||Self-defeating Humor and Employee’s Behaviors: Testing the Mediating and Moderating Effects
||Institute of International Business
employee’s perception of leader’s power
acceptability of norm violation
counterproductive workplace behavior
social information processing theory
工作環境中幽默無所不在，然而學者們對自貶型幽默(self-defeating humor)如何影響員工在組織中的行為知之甚少。本研究利用社會信息傳遞理論(social information processing theory)為基礎，來探討領導者使用自貶型幽默時是否會同時為員工帶來正面以及負面的影響。研究提出當主管使用自貶型幽默時會弱化員工對該主管權力的認知而增強員工的自主權(employee autonomy)，並最終增強員工的創新行為(employee innovative behavior)。但是，當員工認為主管的權利因使用自貶型幽默而有弱化的傾向時，也會同時增強員工認為組織違規的可接受性(employee perceived acceptability of norm violation)而提升員工做出違反組織規範的行動(counterproductive workplace behavior)。此外，該研究也提出「團隊心理安全感」(team psychological safety)以及「員工責任感」(conscientiousness)能分別調節前述兩項假設。本研究以台灣企業為研究對象（例如技術，金融和製造業），共搜集了231份有效問卷。
Workplace humor is ubiquitous, yet scholars know little about how self-defeating humor affects employee’s behaviors in organization. We draw on social information processing theory to suggest that leader’s self-defeating humor will lead not only positive but also negative effects on followers’ behaviors. We integrate this theory to develop hypotheses about employee perception of supervisors’ power is negatively associated with leaders’ self-defeating humor, which will strengthen employee autonomy and ultimately employee’s innovative behavior. However, it can also signal the followers the acceptability of norm violation at work. These are positively associated with subordinates’ counterproductive workplace behaviors. Furthermore, we propose that these indirect effects are moderated by team psychological safety as well as employee conscientious separately. Our model is tested by 231full-time employees and 55 supervisors from various industries in Taiwan, such as technology, financial and manufacturing.
The results of present study indicate that leader’s self-defeating humor is a double-edge sword, which will bring both positive and negative effects to employee’s behaviors. On one hand, leader’s self-defeating humor will increase employee’s innovative behaviors through employee autonomy. Conversely, the self-defeating humor is also positively related to employee’s counterproductive workplace behaviors via employee perceived acceptability of norm violation. What’s more, we also confirmed that employee’s conscientiousness can moderate the relationship between acceptability of norm violation and counterproductive workplace behaviors.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation 1
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 4
2.1 Social Information Processing Theory 4
2.2 Hypotheses Development 5
2.2.1 Self -Defeating humor 5
2.2.2 Employee perception of leader’s power 6
2.2.3 Relationship between self-defeating humor and employee perception of leader’s power. 7
2.2.4 Employee perceived acceptability of norm violations 7
2.2.5 Relationship between employee perception of leader’s power and employee perceived acceptability of norm violations 8
2.2.6 Employee autonomy 9
2.2.7 Relationship between employee perception of leader’s power and employee autonomy. 10
2.2.8 Counterproductive workplace behavior 11
2.2.9 Relationship between employee perceived acceptability of norm violation and CWB 12
2.2.10 Moderating influence of conscientiousness 13
2.2.11 The moderating effect of conscientiousness between employee perceived acceptability of norm violations and CWB 14
2.2.12 Innovative Behavior 15
2.2.13 Relationship between employee autonomy and innovative behavior 16
2.2.14 Moderating influence of team psychology safety 17
2.2.15 The moderating effect of team psychology safety between employee autonomy and innovative behavior 17
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 18
3.1 Research Framework 18
3.2 Research Hypotheses 19
3.3 Measurement 20
3.3.1 Participants and Procedure 20
3.3.2 Self-defeating humor 21
3.3.3 Employee perception of leader’s power 21
3.3.4 Employee perceived acceptability of norm violation 21
3.3.5 Employee autonomy 22
3.3.6 Counterproductive workplace behavior 22
3.3.7 Employee conscientiousness 22
3.3.8 Innovative behavior 22
3.3.9 Team psychological safety 23
3.3.10 Control variables 23
3.4 Questionnaire Design 24
3.4.1 Self-defeating humor 24
3.4.2 Employee perception of leader’s power 25
3.4.3 Employee perceived acceptability of norm violation 26
3.4.4 Employee autonomy 27
3.4.5 Counterproductive workplace behavior 27
3.4.6 Employee conscientiousness 28
3.4.7 Innovative behavior 29
3.4.8 Team psychological safety 29
3.4.9 Control variables 30
3.5 Data Analysis Method 31
3.5.1 Descriptive Analysis 31
3.5.2 Reliability Analysis 31
3.5.3 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Validity 31
3.5.4 Common Method Variance (CMV) and Non-Response bias test 33
3.5.5 Pearson Correlation Coefficient 33
3.5.6 Hypotheses Testing 33
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS 34
4.1 Descriptive Analysis 34
4.2 Reliability Analysis 37
4.2.1 Employee Perception of Leader’s Power 37
4.2.2 Member Psychological Safety 38
4.2.3 Employee Perception of Norm Violation 38
4.2.4 Member Autonomy 39
4.2.5 Member Conscientiousness 39
4.2.6 Employee Perception of Workplace Deviance 40
4.2.7 Leader Self-defeating Humor 40
4.2.8 Leader Perception of Employee Innovative Behavior 41
4.2.9 Leader Perception of Employee Workplace Deviance 41
4.3 Confirmatory Factor Analysis 42
4.3.1 Employee Perception of Leader’s Power 43
4.3.2 Member Psychological Safety 43
4.3.3 Employee Perception of Norm Violation 44
4.3.4 Member Autonomy 44
4.3.5 Member Conscientiousness 45
4.3.6 Employee Perception of Workplace Deviance 46
4.3.7 Leader Self-defeating Humor 46
4.3.8 Leader Perception of Employee Innovative Behavior 47
4.3.9 Leader Perception of Employee Workplace Deviance 48
4.4 Non-response bias 49
4.5 Common Method Variance, CMV 50
4.6 Person Correlation 51
4.7 Hypothesis Testing 55
4.7.1 Regression Analysis 55
4.7.2 Bootstrapping Analysis 62
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION 64
5.1 Summary of Research Result 64
5.2 Theoretical Implications and Contributions 66
5.3 Practical Implications 67
5.4 Limitations and Future Research 68
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