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系統識別號 U0026-0601202020043500
論文名稱(中文) 以自我決定理論探討輕度自閉症成人的工作參與
論文名稱(英文) Work participation of cognitively able adults with ASD from the self-determination theory perspective
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 職能治療學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Occupational Therapy
學年度 108
學期 1
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 鄭雅心
研究生(英文) Ya-Shin Cheng
學號 T76064029
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 86頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃百川
口試委員-林玲伊
口試委員-劉萌容
中文關鍵字 工作動機  自我決定理論  輕度自閉症  求職強度 
英文關鍵字 work motivation  the self-determination theory(SDT)  Autism  job search 
學科別分類
中文摘要 台灣輕度自閉症成人常面臨低就業率的困境。有文獻指出動機為影響工作參與的重要因素,也是找到工作的預測因子之一,但國內對此族群於工作動機上的瞭解有限,缺乏一致性結論與介入策略。自我決定理論強調外在環境於三大心理需求,包含自主權 (autonomy) 、聯繫感 (relatedness) 與勝任感 (competence)的滿足程度對動機改變之重要性,並將動機分成三種類型及五種調節型態,而心理需求的滿足將促進或抑制動機從被動朝自主整合發展,影響後續行為表現及安適感。過去文獻支持一般健康人在高自主程度的動機與求職行為強度的相關性。然而,目前國內罕有研究明確地引用特定理論,系統性探討自閉症成人的工作參與議題。故本研究明確採用自我決定理論中,心理需求與動機之定義,去描述輕度自閉症成人在1) 三大基本心理需求,工作動機,與求職強度的現況,並2) 探討上述三者間之相關性。
本研究採橫斷式設計,研究對象最終納入86位自閉症、亞斯伯格症成年個案,年齡20-46歲,來自各自閉症協會、大專資源教室等,排除合併智能障礙者。評估工具為調整後的線上問卷,內容包含基本資料、三大心理需求、工作動機、求職強度 (自覺努力程度、求職頻率) 等四大部份。填寫時間為10-15分鐘。
結果顯示輕度自閉症者的三大心理需求滿足程度在不同面向有顯著不同,自主權滿足程度最高,聯繫感次之,勝任感最低。工作動機調節型態在認同比例上有顯著不同,認同整合調節最高,其餘依序為內攝調節、外在調節、內在動機及缺乏動機,與一般健康人結果相同,顯示多數擁有正向的工作意願,渴望工作。在自覺努力程度方面,約一半的輕度自閉症者傾向求職時盡最大努力尋找新工作。求職頻率行為上,輕度自閉症者傾向從個體本身著手,較少從同事、朋友等尋求協助或得到不同工作資訊。心理需求滿足程度與動機類型的相關性上:勝任感高,自主動機越高 (r = .46,p < .01) ,控制動機 (r = - .22,p < .05) 分數越低,此部分符合自我決定理論;動機類型與求職強度的相關性上,控制動機越高者,自覺努力程度 (r = .23,p < .05) 與求職行為頻率 (r = .21,p = .054)越高。若進一步將控制動機下之動機調節型態分為:外在調節與內攝調節,則發現,前者高者,努力程度 (r = .34,p < .05)越高,後者則與求職努力程度、行為頻率無顯著相關。
本研究為台灣地區成年輕度自閉症者工作動機現況之少數實證資料,結果顯示:工作上自主性高,可感受到親友支持,但勝任感上,相對較不滿意;自己為何工作(工作動機)上,多是認同工作價值或擔心不工作對家人內疚,與一般人無異;尋找工作時較少靠同事、朋友,主要靠個人努力。資料也指出:越有勝任感,就越有自主動機;外在經濟壓力越高,求職越會實際付諸行動。基於以上發現,建議臨床上可遵循自我決定理論的介入原則,針對提升勝任感進行介入,家屬則可多留意不同求職資訊增加其求職管道多樣性。未來研究上,可輔以質性合併不同角度觀點(如家人或雇主)更加全面性探討工作動機。另外,可採用縱貫性研究設計,了解在時間因素下自閉症者工作動機與求職強度的相關變化。
英文摘要 Motivation is a crucial factor of successful work participation. Few studies explicitly adopt a specific theory to examine the motivational state of work participation in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Taiwan. The self-determination theory (SDT) stresses that external supports may facilitate the motivation stage shifting that leads to long-term behavioral changes. Understanding the current status of basic psychological needs and motivation in ASD would inform us for intervention design. Thus, this study adapted the SDT to examine three basic psychological needs, motivation stage, and effort of work participation in cognitively adults with ASD. We used the self-reported online questionnaires modified from existing literature. The results indicated that our sample was most satisfied with authonomy, but less so with competence. They percieved significantly different levels of identification toward different motivation styles. Similar to healthy population, they showed a positive desire for work. As for the effort in job-seeking, about half of them reported giving their best effort. The population showed a tendency relaying upon themselves, instead of coleagues’ and friends’ helps. In agreement with the SDT, higher sense of competency was associated with higher autonomous motivation and lower controlled motivation. The results also suggested that higher external motivation was associated with greater effort and frequency of actions in job-seeking. This study is among the first to provide evidences regarding the motivational state of work participation in ASD in Taiwan. Future studies should include qualitative data from multiple perspectives and a lontitudinal study design to further understand the issue.
論文目次 第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 、背景前言 1
第貳章 文獻回顧 3
第一節 、輕度自閉症成人的工作參與困境 3
第二節 、工作動機及相關動機理論 6
第三節 、自我決定理論 10
第四節 、文獻回顧總結與研究目的 15
第參章 研究方法 16
第一節 、研究對象 16
第二節 、研究流程 16
第三節 、研究工具 18
第四節 、資料整理與分析 23
第肆章 研究結果 24
第一節 、基本人口學資料 24
第二節 、工作現況調查 28
第三節 、三大心理需求 31
第四節 、工作動機 33
第五節 、求職強度 36
第六節 、不同變項間之相關性 40
第伍章 綜合討論 43
第一節 、人口基本學資料現況 43
第二節 、心理需求現況 45
第三節 、工作動機現況 47
第四節 、自覺努力程度與求職行為頻率 49
第五節 、心理需求與工作動機相關性 50
第六節 、工作動機與求職強度相關性 52
第七節 、心理需求與求職強度相關性 54
第八節 、其他 54
第陸章 結論及未來建議 55
第一節、結論 55
第二節、建議 57
第三節、研究限制 60
第柒章 參考文獻 61
附錄一 71
附錄二 72
附錄三 73
附錄四 -求職強度中文化問卷 75
附錄五 -線上正式問卷 76
附錄六 81
附錄七 84
附錄八 85
附錄九 86
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