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系統識別號 U0026-0509201807030900
論文名稱(中文) 北祁連造山帶蛇綠岩及高壓低溫變質岩之地球化學特徵及其地體構造意義
論文名稱(英文) Geochemical characteristics and associated tectonic significance of the ophiolites and high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks from North Qilian Orogenic Belt
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生(中文) 陳奐中
研究生(英文) Huan-Chung Chen
電子信箱 119911s@gmail.com
學號 L46051049
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 84頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊懷仁
口試委員-董國安
口試委員-劉永欣
中文關鍵字 北祁連山  構造演化  蛇綠岩  地球化學  釤-釹  鎦-鉿 
英文關鍵字 North Qilian  tectonic evolution  ophiolite  geochemistry  Sm-Nd  Lu-Hf 
學科別分類
中文摘要 北祁連造山帶為中亞地區的主要造山帶之一,其地質組成為完整的的弧-溝-盆物質,包括弧火山岩、蛇綠岩、高壓低溫變質岩、及後期弗理層沉積物,顯示此區域經歷了完整的板塊張裂-聚合作用。然而針對此區域的研究因野外調查的限制,相對其他主要造山帶相對較少,為了瞭解北祁連造山帶的構造演化歷史和相關的火成及變質作用,本研究分析了此區蛇綠岩、榴輝岩及藍片岩樣本的主量元素、微量元素成分及鍶、釹、鉿同位素比值。樣本的稀土元素和高場強元素濃度未受到後期作用及變質作用的影響,保留了原岩的特徵。而鍶同位素比值及銣、鍶、鋇、鈾及釷元素的豐度則受到影響,因此原岩特性無法使用這些元素的構造判釋圖來解釋。另一方面,釹及鉿同位素比值能作為有力的工具來限制岩石的構造親緣性,其結果顯示多數樣本有清楚地一般中洋脊玄武岩的特徵,將此結果與前人研究中具有島弧親緣性的榴輝岩樣本結合,指示變質岩原岩生成於一大型洋盆中邊緣海盆的環境。蛇綠岩樣本的147Sm/144Nd-143Nd/144Nd分布趨勢形成一年齡為566百萬年前的誤時線,與北祁連造山帶輝長岩之鋯石鈾鉛的定年結果相近。藍片岩全岩Sm-Nd及Lu-Hf同位素的誤時線年齡為802-826百萬年前,但一般認為的高壓變質岩鋯石鈾鉛原岩年齡為530到490百萬年前,兩者相差甚大,然而近年亦有727到660百萬年前的鋯石鈾鉛年齡被測定出。根據本研究結果,北祁連造山帶藍片岩之原岩於710百萬年之前生成於邊緣海盆,並隱沒於510到460百萬年前,引發弧後盆地的生成,最後聚合碰撞造山,發展成現今的北祁連造山帶。
英文摘要 The North Qilian Orogenic Belt is (NQOB) one of the major orogenic belts in central Asia. It contains a complete set of trench-arc-basin materials. This orogenic belt is, however, relatively under-investigated because roughness restricts field investigations. To have a better understanding on the tectonic evolution of NQOB and the associated igneous and metamorphic processes, samples of ophiolites, eclogite, and blueschists were analyzed for major and trace element compositions as well as Sr, Nd, and Hf isotope ratios. REE and HFSE concentrations of the eclogites and blueschists remained intact since protolith generation. In contrast, Sr isotope ratio and abundances of Rb, Sr, Ba, U, and Th were metamorphically modified. Therefore, the tectonic discrimination diagrams involving Th are not reliable protolith indicators. Instead, the Nd and Hf isotope ratios together provide the most robust constraint on the tectonic affinities of the protolith. For the first time, the NQOB blueschists with an explicitly N-MORB affinity were identified in the Nd-Hf isotope space. This result combined with the dominance of arc affinities for the eclogites indicates protolith generations in a marginal ocean basin generated in a large ocean basin. The 147Sm/144Nd-143Nd/144Nd trend of the ophiolites corresponds to an errorchron of 566 Ma, similar to the U-Pb ages of the NQOB gabbros. In contrast, the whole-rock Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf errorchron ages of the eclogites are 802-826 Ma, which are significantly older than the commonly recognized zircon U-Pb protolith ages of 530-490 Ma, although 727-660 Ma were recently reported. Based on our results, it is considered that the protoliths of the NQOB blueschists were generated in a marginal ocean basin before 710 Ma. They were then subducted during 460-510 Ma, resulting in the generation of back-arc basalts. Further convergence led to the development the North Qilian Orogenic Belt.
論文目次 Abstract I
摘要 II
致謝 III
Contents IV
List of Tables VII
List of Figures VIII

Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Evolution of the Paleo-Qilian Ocean 1
1.2 The ophiolites in the NQOB 2
1.3 The HP/LT metamorphic rocks in the NQOB 3
1.4 Ages of the igneous and metamorphic rocks in the NQOB 4
1.4.1 Ages of ophiolites 4
1.4.2 Ages of volcanic rocks 4
1.4.3 Ages of HP/LT metabasites 5
1.5 Objectives 5
Chapter 2. Geological backgrounds 10
2.1 Yushigou ophiolite suite 12
2.2 Bianmagou ophiolite suite 12
2.3 Baijingsi ophiolite mélange 13
2.4 Qingshuigou ophiolite mélange 13
2.5 Upper Xiangzigou ophiolite mélange 14
Chapter 3. Sample description 15
3.1 Petrography of the ophiolite samples 16
3.2 Mineral chemistry of the HP/LT metamorphic rocks
20
Chapter 4. Analytical methods 33
4.1 Major elements 33
4.2 Trace elements 34
4.3 Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopes 35
Chapter 5. Results 37
5.1 Yushigou ophiolites 44
5.2 Baijingsi ophiolites 46
5.3 Bianmagou ophiolites 47
5.4 Qingshuigou blueschists 49
5.5 Upper Xiangzigou blueschists and eclogite 50
Chapter 6. Discussion 52
6.1 Element mobility and modifications from processes
52
6.1.1 Major elements 52
6.1.2 Incompatible elements 53
6.2 Constraints from the whole-rock errorchron age 59
6.2.1 Errorchron ages of the NQOB ophiolite 59
6.2.2 Errorchron ages of the NQOB HP/LT metabasite 60
6.2.3 The inconsistencies between errorchron ages and U-Pb ages 60
6.3 Tectonic affinity of the NQOB samples 64
6.3.1 Constraints from the Nd-Hf isotopes 64
6.3.2 Constraints from trace elements 65
6.3.3 Tectonic affinity of the ophiolites in SOB 67
6.3.4 Tectonic affinity of the ophiolites in NOB 68
6.3.5 Tectonic affinity of the HP/LT metabasites 68
6.4 Tectonic evolution of the NQOB 70
6.4.1 Stage 1: Continent rifting 70
6.4.2 Stage 2: Seafloor spreading and an oceanic island arc developed 70
6.4.3 Stage 3: Plate subduction and back-arc development
71
6.4.4 Stage 4: Closure of the Paleo-Qilian ocean and continental collision 72
Chapter 7. Conclusions 74
References 75
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