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系統識別號 U0026-0508201613284000
論文名稱(中文) 無人機飛航管理
論文名稱(英文) Rules and Regulations for Unmanned Aircraft System Management
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 航空太空工程學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics (on the job class)
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 閻玳亘
研究生(英文) Tai-Hsuan Yen
學號 P47021090
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 73頁
口試委員 口試委員-蒲金標
口試委員-盧衍良
指導教授-林清一
中文關鍵字 無人機  飛行管理  法規 
英文關鍵字 unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)  aviation management  regulations 
學科別分類
中文摘要 無人機飛航管理
摘要
在科技發展之下,空中運輸不再受限於載人飛行器,因為技術的進步及成本、安全的考量,由歐美科技進步的大國開始推出無人飛行器,一開始的無人飛行器多受限於官方政府使用,或是軍方在戰爭時支援,隨著時代改變及無人飛行器的技術漸趨成熟,除了原本只有官方及軍方使用的無人飛行器,漸漸推擴到民眾休閒娛樂使用,或是商業使用空照等功能。由於無人飛行器的使用機會及功能增多,但原本的法規缺乏或明顯不足,因此以政府的角度來說,需要增加或修改現行的法規以符合無人飛行器的需要。特別是於2015年民眾操作遙控飛機產生意外,政府為了降低民眾的恐慌及更有效的管理無人飛機,針對無人遙控飛機修改民航法規,但其它功能及其它重量的無人飛行器還沒有很完善的相關法規進行規定及要求,這也是我國政府要努力的方向。
本研究進行文獻探討,討論無人飛行器的定義:官方、政府使用如救災、戰爭支援等功能;民眾、商業用的娛樂、空拍等功能;以及伴隨無人飛機產生的災難或是意外死亡民眾,進而推論政府以相關法規定義無人飛機及法令限制的重要性。接下來分析整理重要國際組織,例如聯合國、歐盟,以及英國、美國等大國針對無人飛機的定義及規範,以供我國參考。本研究亦針對我國無人飛機的發展情況提出政策的建議及法規參考,以供政府未來進行無人飛機法規制定的參考。
英文摘要 Rules and Regulations for Unmanned Aircraft System Management

Author: Tai Hsuan Yen
Advisor: Chin E. Lin
Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics

SUMMARY
With the developments of technology, air transport is no longer limited to manned aircrafts. Due to technical advancement and the concerns for cost and safety, the United States and other countries in Europe have initiated the application of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In its early stages, UAVs were generally employed by governments in official affairs or military operations. In recent years, as the technologies of UAVs have become mature, the application of UAVs gradually extends from official and military deployments to civilian usages for recreational or business purposes. As UAVs are more frequently used with more varieties, the existing regulations for UAVs are obviously insufficient. Thus, from a governmental perspective, additional regulations and the amendment of existing ones are required to accommodate the application of UAVs. After the accident caused by a civilian radio-controlled aircraft in 2015, the Taiwanese government revised certain civil aviation regulations to dispel public panic and to manage such devices more effectively. However, concerning UAVs with various weights and functions, the government has not established comprehensive regulations and demands, which sets a course for it to take actions in the future.
This study first reviews the definition of UAVs, considering their official applications in disaster management and military operations and their civilian applications for recreations and aerial photography. Also, we discuss the accidents caused by UAVs that resulted in civilian casualty, in order to justify the importance of establishing related regulations to define and manage UAVs. In the later sections we analyze the definitions of and regulations for UAVs established by important international organizations including the UN and the EUand countries such as the US and the UK. Considering the development of UAVs in Taiwan, this study also offers concrete advice for the Taiwanese government to design its policy and establish regulations for UAV management.
Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), aviation management, regulations

