了在不同關閉時間下緊急關閉對支撐結構設計的影響。值得注意的是，在200秒後關閉風機可減少地震隊運作中風機的影響，而在地震預警後於地震發生前關閉風機可得到最佳的設計。結論證明，適當的停機時間設定可以在地震下獲得最佳的鋼結構設計。電腦輔助分析程式由 朱聖浩教授研究團隊所開發，分析程式與研究成果皆為公開資源。
This study performs the finite element analysis of the jacket-type offshore wind turbine (OWT) support structure under the wind, wave, sea current, seismic loads and other environmental conditions with soil-structure interaction based on IEC 61400-3 code. In the optimal steel design process, earthquakes with a peak ground acceleration (PGA) 0.32 g and 0.52g are compared and the amplification of the seismic load dominates the design is concluded. Also, for the design efficiency, due to many required loads by IEC design load cases, the parallel computing work of ultimate steel design is also conducted that three schemes are proposed to overcome excessive computer time. From the test cased which indicated that although there are many loads to be considered, steel design is governed by a limited number of load cases. In this research, Powell’s method was developed to determine the optimal stiffness and damping of multi-tuned mass dampers (MTMD) in OWT support structures under fatigue loads. The appropriate use of these TMDs can be effective for the fatigue problem of OWT support structures. The blade parameters established using the NREL 5-MW baseline OWT and validated using the DTU 10-MW reference one. Based on the relationship between the rated power with the blade weight and the steel weight of the support structure, OWTs with a rated power ranging from 9 to 15 MW are suitable. The 12-MW one should be optimal, and those over 15 MW are not economic is conclude. The emergency shut-down effect on the support structure design is studied with different shut-down times under two artificial earthquakes of PGA=0.32g and PGA=0.36g. It is noted that shut down at 200 s can provide an alarm warning to shut the turbine down before the earthquake. This conclusion is proof that an appropriate shut-down time set can get the optimal steel design under an earthquake. All the computer program used in this thesis are developed by Shen-Haw Ju’s research team, and which are free for used and can be accessed at the website: http://myweb.ncku.edu.tw/~juju/.
LIST OF TABLES VI
LIST OF FIGURES VIII
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Purpose 1
1.2 Objective and Scope of Research 2
1.3 Organization and Dissertation 2
Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 4
2.1 Research correlated to OWT structure 4
2.2 Fatigue problem of OWTs structure 9
2.3 Tuned mass damper applied to OWTs structure 12
Chapter 3 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN PROCEDURE 16
3.1 Environmental conditions 16
3.1.1 Wind load 16
3.1.2 Wave load 21
3.1.3 Sea current load 22
3.1.4 Water level 24
3.2 Seismic load 26
3.3 Soil-structure interaction 28
3.4 Finite element analysis and optimal design procedure 34
Chapter 4 PARALLEL ANALYSIS OF OFFSHORE WIND TURBINE STRUCTURES UNDER ULTIMATE LOADS 40
4.1 Efficient schemes for the design of OWT structures 40
4.2 Optimal parallel ultimate design procedures for OWT support structures 44
4.3 Study of 10-MW OWT under IEC 61400-3 loads with earthquake and typhoon 49
4.4 Summary 57
Chapter 5 ANALYSES OF OWT STRUCTURES WITH SOIL-INTERACTION UNDER EARTHQUAKES 59
5.1 Illustration of environmental loads of an OWT located at the seismic zone 59
5.2 Parametric study due to earthquake effect 63
5.3 Summary 78
Chapter 6 MTMD TO INCREASE FATIGUE LIFE FOR OWT JACKET STRUCTURES USING POWELL’S METHOD 80
6.1 Illustration of the fatigue analysis 80
6.2 Structural control using MTMD 83
6.3 Powell’s method for optimal design of MTMD for OWTs 84
6.4 Optimal MTMD design for the 5-MW OWT support structures 87
6.5 Summary 103
Chapter 7 STUDE OF OPTIMAL LARGE-SCALE OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES 106
7.1 Illustration of developed wind turbines from 5 to 17 MW 106
7.2 Comparisons of the 10-MW OWT results between the DTU and proposed turbines 109
7.3 Optimal wind turbine support structures for 5 to 16 MW 113
7.4 Summary 121
Chapter 8 DYNAMIC RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF OWTs UNDER EARTHQUAKE SHUTDOWN CONDITIONS 123
8.1 A seismic analysis scheme for OWT support structures 123
8.2 The effect of earthquake PGA coupling with shut-down condition 124
8.3 Summary 127
Chapter 9 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 129
9.1 Conclusions 129
9.2 Recommendations for future research 130
APPENDIX A 144
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