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系統識別號 U0026-0602201516002700
論文名稱(中文) 組織變革對工作滿意、組織承諾、組織績效影響之研究-以桃園國際機場公司為例
論文名稱(英文) The Effects of Organizational Change on Job Satisfaction,Organizational Commitment and Organizational Performance—Evidence from the Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport Corporation.
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 交通管理科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Transportation & Communication Management Science
學年度 103
學期 1
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 劉恩廷
研究生(英文) En-Ting Liu
學號 R56984126
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 162頁
口試委員 指導教授-張有恆
口試委員-徐村和
口試委員-鄭永祥
中文關鍵字 組織變革  工作滿意  組織承諾  組織績效  結構方程式  專家深度訪談 
英文關鍵字 Organizational Change  Job Satisfaction  Organizational Commitment  Organizational Performance  Structural Equation Modeling(SEM)  Expert Depth Interview 
學科別分類
中文摘要 隨著國際化競爭機制的考驗下,機場民營化逐漸受到關注,多數行政體制經營事業,已經不再具有昔日之優勢,為增加桃園國際機場經營之自主性,以提高與鄰國主要競爭力,因此,桃園國際機場將進行國營公司化變革,期盼透過變革改善組織績效。

組織變革對績效之影響,以及內部員工的變革之認知及知覺,與員工權益保障問題是最受矚目的焦點之一。本研究藉由蒐集文獻,提出整合性的研究架構為「組織變革」、「工作滿意」、「組織承諾」與「組織績效」等四項構面。並於2010年8月進行第一階段問卷普查方式,以桃園航空站內部406位員工為研究對象,透過因素分析、結構方程式,以驗證本研究所提出之六項假設。然桃園機場公司化甫四年,為瞭解組織變革後員工心聲,於2014年12月進行第二階段專家深度訪談,對現況及研究結果進行歸納與驗證。

研究結果顯示,整體員工認為公司化前,優先改善項目依序為:(1)薪資結構(2)福利措施(3)績效評估制度(考績)(4)組織結構(5)領導方式;而六項假設結果為H1:組織變革對工作滿意有「正向」影響關係、H2:組織變革對組織績效有「正向」影響、H3:組織變革對組織承諾有「正向」影響、H4:工作滿意對組織承諾有「正向」影響、H6:組織承諾對組織績效有「正向」影響,惟H5:工作滿意對組織績效無顯著正向影響,然據中介效果驗證,可知「組織承諾」為「工作滿意」影響「組織績效」完全中介效果;最後,透過專家深度訪談結果,得知「升遷制度」為工作滿意對組織績效之干擾變數。

綜整分析結果,本研究提出具體實務與理論上的相關建議及後續研究之方向,供業管當局及後續研究作為參考。
英文摘要 Under the challenge of international competition mechanism, the airport privatization draws attention gradually, and most government-owned and operated businesses do not have advantages as before. In order to increase the operation initiatives of Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport and improve the major competitiveness over the neighboring countries, Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport will conduct change of state-owned company, expecting to improve the organizational performance through the central management in the company.

Taoyuan International Airport is the first corporatized airport in Taiwan. Through literature collection, The purpose of this study is to construct a model to examine “Organizational Change”, “Job Satisfaction”, “Organizational Commitment” and “Organizational Performance”. Taking 406 employees of Taiwan Taoyuan Air Station as the study subjects, the study performed the comprehensive questionnaire survey of the first stage in August, 2010. The factor analysis and Structural Equation Modeling(SEM) are used to validate six hypotheses proposed in this study. However, it has been four years since Taiwan Taoyuan Airport was corporatized. In order to learn the staff opinions after the organizational change, summarize and validate the results, it conducted in-depth expert interview of the second stage in December, 2014.

