進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-0503201917012400
論文名稱(中文) 提升長者上肢功能訓練動機之互動復健裝置
論文名稱(英文) Using Social Interaction in Geriatric Rehabilitation of Upper Limb Fine Motor Skill to Improve Motivation in the Elderly
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業設計學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Design
學年度 107
學期 1
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 劉馥瑜
研究生(英文) Fu-Yu Liu
學號 P36054072
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 148頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳建旭
口試委員-林玲伊
口試委員-何正宇
口試委員-林彥呈
中文關鍵字 老年復健  手部訓練  內在動機  互動遊戲 
英文關鍵字 Health care  Geriatric rehabilitation  Intrinsic motivation  Social support  Interactive game 
學科別分類
中文摘要 人的生活與手部功能息息相關,然而研究顯示隨著年齡增長肌肉會跟著退化, 使得手部運動功能面臨著衰退的問題,當手部運動功能靈活度下降時,可能會導致無 法完成日常生活動作,需要倚靠他人生活,為避免年長者面臨這些問題,手部的訓練 成為一值得關注的議題。
現有復健中心有許多手部訓練或復健的方式,如物理治療、職能治療、電療、 繪畫治療等等。其中在復健中心的長者常用日常生活中的用品作為訓練工具,例如旋 轉門把、擺放杯子、抓握鑰匙、畫圖等,讓訓練結果可以應用在生活中; 而日照中心 的長者常透過一些活動進行手部和認知的訓練,例如打麻將等等,讓許多長者在玩樂 的過程中進行訓練手指的靈活度。
然而現有的訓練工具仍然有許多的限制,例如不斷重複單一動作讓訓練過程單 調,使得動機低落造成動作訓練不確實; 或者活動的學習門檻較高限制了特定群體, 例如打麻將,使得不了解規則或沒有興趣的長者無法一同參與,降低了復健的意願。 為了提高長者的復健動機,研究顯示可以藉由滿足內在動機讓長者持續的參與復健活 動,例如藉由遊戲的導入提供回饋與目標,並且透過遊戲設計提供不同的內容且降低 學習門檻,使得長者更有意願去參與復健活動。
因此本研究目標利用互動遊戲導入手部復健運動,藉由簡單藝術創作作為互動 遊戲內容,期待透過分享提供心理支持,進而提升訓練的內在動機。發展一個手部復 健互動裝置,藉由手部復健的動作(Spherical Grip and Pinch Grip)為輸入,隨著不同的訓 練動作及準確度創作不同的圖像,顯示於螢幕讓長者了解訓練狀況,並將創作透過分 享,讓家人、治療師可以了解訓練狀況。除了幫助恢復手部功能並且可視化訓練效果 外,在分享互動過程獲得他人肯定以達到心理的支持,培養對訓練的持續動機。研究 目的為在長者手部復健過程中,利用創作並分享對訓練動機的影響; 並且隨著患者動 機的提升與訓練參與度,探討手部功能復原效果。
本研究分為 (1)開發一手部復健互動裝置, (2)招募日照中心長者共 10 人,讓 長者使用原本的訓練與藝術互動復健裝置,一週二至三次,每次建議使用 10 分鐘,及(3)於實驗介入兩周,前後使用評估工具: IMI 內在動機量表、Purdue 手工能測驗、 Minnesota 手工能測驗、半結構式訪談等,作為資料的量測。
英文摘要 The quality of life is closely related to the functions of the hand. Research shows that with age, muscle functions will naturally deteriorate, decreasing dexterity and strength of one’s hands. This eventually leads to impairment of hand functions for the elderly, with them often requiring the assistance of others to continue with daily living. Therefore, in the prevention of more of such occurrences, rehabilitation of the upper limb is a topic worth discussing.
Rehabilitation centers conduct several upper limb training and rehabilitation methods upper limb training and rehabilitation methods such as physiotherapy, occupational therapy, electrotherapy and usage of art and creative mediums. Among these centers, some utilizes objects and activities in daily living into their rehabilitation program such as turning a door knob, placing a mug, holding a key or drawing a sketch, for the patients to be able to apply their training in their daily living. In addition, the daycare center employs other forms of activities for upper limb training and cognitive exercises, such as “mahjong”, a tile-based game where the elderly trains their fingers’ dexterity while enjoying the game.
However, all this training tools are still very limited. For example, constant repetition of a single action makes the rehabilitation process mundane, often leading to a lack of motivation and complacency in executing the rehabilitation properly. Other limitations include having a steep learning curve for specialized activities such as “mahjong”, where elderly that do not have interest or knowledge on how to play the game will be excluded from this activity, further reducing their drive to undergo rehabilitation. To increase their motivation to undergo rehabilitation, studies have shown that intrinsic motivation can be applied for this purpose. Examples include providing an aim and/or returns for their effort, using games and level design with varied contents to reduce the learning curve. These interventions have successfully motivated the elderly to actively participate in rehabilitation
Therefore, this study uses an interactive game to initiate the rehabilitation process through a simple creative medium, hoping to achieve emotional support through the act of sharing, bringing about intrinsic motivation. A hand training device will be developed and uses the rehabilitation exercises of training spherical grip and pinch grip as input. With a variation of exercises that couple movements with precision, a variety of artwork is generated as an output, allowing the elderly and caretakers to monitor and share their rehabilitation progress. Apart from being a medium that visualizes the efforts of the elderly, it also serves as a topic of interest to be shared and discussed, attaining emotional and social support which in turn develops their intrinsic motivation. The purpose of this study is to utilize the aspect of creativity and the act of sharing, during the rehabilitation process, to achieve a higher level of motivation and participation in rehabilitation, as well as to better understand the complex relationship between motivation and functional improvements from rehabilitation.
This study comprises three parts 1) development of a hand training device, 2) recruitment of a total of ten subjects, to undergo rehabilitation with the original training followed by intervention with RehabArt Prototype, thrice a week with ten minutes recommended duration and 3) a before-after assessment which includes: Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Purdue Pegboard Test (PPT), Minnesota Dexterity Test (MDT), and semi- structured interviews for data calculation and analysis.
論文目次 摘要 ....................................................................................................................................... ii
SUMMARY .........................................................................................................................iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................................................................vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................................................................vii
LIST OF TABLES ...............................................................................................................xi
LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................................................xii
LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS...............................................................xvi
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................... 17
1.1 Research Background ............................................................................................ 17
1.1.1 Aging Population and Problems ................................................................. 18
1.1.2 Sarcopenia and Frailty ................................................................................ 18
1.2 Research Motivation..............................................................................................19
1.2.1 The Significance of Geriatric Rehabilitation .............................................. 19
1.2.2 Low Motivation .......................................................................................... 21
1.2.3 Applying Games in Hands Rehabilitation .................................................. 23
1.3 Research Objectives .............................................................................................. 23
1.4 Research Framework ............................................................................................. 24
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................. 27
2.1 Upper Limbs Rehabilitation .................................................................................. 27
2.1.1 Theoretical Background of Rehabilitation ................................................. 27
2.2 Motivation and Social Support .............................................................................. 29
2.2.1 Motivation and SDT ................................................................................... 29
2.2.2 Social Support and Sharing Behavior ......................................................... 31
2.3 A Review of Gamified Upper Limb Rehabilitation .............................................. 32
2.3.1 Case 1: Hacking Occupational Therapy Tools for Center-based Care....... 32
2.3.2 Case 2: Designing Two-player Competitive Games for the Rehabilitation of Upper- Limb Motor Function after Stroke ...................................................... 34
2.3.3 Case 3: Resonance: An Interactive Tabletop Artwork for Co-located Group Rehabilitation and Play........................................................................................ 35
2.3.4 Case 4: The Integration of Art Therapy into Physical Rehabilitation in a Saudi Hospital ..................................................................................................... 36
2.3.5 Conclusion .................................................................................................. 37
2.4 Evaluation Tools.................................................................................................... 39
2.4.1 The Minnesota Dexterity Test (MDT)........................................................ 39
2.4.2 Purdue Pegboard Test (PPT) ...................................................................... 40
2.4.3 Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI).......................................................... 41
2.4.4 Semi-Structured Interview..........................................................................41
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................ 42
3.1 Research Process ................................................................................................... 42
3.2 Contextual Inquiry at the Rehabilitation Center .................................................... 43
3.2.1 Observation................................................................................................. 43
3.2.2 Interview with Therapists ........................................................................... 49
3.2.3 Conventional Apparatus for Fine Motor Skills .......................................... 51
3.3 Hand Rehabilitation Analysis ................................................................................ 56
3.3.1 Fine Motor Skills and Anatomy of the Hand ............................................. 56
3.3.2 Hand Movements Observed from Elderly..................................................58
3.3.3 Motion Mapping ......................................................................................... 59
3.4 Goals of this Research ........................................................................................... 60
3.5 RehabArt Prototype I............................................................................................. 62
3.5.1 Idea Generation........................................................................................... 62
3.5.2 Game Content and Knob Design ................................................................ 64
3.5.3 Usability Test and Feedback....................................................................... 70
3.6 RehabArt Prototype II ........................................................................................... 71
3.6.1 Concept of RehabArt II .............................................................................. 71
3.6.2 Game Content ............................................................................................. 73
3.6.3 Hardware Development .............................................................................. 77
3.7 Feasibility Test ...................................................................................................... 79
3.7.1 Participants ................................................................................................. 79
3.7.2 Setting.........................................................................................................80
3.7.3 Procedure .................................................................................................... 80
3.7.4 Evaluation...................................................................................................81
3.8 System Refinement................................................................................................ 81
3.8.1 New Knob Design ...................................................................................... 81
3.8.2 Game Content Refinement ......................................................................... 82
CHAPTER 4 IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................... 86
4.1 Hardware Implementation ..................................................................................... 86
4.1.1 Wooden Box ............................................................................................... 86
4.1.2 Display........................................................................................................87
4.1.3 Knob Development.....................................................................................87
4.1.4 System Schematics ..................................................................................... 88
4.2 Software Implementation ...................................................................................... 90
4.2.1 Input Control (Arduino) ............................................................................. 90
4.2.2 Output Control (Unity) ............................................................................... 91
4.3 Integration.............................................................................................................. 92
CHAPTER 5 EVALUATION.............................................................................................96
5.1 Experiment Design ................................................................................................ 96
5.1.1 Participants ................................................................................................. 96
5.1.2 Material....................................................................................................... 97
5.1.3 Equipment................................................................................................. 100
5.1.4 Setting.......................................................................................................100
5.1.5 Procedure .................................................................................................. 104
CHAPTER 6 RESULT ...................................................................................................... 108
6.1 Feasibility Test Result ......................................................................................... 108
6.1.1 Motivation Outcomes ............................................................................... 108
6.1.2 Interview Feedback................................................................................... 111
6.2 5-Weeks Evaluation Study .................................................................................. 112
6.2.1 Motivation Outcomes ............................................................................... 112
6.2.2 Functional Outcomes................................................................................118
6.2.3 Game Progress .......................................................................................... 121
6.2.4 Elderly Interview Feedback......................................................................124
6.2.5 Caregiver Interview Feedback..................................................................128
CHAPTER 7 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ......................................................... 130
7.1 Motivation Outcome............................................................................................ 130
7.2 Functional Outcome ............................................................................................ 132
7.3 Design Recommendation..................................................................................... 132
7.3.1 Sustaining Motivation .............................................................................. 132
7.3.2 Exergame Design for Elderly ................................................................... 134
7.3.3 Effectiveness and Meaning of Training Content ...................................... 135
7.4 Conclusion and Contribution of this Study ......................................................... 136
7.5 Research Limitation............................................................................................. 136
REFERENCES .................................................................................................................. 138
Appendix A Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (Pretest) ....................................................... 145
Appendix B Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (Posttest) .................................................... 146
Appendix C Semistructured-interview with Participant (Posttest) .................................. 147
Appendix D Semistructured-interview with Caregiver(POST) ....................................... 148
參考文獻 江瑞菁. (2011). 自我決定數位學習環境的環境要素之初探. 人文暨社會科學期刊, 7(2).
黃珮瑄. (2009). 意志量表應用於精神分裂症個案的信效度. 成功大學職能治療學系學 位論文, 1-62.
楊明山, & 潘璦琬. (2007). 智能障礙者手功能表現之研究. 特殊教育季刊
Aagaard, P., Suetta, C., Caserotti, P., Magnusson, S. P., & Kjæ r, M. (2010). Role of the nervous system in sarcopenia and muscle atrophy with aging: strength training as a countermeasure. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 20(1), 49- 64.
Alyami, A. (2009). The integration of art therapy into physical rehabilitation in a Saudi hospital. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 36(5), 282-288.
Antal, A. (2013). Using social gaming to improve stroke patients motivation and engagement in rehabilitation therapy.
Arya, K. N., Pandian, S., Verma, R., & Garg, R. K. (2011). Movement therapy induced neural reorganization and motor recovery in stroke: A review. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 15(4), 528-537. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2011.01.023
Aström, M., Adolfsson, R., & Asplund, K. (1993). Major depression in stroke patients. A 3-year longitudinal study. Stroke, 24(7), 976-982. doi:10.1161/01.str.24.7.976
Basteris, A., Nijenhuis, S. M., Stienen, A. H., Buurke, J. H., Prange, G. B., & Amirabdollahian, F. (2014). Training modalities in robot-mediated upper limb rehabilitation in stroke: a framework for classification based on a systematic review. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 11(1), 111. doi:10.1186/1743-0003-11-111
Boden-Albala, B., Litwak, E., Elkind, M., Rundek, T., & Sacco, R. (2005). Social isolation and outcomes post stroke. Neurology, 64(11), 1888-1892.
Bottomley, J. M., & Lewis, C. B. (2003). Geriatric rehabilitation: A clinical approach: Appleton & Lange.
Burke, J. W., McNeill, M., Charles, D., Morrow, P. J., Crosbie, J., & McDonough, S. (2010). Augmented reality games for upper-limb stroke rehabilitation. Paper presented at the Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-GAMES), 2010 Second International Conference on.
CAOT.ACE. (2016). What is Occupational Therapy? Retrieved from https://www.caot.ca/site/aboutot/whatisot?nav=sidebar
Colby, S. L., & Ortman, J. M. (2017). Projections of the size and composition of the US population: 2014 to 2060: Population estimates and projections.
Cuffaro, M. A. (2011). Fine motor skills Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development (pp. 657-657): Springer.
Damush, T. M., Plue, L., Bakas, T., Schmid, A., & Williams, L. S. (2007). Barriers and facilitators to exercise among stroke survivors. Rehabilitation Nursing, 32(6), 253- 262.
de Jong Gierveld, J., Van Tilburg, T., & Dykstra, P. (2016). Loneliness and social isolation.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2011). Self-determination theory. Handbook of theories of social psychology, 1, 416-433.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Motivation, personality, and development within embedded social contexts: An overview of self-determination theory. The Oxford handbook of human motivation, 85-107.
Duckworth, J., Mumford, N., Caeyenberghs, K., Eldridge, R., Mayson, S., Thomas, P. R., . . . Wilson, P. H. (2015). Resonance: an interactive tabletop artwork for co- located group rehabilitation and play. Paper presented at the International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction.
Fleishman, E. A. (1954). A note on the Minnesota Rate of Manipulation Test as a time limit test. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 14(1), 156-160.
Flores, E., Tobon, G., Cavallaro, E., Cavallaro, F. I., Perry, J. C., & Keller, T. (2008). Improving patient motivation in game development for motor deficit rehabilitation. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology, Yokohama, Japan.
Fried, L. P., Tangen, C. M., Walston, J., Newman, A. B., Hirsch, C., Gottdiener, J., . . . Burke, G. (2001). Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56(3), M146- M157.
Fylan, F. (2005). Semi-structured interviewing. A handbook of research methods for clinical and health psychology, 65-78.
Gable, S. L., Reis, H. T., Impett, E. A., & Asher, E. R. (2004). What do you do when things go right? The intrapersonal and interpersonal benefits of sharing positive events. Journal of personality and Social Psychology, 87(2), 228.
Glass, T. A., & Maddox, G. L. (1992). The quality and quantity of social support: Stroke recovery as psycho-social transition. Social Science & Medicine, 34(11), 1249- 1261. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(92)90317-J
Glass, T. A., Matchar, D. B., Belyea, M., & Feussner, J. R. (1993). Impact of social support on outcome in first stroke. Stroke, 24(1), 64-70.
Hafsteinsdottir, T., Algra, A., Kappelle, L., Grypdonck, M., & on, b. (2005). Neurodevelopmental treatment after stroke: a comparative study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 76(6), 788-792. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2004.042267
Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., Baker, M., Harris, T., & Stephenson, D. (2015). Loneliness and Social Isolation as Risk Factors for Mortality. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(2), 227-237. doi:10.1177/1745691614568352
Holtzblatt, K., Wendell, J. B., & Wood, S. (2004). Rapid contextual design: a how-to guide to key techniques for user-centered design: Elsevier.
Instrument, L. (2002). Purdue Pegboard Test: User Instructions. Lafayette, IN: Lafayette Instrument.
Johansson, S., Ytterberg, C., Claesson, I. M., Lindberg, J., Hillert, J., Andersson, M., . . . von Koch, L. (2007). High concurrent presence of disability in multiple sclerosis. Journal of neurology, 254(6), 767.
Kierkegaard, M., Einarsson, U., Gottberg, K., von Koch, L., & Holmqvist, L. W. (2012). The relationship between walking, manual dexterity, cognition and activity/participation in persons with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 18(5), 639-646.
Knecht, S., Hesse, S., & Oster, P. (2011). Rehabilitation After Stroke. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 108(36), 600-606. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2011.0600
Krakauer, J. W. (2006). Motor learning: its relevance to stroke recovery and neurorehabilitation. Curr Opin Neurol, 19(1), 84-90.
Lamers, I., Maris, A., Severijns, D., Dielkens, W., Geurts, S., Van Wijmeersch, B., & Feys, P. (2016). Upper limb rehabilitation in people with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 30(8), 773-793.
Langhorne, P., Coupar, F., & Pollock, A. (2009). Motor recovery after stroke: a systematic review. The Lancet Neurology, 8(8), 741-754. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474- 4422(09)70150-4
Lewis, J. E., & Neider, M. B. (2017). Designing wearable technology for an aging population. Ergonomics in Design, 25(3), 4-10.
Lippert, L. S. (2006). Clinical Kinesiology and Anatomy (4th ed.): FA Davis
Martin, J. A., Ramsay, J., Hughes, C., Peters, D. M., & Edwards, M. G. (2015). Age and grip strength predict hand dexterity in adults. PLoS ONE, 10(2), e0117598.
McAuley, E., Duncan, T., & Tammen, V. V. (1989). Psychometric Properties of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory in a Competitive Sport Setting: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 60(1), 48-58. doi:10.1080/02701367.1989.10607413
Ministry of the Interior, R. O. C. (2018). 老年人口突破 14% 內政部:臺灣正式邁入高 齡社會. Retrieved from
https://www.moi.gov.tw/chi/chi_news/news_detail.aspx?type_code=02&sn=13723
Nguyen, T. N. T., Karwita, S., Liangkun, Y., & Yongjie, S. (2018). Hacking Occupational Therapy Tools for Center-based Care. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 19th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility.
Nichols-Larsen, D. S., Clark, P. C., Zeringue, A., Greenspan, A., & Blanton, S. (2005). Factors Influencing Stroke Survivors’ Quality of Life During Subacute Recovery. Stroke, 36(7), 1480-1484. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000170706.13595.4f
Nicholson, S., Sniehotta, F. F., Wijck, F., Greig, C. A., Johnston, M., McMurdo, M. E., . . . Mead, G. E. (2013). A systematic review of perceived barriers and motivators to physical activity after stroke. International Journal of Stroke, 8(5), 357-364.
Northcott, S., Moss, B., Harrison, K., & Hilari, K. (2015). A systematic review of the impact of stroke on social support and social networks: associated factors and patterns of change. Clinical Rehabilitation, 30(8), 811-831. doi:10.1177/0269215515602136
Phillips, S. M. (2015). Nutritional supplements in support of resistance exercise to counter age-related sarcopenia. Advances in Nutrition, 6(4), 452-460.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American psychologist, 55(1), 68.
Ryan, R. M., Mims, V., & Koestner, R. (1983). Relation of reward contingency and interpersonal context to intrinsic motivation: A review and test using cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of personality and Social Psychology, 45(4), 736.
Sansone, C., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The search for optimal motivation and performance: Elsevier.
Santisteban, L., Térémetz, M., Bleton, J.-P., Baron, J.-C., Maier, M. A., & Lindberg, P. G. (2016). Upper Limb Outcome Measures Used in Stroke Rehabilitation Studies: A Systematic Literature Review. PLoS ONE, 11(5), e0154792. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0154792
Skjæ ret, N., Nawaz, A., Morat, T., Schoene, D., Helbostad, J. L., & Vereijken, B. (2016). Exercise and rehabilitation delivered through exergames in older adults: An integrative review of technologies, safety and efficacy. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 85(1), 1-16. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2015.10.008
Snijders, T., Verdijk, L. B., & van Loon, L. J. (2009). The impact of sarcopenia and exercise training on skeletal muscle satellite cells. Ageing research reviews, 8(4), 328-338.
Standen, P. J., Threapleton, K., Connell, L., Richardson, A., Brown, D. J., Battersby,
S., . . . Platts, F. (2015). Patients' Use of a Home-Based Virtual Reality System to Provide Rehabilitation of the Upper Limb Following Stroke. Physical Therapy, 95(3), 350-359. doi:10.2522/ptj.20130564
Steultjens, E. M., Dekker, J., Bouter, L. M., Jellema, S., Bakker, E. B., & Van Den Ende, C. H. (2004). Occupational therapy for community dwelling elderly people: a systematic review. Age and ageing, 33(5), 453-460.
Steultjens, E. M. J., Dekker, J., Bouter, L. M., van de Nes, J. C. M., Cup, E. H. C., & van den Ende, C. H. M. (2003). Occupational Therapy for Stroke Patients. A Systematic Review, 34(3), 676-687. doi:10.1161/01.str.0000057576.77308.30
Surrey, L. R., Nelson, K., Delelio, C., Mathie-Majors, D., Omel-Edwards, N., Shumaker, J., & Thurber, G. (2003). A comparison of performance outcomes between the Minnesota Rate of Manipulation Test and the Minnesota Manual Dexterity Test. