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系統識別號 U0026-0602201317182300
論文名稱(中文) 沿海地區海水入侵之數值研究-以屏東平原為例
論文名稱(英文) A numerical investigation on saltwater intrusion in coastal areas – the Pingtung Plain as an illustrative example
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 水利及海洋工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Hydraulics & Ocean Engineering
學年度 101
學期 1
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 戴宏育
研究生(英文) Hung-Yu Tai
學號 n86991011
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 65頁
口試委員 召集委員-汪中和
口試委員-李振誥
口試委員-陳主惠
口試委員-丁崇峯
口試委員-葉昭龍
指導教授-羅偉誠
中文關鍵字 海水入侵  變密度地下水流  溶質傳輸模擬  屏東平原 
英文關鍵字 saltwater intrusion  variable density groundwater flow  solute transport simulation  Pingtung Plain 
學科別分類
中文摘要 由於台灣降雨分佈不均、洪枯期流量變化大、地形陡峻的因素,許多降雨因此無法有效儲蓄而造成許多水資源流入大海,使台灣成為雨量充沛卻又缺水的國家。根據資料統計,台灣地區的水資源有30%來自於地下水,其中又以屏東平原的地下水抽取量最大。在長年超抽地下水的情況下,已造成沿海地區出現海水入侵的情形。本研究使用SUTRA 三維地下水流變密度溶質傳輸模式,對屏東平原海水入侵進行數值模擬,並探討不同整治計畫對改善海水入侵的影響。
根據水利署資料,海水入侵於屏東平原各地的惡化程度不一,因此整治計畫的擬定須因地制宜而有所安排。由本研究的模擬結果顯示,在補注水量有限(0.6cms)情況下欲改善屏東平原海水入侵,於崎峰至大庄之間的沿海配置抽水井抽取地下水可提升整治海水入侵的效果,於東側的沿海配置抽水井則會使地下水位降低,造成內陸地區遭到海水由下方入侵。而在補注水量充足情況下(1cms),僅需於內陸地區設置補注井即可大輻度的將海水往海側退去。由此可知,補注量的多寡對改善海水入侵有決定性的影響,因此可開發人工湖或調整池等蓄水設施,以提供穩定且充足的補注來源。
英文摘要 Due to the uneven distribution of precipitation, large variation in river discharge between flood and drought periods, and the steepness of mountains in Taiwan, it is difficult to preserve rainfalls and in turn cause lots of water to discharge into the ocean directly. Thus, Taiwan is a country that is abundant in precipitation but lack of water resources. According to statistics, about 30% of water resources in Taiwan rely on groundwater, and the Pingtung Plain is the area with maximum groundwater pumpage. As a result of long term overpumping groundwater, seawater intrusion has occurred in coastal areas of the Pingtung Plain. This study applies SUTRA, a model developed for modeling the three-dimensional saturated-unsaturated variable-density groundwater flow with solute or energy transport, both to simulate the saltwater intrusion in coastal areas of the Pingtung Plain and to investigate the proposed strategies for improving saltwater intrusion.
According to the data of the Water Resources Agency, the extent of saltwater intrusion in the Pingtung Plain is various, so the strategies for saltwater intrusion improvement have to be adapted to accommodate local conditions. Simulation results reveal that, as water amount for recharging is limited, pumping groundwater along the coastline between Chifen and Dazhuang is able to increase the efficiency of saltwater intrusion improvement. For the eastern part, pumping groundwater in the coastal zone could decline the water table, and cause saltwater to invade inland from a lower position. As water amount for recharging is sufficient, installing injection wells inland alone could push saltwater intrusion seaward at a great distance. In light of these results, water amount for recharging serves as a decisive factor on improving saltwater intrusion. Therefore, as to alleviate saltwater intrusion, it is suggested to develop artificial lakes and reservoirs for providing steady and sufficient water amount of recharge.
論文目次 摘要...............................................................Ⅰ
Abstract........................................................Ⅱ
誌謝..............................................................Ⅲ
目錄..............................................................Ⅳ
表目錄..........................................................Ⅵ
圖目錄..........................................................Ⅶ
符號說明......................................................Ⅸ

第一章 緒論.................................................1
1.1 研究動機................................................1
1.2 文獻回顧................................................2
1.3 本文架構................................................5

第二章 研究區域概述.................................6
2.1 屏東平原水文地質概況........................6
2.2 氣候型態..............................................10
2.3 地下水系統..........................................10
2.4 海水入侵範圍......................................15

第三章 SUTRA 模式................................17
3.1 SUTRA 模式介紹................................17
3.2 控制方程式..........................................17
3.2.1 流體質量守恆...................................17
3.2.2 溶質質量守恆...................................18

第四章 建立數值模式...............................23
4.1 概念模式之建立..................................24
4.2 邊界條件..............................................24
4.3 數值模式之建立..................................25
4.3.1 地下水位率定...................................30
4.3.2 氯鹽濃度率定...................................39
4.4 模式結果驗證......................................41