The results of hypotheses show that the five paths of H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5 show significantly positive influence, while H5: “Job Satisfaction” does not show significant influence on the “organizational performance”. The mediating effect is validated based on above results. It indicates the organizational commitment has complete mediating effect between job satisfaction and organizational performance. Finally, according to the results of in-depth expert interview, it can be learned that the “promotion system” is the interference variable between job satisfaction and organizational performance. At last, it proposes the practical and theoretical connotations, as well as the follow-up study directions in details, which can provide reference for the subsequent study and airport management unit.
論文目次 表目錄 V
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機 2
1.3 研究目的 4
1.4 研究方法 5
1.5 研究範圍與限制 6
1.6 研究流程 7
第二章 文獻回顧 10
2.1 公用事業組織 10
2.1.1 營運型態 10
2.1.2 國營公司型之營運型態 11
2.1.3 臺灣桃園國際機場公司化前後之概況 14
2.1.4 機場之民營化 15
2.2 組織變革 21
2.2.1 組織變革之定義 21
2.2.2 組織變革之模式 22
2.2.3 組織變革之構面 23
2.3 工作滿意 26
2.3.1 工作滿意之定義 26
2.3.2 工作滿意之量表 28
2.4 組織承諾 29
2.4.1 組織承諾之定義 29
2.4.2 組織承諾之類型 31

2.5 組織績效 33
2.5.1 組織績效的定義 33
2.5.2 組織績效之衡量構面 33
2.5.3 機場營運績效相關文獻 34
2.6 小結 38
第三章 研究方法 39
3.1 研究架構與假設 39
3.1.1 研究架構 39
3.1.2 研究假設 40
3.2 研究變項之操作性變數定義與衡量 43
3.2.1 組織變革 43
3.2.2 工作滿意 44
3.2.3 組織承諾 45
3.2.4 組織績效 46
3.3 研究設計 47
3.3.1 問卷設計與尺度衡量 47
3.3.2 問卷內容 49
3.4 資料分析方法 49
3.4.1 敘述性統計分析 49
3.4.2 因素分析 49
3.4.3 信度與效度分析 50
3.4.4 變異數分析 51
3.4.5 驗證性因素分析 52
3.4.6 結構方程式 52
3.4.7 專家深度訪談 54
第四章 實證分析 56
4.1 基本敘述性統計分析 56
4.1.1 問卷回收情形 56
4.1.2 基本資料敘述性統計分析 56
4.1.3 組織變革對工作滿意、組織承諾、組織績效之敘述統計分析 61
4.1.4 優先改善之分析 66
4.2 因素分析與信度分析 68
4.2.1 組織變革之因素分析與信度分析 68
4.2.2 工作滿意之因素分析與信度分析 71
4.2.3 組織承諾之因素分析與信度分析 76
4.2.4 組織績效之因素分析與信度分析 79
4.2.5 小結 83
4.3 樣本特性與因素構面之變異數分析 84
4.3.1 不同性別與各研究變項的關係 84
4.3.2 不同年齡與各研究變項的關係 85
4.3.3 不同年資與各研究變項的關係 86
4.3.4 不同教育程度與各研究變項的關係 87
4.3.5 不同職稱與各研究變項的關係 88
4.3.6 不同部門與各研究變項的關係 89
4.3.7 小結 90
4.4 相關分析 91
4.5 驗證性因素分析 93
4.5.1 驗證性因素分析與校估 93
4.5.2 收斂效度 96
4.5.3 區別效度 97
4.6 結構方程模式分析結果 98
4.6.1 結構方程式建立 98
4.6.2 競爭模式 100
4.6.3 結構方程式分析與校估 102
4.6.4 研究假設之驗證 107
4.6.5 中介效果驗證 109
4.6.6 小結 111
4.7 專家深度訪談 113
4.7.1 訪談情形 113
4.7.2 組織變革之訪談結果 115
4.7.3 工作滿意之訪談結果 117
4.7.4 組織承諾之訪談結果 118
4.7.5 組織績效之訪談結果 119
4.7.6 訪談收斂效果 121
4.7.7 小結 122
第五章 結論與建議 124
5.1 結論 124
5.2 建議 130
5.3 本研究之主要貢獻 138
5.4 後續研究之建議 139
參考文獻—中文 140
參考文獻—英文 142
參考文獻—網頁 148
附錄一 149
附錄二 154
附錄三 158