INTRODUCTION
With the rapid development and evolution of technology, the application of UAVs becomes popular. The broader definition of UAVs means an aircraft does not require the driver, or it can be remote control. In the beginning, most UAVs are authorized by government or military.
UAVs includes following kinds: A close distance UAV carrying five kilograms or less and at a low altitude is 5 km away; a short-range UAV increases to 20 km flight distance, and they are often referred to small-UAVs, or mini-unmanned aerial vehicle (mini-UAVs). A mini-unmanned aerial vehicle (micro Aerial Vehicle, MAV) wingspan less than 0.5 meters below average, and the flight distance up to 2km. In addition, tactical unmanned aerial vehicle has at least 20 hours of flight time, depending on the task and set a ceiling of at least 5,486.4 meters (18,000 feet).
Besides the usage of government or military, the widespread commercialization of small UAVs gradual increased the amount of UAVs, and it also occurred in the recent crash of unmanned air shot hit the buildings or events which resulting in personal injury and financial loss.
Because the benefits and risks of a far-reaching impact of UAV, it is necessary to construct law regulation for UAVs, and there are national wide law regulations for limited countries, such as the U.S. UK, and EU. Some countries have already started set regulations, such as International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). However, there are still lots of needs and improvements of Taiwanese law regulation regarding UAVs. In Taiwan, there are no existing UAVs law regulation before September 2015, and the government only reference to “Civil Aviation Act” for small UAVs regarding to the related matters. There are no complete regulations until 24 September 2015, and most accidents or related issues regarding UAVs are provisions in the airport restricted area shall be based on "Civil Aviation Act" punishment, and if the issues are involving railway safety or national defense secrets, they are respectively reference to "Railway Law" or "Redoubt Fortress Strip law "treatment, but there are no uniform specification of the Act for UAVs.
In sum, Taiwan’s current legislative norms for UAVs are still in the beginning process, so this study aims to compare the differences law regulation from different countries, and to provide suggestions and recommendations for Taiwanese government to form a structural law about UAVs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study use literature method to investigate the adequate regulation for UAVs, we investigate the literature to discuss the definition of UAVs, and the usage of official government such as disaster relief, war supporting, public and commercial entertainment.
First, the law of UAVs in Taiwan are collected with the important international organizations of UAVs such as the UN, EU, the United Kingdom, the United States and other major countries for their law regulation of UAVs. After comparing the international trend for our unmanned aircraft, there are still lack of basic law for regulating UAVs. Second, this study suggests some new law regulation for UAVs as the government’s reference, and settles different kinds of regulation refer to public and private UAVs. Third, we settle down the future establishment schedule of the UAVs’ regulations, to avoid more disputes caused by unclear law.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
According to other countries’ regulations of UAVs, this study suggests that we should set a Certificate of Airworthiness system to manage UAVs, and the previous UAVs may have to pass the certificate to fly legally and avoid the danger. Besides, we suggest that the regulations of UAVs should be more strict in high dense population area. , and those who take UAVs for research or academic use may be treated less strict.
Moreover, we suggest the private UAVs may pass the Special Airworthiness Certificate (SAC), even those UAVs that under 25 kg, to keep the danger off all the civilizations in Taiwan.
Finally, we set a schedule from 2016 to 2025, to build relative complete regulations and laws for UAVs, we suggest that the government should establish the certificate rules from 2016 to 2018; then from 2019 to 2021, the government should settle a register system for UAVs by SIM card, which can help us to monitor the legal UAVs; from 2022 to 2025, the UAVs should be forced to take the accident insurance, in order to make sure that the indemnification will be paid if the accident happened.
Due to the building of the law of UAVs in Taiwan is at the beginning stage, our government should take much more steps to fulfill the gap between the UAVs and the usage.

CONCLUSION
The UAVs are the future trend of the air instruments, they can help us in many ways, and bring lots of benefit and profit. However, because of the huge damage, we should make more effort to avoid the disaster by the accidents of UAVs. Thus, in the future, our government may make more complicated and detailed law to regulate UAVs so that we can enjoy the benefit and avoid the potential danger.
論文目次 目錄
摘要 i
SUMMARY ii
目錄 vi
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究構想 3
1.3 論文撰寫大綱 5
1.4 研究流程 5
第二章 文獻探討 7
2.1 無人機之起源、發展與應用 7
2.2無人機之相關技術 8
2.3無人機之效益 10
2.4無人機之風險 12
2.5 無人機之相關組織與機構 14
2.6小結 27
第三章 無人機之我國政策、法規與實例 28
3.1我國無人機之管理概況 28
3.2公用無人機的相關規範 30
3.3民用無人機的相關規範 32
3.4小結 34
第四章 我國無人機管理政策建議方案 35
4.1 無人機的適航認證 35
4.2 我國公用無人機規範建議 37
4.3 我國民用無人機規範建議 39
4.4無人機的未來展望 41
4.5小結 42
第五章 結論 44
5.1 研究結論 44
5.2 研究建議 45
參考文獻 48

表目錄
表1-1 各國無人機規定整理 4
表2-1 無人機之效益整理 12
表4-1 我國無人機適航認證中與載人飛行器法規寬鬆度差異建議 37
表4-2 我國公用無人機規範建議 38
表4-3 我國民用無人機規範建議 41
表4-4 我國無人機草案時程表建議 42

圖目錄
圖1-1 研究流程 6
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