第五章 數值模擬與結果討論...................43
5.1 海水入侵之整治探討..........................43
5.1.1 整治計畫一.......................................46
5.1.2 整治計畫二.......................................49
5.1.3 整治計畫三.......................................52
5.1.4 整治計畫四.......................................55
5.2 結果討論..............................................57

第六章 結論與建議...................................60
6.1. 結論.....................................................60
6.2. 建議.....................................................61
參考文獻.....................................................62

表目錄
表2.1屏東平原含水層特性分區分佈 (經濟部水利處,1999) 8
表2.2屏東平原地下水區及各地下水層補注區面積 15
表4.1屏東平原含水層上下界及水力傳導資料表 26
表4.2本模式所設定之水文地質參數 26
表4.3 含水層各區塊每月分之地下水淨補注量(單位:cms) 32
表4.4 2008、2009、2010年氯鹽觀測資料與2010/9/1氯鹽模擬濃度表 40
表5.1以淨補注量繁演20年之A、B、C、D各排250ppm氯鹽濃度等值線 44
位置離岸距離(單位:公尺) 44
表5.2以淨補注量繁演20年之A、B、C、D各排17780ppm氯鹽濃度等值線位置離岸距離(單位:公尺) 44
表5.3未整治情況下之各排氯鹽濃度等值線離岸距離(單位:公尺) 47
表5.4整治計畫一之各排氯鹽濃度等值線離岸距離(單位:公尺) 47
表5.5整治計畫二之各排氯鹽濃度等值線離岸距離(單位:公尺) 50
表5.6整治計畫三之各排氯鹽濃度等值線離岸距離(單位:公尺) 53
表5.7整治計畫四之各排氯鹽濃度等值線離岸距離(單位:公尺) 55
表5.8 2017年各排氯鹽濃度等值線離岸距離比較表(單位:公尺) 58
表5.9 2022年各排氯鹽濃度等值線離岸距離比較表(單位:公尺) 58

圖目錄
圖2.1阻水層分佈區與含水層三-1自流井分布區示意圖 9
圖2.2屏東平原各含水層之補注區域及海水入侵分佈圖 11
圖.2.3.屏東平原枯水期(2000/5/1)及豐水期(2000/9/1)之第一含水層地下水位等值線分佈圖 14
圖.2.4.屏東平原枯水期(2000/5/1)及豐水期(2000/9/1)之第二含水層地下水位等值線分佈圖 14
圖.2.5.屏東平原枯水期(2000/5/1)及豐水期(2000/9/1)之第三含水層地下水位等值線分佈圖 14
圖.2.6.屏東平原各含水層總溶解固體(mg/l)等值線及地下水位零水位線分佈圖 16
圖3.1二維及三維之非等向滲透性與有效滲透性的定義 21
圖3.2在二維中,由流動方向所決定之縱向延散度的定義 21
圖3.2在三維中,由流動方向所決定之縱向及橫向延散度的定義 22
圖4.1數值模擬流程圖 23
圖4.2屏東平原有限元素網格及邊界俯視圖 27
圖4.3屏東平原地下水層分界示意圖 27
圖4.4屏東平原阻水層一範圍分佈圖 28
圖4.5數值模式中不透水層於不同分層之範圍分佈圖 29
圖4.6屏東平原水力傳導分佈圖(m2) 29
圖4.7屏東平原流速分佈圖(m/s) 29
圖4.8數值模式模擬區域圖 30
圖4.9第一含水層淨補注區域 30
圖4.10第二含水層淨補注區域 30
圖4.11模擬之屏東平原枯水期(2010/5/1)流場及流速分佈圖 31
圖4.12模擬之屏東平原豐水期(2010/9/1)流場及流速分佈圖 31
圖4.13第一含水層各觀測井水位與模擬水位 37
圖4.14第二含水層各觀測井水位與模擬水位 39
圖4.15模擬之屏東平原枯水期(2011/5/1)水位驗證 42
圖4.16模擬之屏東平原豐水期(2011/9/1)水位驗證 42
圖5.1 A、B、C、D各排斷面位置示意圖 44
圖5.2以淨補注量繁演20年之第一含水層海水入侵 45
圖5.3整治計畫一之補注井位置配置圖 47
圖5.4模擬整治海水入侵計畫一及未整治情況下之氯鹽濃度等值線比較圖 48
圖5.5整治計畫二之補注井及抽水井位置配置圖 50
圖5.6模擬整治海水入侵計畫二及未整治情況下之氯鹽濃度等值線比較圖 51
圖5.7整治計畫三之十二口補注井及七口抽水井配置圖 53
圖5.8模擬整治海水入侵計畫三及未整治情況下之氯鹽濃度等值線比較圖 54
圖5.9模擬整治海水入侵計畫四及未整治情況下之氯鹽濃度等值線比較圖 56
圖5.10各排氯鹽濃度等值線離岸距離比較圖 59
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