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論文名稱(中文) 作業重要性和年齡對前瞻性記憶作業表現之影響
論文名稱(英文) The Effect of Task Importance on Age-Related Difference in Prospective Memory Tasks
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 認知科學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Cognitive Science
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 葉思妤
研究生(英文) Tze-Yu Yeh
學號 u7697402
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 70頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳振宇
召集委員-李玉琇
口試委員-林君昱
中文關鍵字 前瞻性記憶  作業重要性  年老化 
英文關鍵字 prospective memory  task importance  aging 
學科別分類
中文摘要 前瞻性記憶(prospective memory)指的是記得在未來某個時刻執行某項活動的記憶,這種記憶不只要記得需要被執行的活動內容,亦要記得在適當的時刻執行此活動或對正確的目標事件進行反應(例如:記得要在下午三點出席一場會議、記得在遇見朋友時告訴他一個訊息等等),前瞻性記憶在我們的日常生活中隨處可見,是維繫正常生活的一大重要認知活動歷程。Henry等人(2004)的文獻整合分析發現,在自然情境下的前瞻性記憶,年長者比年輕人好。不過,因爲一些以年輕人爲受試者的研究指出,增加前瞻性記憶作業的重要性會提升受試者的作業表現 (Kliegel et al., 2001; Kvavilashvili, 1987),因此,本研究旨在探討作業重要性是否會影響前瞻性記憶作業表現上的年齡差異。實驗一採用自然情境下的前瞻性記憶作業,要求受試者提供數件他們預計在未來一至兩週內要做的非慣例性、以時間爲提示線索的事情,並依受試者主觀認定區分爲重要與不重要兩類,一週後詢問受試者各項事情是否記得做。實驗結果顯示:前瞻性記憶作業的重要與否確實會影響作業表現(重要的事情明顯比不重要的事情要來得不容易忘記做),而且年齡差異只出現在不重要的事情上(年長者的表現比年輕人好);不過,由於年長者預計要做的事情比年輕人少,前述的年齡差異有可能與此因素有關,因此,進一步的分析將此因素納入爲共變項,所得結果顯示:年齡的差異不復存在。實驗二以研究者設計的電腦遊戲「虛擬週記」(Virtual Week Task)做爲模擬的自然情境,先要求受試者提供數件未來一週內要做的非慣例性、以時間爲提示線索及以事件爲提示線索的事情,並對每一件事情做重要性評分(1至5),然後在遊戲中模擬每天的生活,並於某件事情預計要做的時間或事件線索出現時回報該事情;除此之外,遊戲結束一週後實驗者詢問受試者各項事情是否記得做。實驗結果顯示,年輕人與年長者預計要做的事情一樣多;以線性混和模型所進行分析顯示,無論是在虛擬週記或是真實生活中,在非慣例性、以時間爲提示線索的事情上,越重要的事情受試者越能記得做,不過,只有在虛擬週記中,年長者表現得比年輕人好;在真實生活中,兩者的前瞻性記憶表現相當。此外,年齡與作業重要性之間並沒有顯著的交互作用。至於非慣例性、以事件爲提示線索的事情的前瞻性記憶則沒有出現年齡和作業重要性的差異,也沒有交互作用效果。本研究的兩個實驗結果雖然證實了作業重要性對年輕人與年長者前瞻性記憶表現的影響,但是無法解釋爲什麼年長者表現得比年輕人好。在真實情境中,年長者需要記得做的事情比年輕人少,這是年長者前瞻性記憶表現比年輕人好的重要原因;而在虛擬情境中,年長者的較佳表現則可能與他們求表現的高動機有關。最後,本研究也發現,在以事件爲提示線索的事情上,前瞻性記憶的表現並不受年齡與作業重要性的影響,表示這類事情的線索提示性較高,且比較不需依賴自發性的記憶提取,所以比較容易記得做。
英文摘要 Prospective memory (PM) refers to remembering to execute an intended action at some appropriate moment in the future. Age-related differences in PM appear to depend on the type of PM (time-based or event-based) as well as on the type of tasks used to assess PM (naturalistic or laboratory). According to a recent meta-analytic review (Henry et al., 2004), old adults tend to outperform young adults in naturalistic PM tasks. However, since task importance has been shown to affect PM in some studies involving young adults (Kliegel et al., 2001; Kvavilashvili, 1987), the observed age difference in PM could be due to a difference in the perceived importance of the tasks to be executed. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether perceived task importance might play a role in the age-related difference in a naturalistic PM task. In Experiment 1, young and old adults were asked to list as many as possible non-routine activities they planned for the upcoming week (time-based PM), and to rate these activities as important or not important. Completion and non-completion (with reason) of these activities were recorded a week later. The results showed that important tasks were completed with a greater proportion than unimportant tasks, and old adults performed better than young adults, but only in tasks that were perceived as unimportant. However, the old adults planned fewer activities than the young adults. This could explain why the old adults remembered to perform these activities better than the young adults. When the number of planned activities was controlled, the age difference in the completion of unimportant tasks no longer existed. In Experiment 2, a computer board game, Virtual Week Task, was used to simulate the natural environment in which a week’s activities were to be executed. At the beginning of the experiment, young and old adults were asked to list as many as possible non-routine activities (both time-based and event-based) they planned for the upcoming week, and to rate the importance, on a five-point scale, of these activities. During the game (simulating the passage of a week’s time), they had to report executing an activity when the time or the event cuing that activity was encountered. One week after the game, completion and non-completion (with reason) of these same activities in real life were also recorded. The results showed that the numbers of planned activities were not different between the groups. The result of Linear Mixed Model analysis showed that for time-based PM activities in both game and real life settings, higher task importance led to better prospective memory. But only in the game setting did the old adults perform better than the young adults. In the real life setting, their performances were not different. Besides, age did not interact with task importance. Event-based PM activities were not affected by age or task importance. The results of both experiments indicate that although task importance matters in PM, it does not account for the superior PM of the old adults. In the real life setting, the reason why old adults seem to perform better than young adults is because the PM activities they need to remember to do are fewer than young adults. In the game setting, the superior PM of the old adults may be due to the higher motivation of old adults to achieve good performance. Finally, the present study also observed that event-based PM activities were not affected by age or task importance. This is presumably because event-based PM benefits from cues in the environment and relies less on self-initiated memory retrieval.
論文目次 目錄 I
表目錄 IV
圖目錄 V
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 不同情境的前瞻性記憶作業方式 3
第二節 兩種前瞻性記憶類型 4
第二章 前瞻性記憶的相關研究 7
第一節 前瞻性記憶與年老化 7
第二節 作業重要性對前瞻性記憶表現的影響 9
第三節 本研究的目的 11
第四節 本研究的假設 12
第三章 實驗一 13
第一節 實驗目的 13
第二節 實驗方法 13
受試者 13
實驗材料 13
實驗設計 14
實驗程序 14
第三節 實驗結果 16
第四節 討論 18
第四章 實驗二 21
第一節 問題與背景 21
第二節 Virtual Week Task介紹 22
第三節 實驗目的 23
第四節 實驗方法 23
受試者 23
實驗材料 24
實驗設計 29
實驗程序 29
第五節 實驗結果 31
實驗結果:VWT的EBPM 31
實驗結果:真實生活的EBPM 32
實驗結果:VWT的慣例性EBPM 32
實驗結果:VWT的TBPM 33
實驗結果:真實生活的TBPM 36
實驗結果:VWT以及真實生活中TBPM的相關 38
實驗結果:VWT的慣例性TBPM 38
第六節 討論 40
第五章 結論與綜合討論 44
第一節 結果摘要 44
第二節 綜合討論 45
第三節 結論 48
第四節 對未來研究之建議 48
參考文獻 51
中文部分 51
英文部分 51
附錄一:前瞻性記憶作業調查問卷 55
附錄二:年輕組與年長組預計要做的作業種類分佈(實驗一) 57
附錄三:年輕組與年長組對輔助記憶工具之使用(實驗一) 58
附錄四:作業重要性與年齡的二因子變異數分析(實驗一) 59
附錄五:作業數目的變異數分析(實驗一) 60
附錄六:年齡與作業數目的共變數分析(實驗一) 61
附錄七:受試者基本資料表 62
附錄八:未來一週行程表 63
附錄九:參考行程表 65
附錄十:作業數目的變異數分析(實驗二) 67
附錄十一:兩組受試者的作業種類和對輔助記憶工具之使用分佈(實驗二) 68
附錄十二:未滿65歲與65歲以上年長組的TBPM作業記得比率(實驗二) 69
附錄十三:預設網絡在四種心境想像作業的活化反應 70
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