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系統識別號 U0026-0508201403484700
論文名稱(中文) GPS/BDS衛星導航之方法與效能
論文名稱(英文) Method and Performance Analysis of GPS/BDS Integrated Satellite Navigation
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 測量及空間資訊學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Geomatics
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 楊開元
研究生(英文) Kai-Yuan Yang
學號 P66011020
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 130頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊名
口試委員-莊智清
口試委員-詹劭勳
口試委員-卓大靖
中文關鍵字 GPS/BDS  北斗  衛星導航  Data Snooping  Helmert方差分量估計 
英文關鍵字 GPS/BDS  BeiDou  Satellite navigation  Data snooping  Helmert variance component estimation 
學科別分類
中文摘要 隨著科技的進步與蓬勃發展,人們對於衛星導航服務品質的需求也日漸增高,對於衛星導航的使用者而言,其最為詬病的便是因遮蔽效應而導致衛星導航服務的中斷,或是因受到多路徑效應等衛星觀測量粗差的影響而導致衛星導航服務品質不佳。然而,由中國自主研發的北斗衛星導航系統 (BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, BDS) 已於2012年底完成區域性系統的建置,並由14顆運行的衛星組網,提供服務給亞太地區的使用者,且由於BDS佈署了5顆地球靜止軌道衛星及5顆傾斜地球同步軌道衛星,故對於台灣的使用者而言,BDS的平均可視衛星數目儼然已成為全球導航衛星系統 (Global Navigation Satellite System, GNSS) 之首,有鑑於此,以及GPS與BDS間之高度兼容性與互操作性,本研究嘗試將GPS與BDS進行整合,並提出了偵錯與整合之方法,以期能改善衛星導航之服務品質。

在使用GNSS的時候常因人為、環境或系統本身的因素而導致衛星觀測量產生粗差,而為了處理觀測量粗差對於衛星導航之服務品質的不良影響,本研究使用Data Snooping來進行衛星觀測量粗差的偵測與剔除;再者,雖然將GPS與BDS整合後可增進其衛星幾何強度,但由於GPS與BDS為兩異質性之系統,因此若僅單純地使用等權或固定權比例的方式來整合GPS與BDS,將無法精確地反映GPS與BDS觀測量本身的實際精度,且整合之成果並不理想,故本研究使用Helmert方差分量估計來計算GPS與BDS觀測量之權比例,使兩異質的系統能更自動化且妥善地結合。

本研究使用連續接收約31個小時的GPS以及BDS雙頻觀測資料,以進行GPS/BDS整合式系統之單點定位,且為了深入地探討GPS/BDS整合式系統之效能,本研究藉由設定衛星截仰角的方式來模擬各種觀測條件,最後再透過衛星可視性、衛星幾何強度、內部可靠性、外部可靠性以及導航性能需求中的精確度、完整性、連續性以及可用性等性能指標,分析及評估GPS/BDS整合系統之效能,並將其與單一導航衛星系統之成果進行比較。

研究成果顯示,本研究用以進行偵錯之方法,可有效地偵測並排除觀測量粗差,使得衛星導航保有其正常之服務品質,且相較於使用單一的導航衛星系統,GPS/BDS整合式系統更可克服觀測量粗差對衛星導航服務品質之不良影響;再者,藉由本研究所提出之整合方法,GPS/BDS整合式系統將可透過改正數資訊,自動化地求得GPS與BDS間之精確的權比例,使其在衛星幾何強度與觀測量誤差間取得權衡,除了可更妥善地整合兩異質性的GPS與BDS外,其整合後之定位精確度亦可優於GPS單系統,尤其當使用者處於非空曠的觀測環境時,GPS/BDS整合式系統相對於GPS單系統之定位精確度的改善程度可達約70%至95%,除此之外,GPS/BDS整合式系統在水平與垂直方向的可用性也可提高約0.31至0.84與0.39至0.49,由此可知,GPS/BDS整合式系統克服遮蔽效應之影響的能力比單系統要來得好。
英文摘要 Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been established and composed of 14 operational satellites for providing navigation service in Asia-Pacific region. To the users in Taiwan, the number of visible BDS satellites is much more than other GNSS’s in average. In consideration of above reasons, the high compatibility and interoperability between GPS and BDS, we try to integrate widely used GPS and emerging developed BDS for better service quality of satellite navigation in this research.

In this research, we use dual-frequency pseudorange observation data for GPS/BDS single point positioning and simulate various observational conditions by adjusting satellite cut-off elevation angles. In the calculating process, we use data snooping for fault detection and exclusion (FDE), moreover, we use Helmert variance component estimation (VCE) to integrate these two heteroskedastic systems, so called GPS and BDS. The experimental results show that blunders can be detected and excluded efficiently by the FDE method used in this researchy, especially for GPS/BDS integrated system due to higher reliability, which can better prevent the bad effect from blunders. Furthermore, the weight ratio between GPS and BDS can be automatically calculated by Helmert VCE through the residual information for better integration. Comparing with GPS-only, when the user is not at spacious environment, the accuracy of GPS/BDS integrated system can be improved about 70% to 95%, the availability can be enhanced about 0.31 to 0.84 and 0.39 to 0.49 for horizontal and vertical directions, respectively.
論文目次 摘要......................................I
Extended Abstract.......................III
誌謝....................................VII
目錄...................................VIII
表目錄...................................XI
圖目錄.................................XIII
第一章 緒論...............................1
§1-1 前言.................................1
§1-2 研究背景與文獻回顧...................2
§1-3 研究動機與目的.......................6
§1-4 論文架構............................10
第二章 全球導航衛星系統..................11
§2-1 GPS現代化...........................11
§2-2 北斗衛星導航系統....................16
§2-3 GPS與BDS之兼容性與互操作性..........24
第三章 GNSS觀測量與誤差來源..............29
§3-1 GNSS觀測量..........................29
§3-2 GNSS誤差來源........................32
§3-2-1 衛星時錶誤差......................34
§3-2-2 衛星軌道誤差......................35
§3-2-3 電離層延遲誤差....................37
§3-2-4 對流層延遲誤差....................40
§3-2-5 接收儀時錶誤差....................46
§3-2-6 多路徑效應誤差....................46
§3-2-7 時間系統偏差......................47
§3-2-8 座標系統偏差......................48
第四章 GPS/BDS雙頻單點定位方法...........49
§4-1 單點定位原理........................49
§4-2 最小二乘法平差......................54
§4-2-1 函數模型..........................57
§4-2-2 隨機模型..........................58
§4-3 粗差偵測與剔除......................59
§4-4 Helmert方差分量估計.................64
第五章 實驗設計與性能指標................67
§5-1 實驗設計............................67
§5-2 性能指標............................70
§5-2-1 精度稀釋因子......................70
§5-2-2 內部可靠性........................72
§5-2-3 外部可靠性........................74
§5-2-4 精確度............................75
§5-2-5 完整性............................76
§5-2-6 連續性............................81
§5-2-7 可用性............................81
第六章 成果分析..........................82
§6-1 衛星可視性分析......................82
§6-2 衛星幾何強度分析....................88
§6-3 可靠性分析..........................93
§6-4 精確度分析..........................96
§6-5 完整性、連續性與可用性分析.........111
第七章 結論與建議.......................119
參考文獻................................121
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