表目錄

表2-1 民營化系統矩陣 10
表2-2 組織營運型態與優缺點之比較 11
表2-3  機場管理發展形式 17
表2-4 各國國際機場民營化方式 18
表2-5 組織變革定義之彙整表 22
表2-6 LEWIN三階段變革模式 23
表2-7 組織變革構面之彙整表 26
表2-8 工作滿意定義之彙整表 27
表2-9 明尼蘇達滿意度問卷 28
表2-10 組織承諾定義之彙整表 30
表2-11 組織承諾類型之彙整表 32
表2-12 國內外機場營運績效衡量文獻整理 36
表3-1 組織變革衡量問項彙整表 44
表3-2 工作滿意衡量問項彙整表 45
表3-3 組織承諾衡量問項彙整表 46
表3-4 組織績效衡量問項彙整表 47
表3-5 配適度指標 53
表4-1 問卷回收統計表 56
表4-2 桃園航空站內部人員配置表(職別) 57
表4-3 桃園航空站內部人員配置表(部門) 57
表4-4 填答者基本資料統計表 59
表4-5 填答者基本資料統計表(部門) 60
表4-6 組織變革各問項同意程度表 62
表4-7 工作滿意各問項認同程度表 63
表4-8 組織承諾各問項認同程度表 64
表4-9 組織績效各問項認同程度表 66
表4-10 優先改善項目表 67
表4-11 組織變革之KMO與BARTLETT檢定 68
表4-12 組織變革問項因素分析表 69
表4-13 組織變革因素構面信度分析表 70
表4-14 第一次工作滿意問項因素分析表 72
表4-15 第五次工作滿意之KMO與BARTLETT檢定 74
表4-16 第五次工作滿意問項因素分析表 74
表4-17 工作滿意因素構面信度分析表 75
表4-18 第一次組織承諾問項因素分析表 76
表4-19 第三次組織承諾之KMO與BARTLETT檢定 77
表4-20 第三次組織承諾問項因素分析表 77
表4-21 組織承諾因素構面信度分析表 78
表4-22 第一次組織績效問項因素分析表 80
表4-23 第三次組織績效之KMO與BARTLETT檢定 81
表4-24 第三次組織績效問項因素分析表 81
表4-25 組織績效因素構面信度分析表 82
表4-26 各構面之因素、信度分析總表 84
表4-27 不同性別與各因素構面之ANOVA檢定 85
表4-28 不同年齡層與各因素構面之ANOVA檢定 86
表4-29 不同年資與各因素構面之ANOVA檢定 87
表4-30 不同教育程度與各因素構面之ANOVA檢定 88
表4-31 不同職稱與各因素構面之ANOVA檢定 89
表4-32 不同部門與各因素構面之ANOVA檢定 90
表4-33 各構面之因素相關分析矩陣 92
表4-34 驗證性因素分析初始模式之適配度指標 94
表4-35 驗證性因素分析初始模式之常態化殘差 95
表4-36 驗證性因素分析修正模式二之適配度指標 96
表4-37 收斂效度結果分析 97
表4-38 區別效度卡方值檢驗結果 98
表4-39 結構方程模式之各變數名稱定義 99
表4-40 研究模式與競爭模式配式指標比較 102
表4-41 結構方程初始模式之適配度指標 103
表4-42 最終模式之係數估計結果 105
表4-43 最終模式路徑影響效果表 107
表4-44 研究假設驗證結果彙整表 109
表4-45 研究變項相關係數表 110
表4-46 專家背景資料一覽表 115
表4-47 2010至2013年機場營運統計 120
表4-48 桃園機場公司化後訪談結果之彙整表 123


圖目錄

圖1-1 桃園航空站組織編制圖 7
圖1-2 研究流程圖 9
圖2-1 FIELDING績效評估之架構圖 35
圖3-1 研究架構圖 39
圖4-1 驗證性因素分析初始模式關係圖 93
圖4-2 結構方程式模式關係路徑圖 100
圖4-3 競爭模式關係路徑圖 101
圖4-4 結構方程式最終模式關係路徑圖 104
圖4-5 工作滿意對組織績效之關係模式 111
圖4-6 工作滿意影響組織績效以組織承諾為中介變數之關係模式111
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參考文獻-網頁
1.桃園國際機場股份有限公司,
http://www.taoyuan-airport.com/company_ch,擷取日期:2015年1月14日。
2.Airport Council International(ACI),
http://www.aci-asiapac.aero/,擷取日期:2015年1月14日。
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