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系統識別號 U0026-0509201402382700
論文名稱(中文) 強化時空與品質考量之自願性地理資訊架構發展
論文名稱(英文) Enhanced Spatial-temporal and Quality architecture for Volunteered Geographic Information
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 測量及空間資訊學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Geomatics
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 許煌鑫
研究生(英文) Huang-Sin Syu
學號 P66014036
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 163頁
口試委員 指導教授-洪榮宏
口試委員-蔡博文
口試委員-江渾欽
中文關鍵字 VGI  資料品質  時空因素品質描述元素  基礎時空型別配套 
英文關鍵字 VGI  Data quality  Spatial-temporal data  standardized 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近年網際網路、行動裝置及巨量資料之發展帶動資訊產業之革命,顛覆了傳統資料蒐集、處理、流通及分享之模式。在Web 2.0所帶動之風潮下,一般使用者擁有更為便捷之工具來建立及分享資訊,產生例如群眾外包(crowdsourcing)等新一代的資訊運作機制。自願性地理資訊Volunteer Geographic Information,VGI)對過去由政府單位擔負資料產製及系統發展之模式帶來新的思維,借助群眾與社群之力量,可達成更為廣泛與更為即時圖資蒐集之成效,並可降低獲取空間資訊之成本。自願性地理資訊近年在物種調查、時空趨勢分析、救災資訊匯集,甚至地圖平台內容之更新上已累積大量之成果。由於資料來自於群眾,資料品質不但無法與傳統之專業資料相提並論,更可能發生品質不一之情形,廣泛蒐集之優勢反而可能成為正確決策之隱憂。有別於在最終分析階段面對各類資料之品質差異問題,本研究擬由強化資訊供應內容之觀點著手,透過標準化之手段,達成提升決策品質之目標。
本研究之主要策略為分析自願性地理資訊所必須具有之描述內容,經由時間、空間及品質之考量,設計為強化描述之標準化架構。此架構之內容須在資料建置時即決定,並內嵌於流通之資料格式中,如此將可在資訊分析時,透過其提供之資訊而具體掌握各類資料之差異,即令自願性地理資訊分由不同資料格式記錄,其成果仍可在決策者更為完整之了解下建立,避免錯誤之決策。本研究整理與分析VGI應用中常使用之流通格式,並規劃強化描述架構嵌入之策略及歸結其使用之限制。由於嵌入資訊之內容有所差異,本研究進一步探討資料剖析及品質評估之策略,並具體分析對於整體應用之影響。
相較於現行普遍採用之自願性地理資訊處理方式,本研究因應資料格式之特性而使流通資料「自動」隱含時空品質資訊,資訊雖然更為完整,但使用者不會感覺額外之工作負擔。在決策時,由於資料帶有考量之時間、空間與品質資訊等描述內容,更易彰顯各類資料之差異,使用者對於決策之品質將可建立更「正確」之評估。本研究之成果可突破自願性地理資訊應用中,資料提供者缺乏專業及決策者沒有品質評估基礎之兩大瓶頸。在此基礎下,未來之所有蒐集及流通之自願性地理資訊均將具有符合其本身特性之描述,可滿足更為多元之應用需求,尤其在巨量資料之分析上,透過此方式而蒐集之資料將成為更有價值之資源彙整機制。
英文摘要 VGI provides clear advantages of scalability, flexibility, efficiency and less spending to serve as an alternative approach for better understanding of the changing world. Despite of the advantages VGI can bring, data quality remains a difficult issue because VGI data is typically collected from general public without professional training and knowledge. Different from the major principles of the past research, we suggest a new approach to enhance the content of VGI data by adding necessary spatio-temporal and quality information into the VGI data before it is submitted. After examining the essential characteristics of VGI data, the framework of enhanced information is subdivided into four major categories: volunteer identification information, spatio-temporal information, positioning information and mission information. By including the enhanced information, the experiment shows this framework can not only provides a solid and consistent basis for establishing VGI data, but also successfully helps decision makers to effectively compare and analyze VGI data collected from different sources. The developed prototype system also demonstrates the additional required information can be collected automatically, which implies it will not increase volunteers’ loading or demand more training, but can effectively improve the potential use of VGI data. As we focus on the premier stage of VGI process, the proposed approach will have a pervasive influence on how VGI data is collected, aggregated and analyzed in the future.
論文目次 摘要 I
誌謝 VII
表目錄 XI
圖目錄 XIII
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究方法 3
1.3 研究架構 4
1.4 論文架構 7
第2章 文獻回顧 8
2.1 VGI之概念 8
2.1.1 Web 2.0特性與新地理學 8
2.1.2 群眾外包 11
2.2 VGI之應用 12
2.2.1 地圖更新應用 14
2.2.2 防救災應用 18
2.2.3 物種監測應用 20
2.3 VGI之品質 22
2.3.1 傳統地理資訊品質評估機制 22
2.3.2 VGI品質評估分析 24
2.3.3 VGI應用品質評估機制之發展 28
2.3.4 利用VGI資料集之決策分析 30
第3章 時空描述通用框架之設計 33
3.1 時空因素的分析 34
3.1.1 空間基礎型別 35
3.1.2 時間基礎型別 36
3.2 自願性地理資訊空間定位方式之技術探討 44
3.2.1 手持裝置定位 44
3.2.2 於電子地圖上數化 46
3.2.3 引用既有圖資 51
3.3 自願性地理資訊常用流通格式之剖析 52
3.3.1 GPX 52
3.3.2 OpenGeoSMS 55
3.3.3 JPG(EXIF) 58
3.3.4 KML 61
3.3.5 GeoRSS 63
3.3.6 Shapefile 66
3.3.7 Geocoding service 68
3.3.8 不同來源格式對應之空間型別 75
第4章 時空考量之VGI處理及應用 79
4.1 強化描述架構之發展 79
4.1.1 資料建置與流通之基本策略 79
4.1.2 時空與品質描述共同架構 81
4.2 VGI資料之包裝及流通策略 85
4.2.1 可內嵌時空描述之原生格式 85
4.2.2 夾帶時空描述之附加參考檔案 93
4.3 VGI模式整合應用 96
4.3.1 位置精確度 96
4.3.2 語意化時間 101
4.3.3 參考資料之正確性 102
第5章 系統實作與情境測試 106
5.1 實作系統測試 106
5.1.1 系統運作環境 106
5.1.2 VGI網站 109
5.1.3 行動裝置應用程式(APP) 115
5.1.4 資料庫 118
5.2 VGI情境測試 126
5.3 以空間觀點探討VGI應用 128
5.3.1 以GPS裝置取得地理位置之定位方式 128
5.3.2 利用數化工具取得地理位置之定位方式 132
5.3.3 地理標籤與打卡之定位參考 146
5.4 以時間觀點探討VGI應用 151
第6章 結論與建議 157
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