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系統識別號 U0026-0602201022420800
論文名稱(中文) 書寫動作測驗軟體之研發
論文名稱(英文) Developing the software for a writing-related motor test
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 物理治療研究所
系所名稱(英) Department of Physical Therapy
學年度 98
學期 1
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 王亭惠
研究生(英文) Ting-Hui Wang
學號 t6696403
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 75頁
口試委員 指導教授-成戎珠
口試委員-陳振宇
口試委員-徐永玟
口試委員-何金山
中文關鍵字 書寫  電腦測驗  動作控制  知動整合  學前兒童 
英文關鍵字 Handwriting  E-assessment  Motor control  Perceptual motor integration  Preschooler 
學科別分類
中文摘要 背景與目的:書寫是孩童的學業生活中重要的任務之一,是一種動作與認知合併的綜合能力。若孩童產生「字」的動作過程有困難、拼寫耗費太多認知資源時,則可能影響其高階的書寫認知運作。因此若能早期發現其困難並給予適當療育機會將有助於孩童之學習。幼稚園孩童正式接受書寫訓練前,就已有書寫相關的行為活動,主要是一些寫字前的繪畫動作,且此行為活動與其動作能力有著密切的關係。然而目前並無為學齡前孩童設計之書寫測驗,又文獻表示「動作準確度任務」與書寫有密切的關係,因此本研究擬參考臨床上評估孩童手部協調能力的「動作準確度任務」之概念發展一套名為「小筆起步走」之電腦化的書寫動作能力測驗,以其用圖畫的方式評量孩童書寫相關動作能力。目的是檢驗此電腦化書寫動作能力測驗之信、效度:(1)測驗信度評量,(2)檢驗表現參數的年齡效應, (3)預設之三個困難度因子(圖形困難度、圖形尺寸、圖行徑寬)是否具有年齡效應,(4)測驗與手部動作能力的關係,以及(5)測驗任務與書寫測驗之相關性。方法:本研究之測驗軟體以Java程式語言(Java VM 6up10)寫成,依據動作協同模式理論、孩童手部人體計量資料,並參考現行之測驗工具,設計五種複雜度的圖形,每種圖形各有兩種尺寸及兩種徑寬。評估動作表現的參數包含錯誤數、出界長及錯誤時間。本研究徵招了幼稚園小班至國小二年級共123名正常發展兒童參與,受試兒童使用數位筆在觸控式螢幕上執行「小筆起步走」。測驗分數以區辨函數分析,檢驗各表現參數的區辨影響力;以變異數分析,檢驗年齡與困難度間的關係及困難度假設;使用皮爾森相關係數分析比較「小筆起步走」與效標工具之間的相關性,以克隆巴赫阿法係數(Cronbach's Alpha value)驗證測驗內部一致性,並以組內相關係數分析檢驗重測信度。結果:「小筆起步走」測驗的內部一致性佳,而「錯誤數」及「出界長」重測信度良好;且此測驗能反映孩童「知動整合」能力及「手眼協調」能力。三種表現參數得到的區辨影響力皆高,孩童在此測驗也有顯著年齡差異,但區辨命中率稍低,可能因為孩童在此項任務無顯著年齡切結點。圖形「尺寸」及「徑寬」因子有顯著難易區別,「複雜度」因子的區別不明顯。結論:「小筆起步走」是一個不錯的「動作精準度測驗」並可反映孩童知覺與動作整合能力及協調能力。此測驗雖有年齡發展趨勢,但無顯著的年齡切分點。在困難度部分大尺寸與窄徑寬比小尺寸和寬徑寬困難得多,包含曲線及具有複雜組成的圖形較具有直線及規律組成的圖形困難。
英文摘要 Introduction: Writing is one of the important academic activities of children. It needs both motor and cognitive abilities. If a child shows difficulty in writing, he may encounter difficulty in cognitive learning through writing. Therefore, early detection of a child who shows writing difficulty is important. Currently, there are lack of tests or evaluation tools for writing ability assessment. The assessment of a child’s writing ability is basically based on parents’ or teachers’ subjective judgment. Likewise, there is a lack of writing-related motor test for preschoolers. Before receiving a formal writing training in primary school, children of kindergartens or even of younger ages already have developed certain pre-writing skills and which skills are highly related to their motor ability. Therefore the purpose of this study was to develop a computerized writing related motor test called “Writing Start”. The design of “Writing Start” was based on a clinical concept of evaluating children’s motor control” motor accuracy task”. The specific aims of the study were to establish the reliability and validity of the test “Writing Start”: (1) the reliability of the test, (2) the age effect on performance parameters, (3) the age effect on our presumed three difficulty factors (figure complexity, size and width of the figures), (4) the association of the “Writing Start” test performance and manual abilities tested with clinical method, and (5) the association of the “Writing Start” test performance and writing performance tested with paper method. Methods: “Writing Start” was written in Java (Java VM 6up10). The test items were designed based on the theory of motor synergy patterns, children’s anthropometric data, and contemporary assessment tools. The test items included figures with five complexity levels, two figure sizes and two figure path widths. One hundred and twenty three typically developing children from the junior class of kindergartens to second grade of elementary schools participated in the study. They were tested with “Writing Start” on a touch panel lap tops with a digital pen. Three performance variables: error number, error path length and error time were recorded. Test-retest reliability was established among 27 children. Cronbach's Alpha value to examine the internal consistency of the test “Writing Start”. The discriminate analysis was used to examine the age effect on the performance variables. ANOVAs were used to examine the effect of difficulty factors and age groups. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was to examine the concurrent validity of “Writing Start” and standard referenced assessment tools. Results: The results showed that “Writing Start” had good internal consistency in all parameters and good test-retest reliability in “error number” and “trajectory length outside the boundary”. The test was more related to “perceptual motor integration” ability than to the “coordination” ability. All of three performance variables had high discriminate ability. The size and path width of the test figures showed a significant difficulty effect, while the complexity of the figures was not significantly different among each others. Conclusion: “Writing Start” is a good “motor accuracy task”. The test may reveal the child’s ability of perceptual motor integration and coordination ability. The test scores show a developmental trend but no cut point of age effect. Test figures of large size and narrow path width are more difficult than those of small size and wide path width. The figures of cursive lines and complicated composititons are more difficult than those of straight lines and regular compositions.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
誌謝 VI
目錄 VII
表目錄 X
圖目錄 XI
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 寫字能力的發展階段 1
第二節 寫字的處理歷程 3
第一項 語言學觀點 3
第二項 動作控制觀點 5
第三節 寫字相關能力的相關研究 9
第一項 影響書寫表現的人因工程因子(ergonomic factors) 9
第二項 知覺與動作能力 11
第四節 書寫障礙孩童之評估與表現 13
第五節 書寫語文的評估 17
第六節 研究背景 18
第二章 研究方法 21
第一節 「小筆起步走」測驗內容 21
第一項 試題設計原則 21
第二項 記錄參數及其定義 25
第三項 「小筆起步走」測驗規則 25
第二節 建構測驗信效度 26
第一項 受試者 26
第二項 儀器 27
第三項 效標資料工具 28
第四項 實驗流程 30
第五項 資料分析與處理 31
第三章 研究結果 34
第一節 表現參數之區辨年齡能力 34
第二節 各困難度因子之難易程度 38
第三節 困難度因子與年齡層之關係 43
第四節 「小筆起步走」與手部能力及視知覺能力的相關性 48
第五節 「小筆起步走」任務與書寫之相關性 50
第六節 「小筆起步走」之測驗信度 52
第四章 討論 53
第一節 表現參數之年齡區辨效度 53
第二節 困難度因子與年齡層的關係 56
第三節 「小筆起步走」與手部能力相關性 61
第四節 「小筆起步走」與書寫之相關性 63
第五章 結論與應用 65
參考資料 66
附件一 I
自述 III
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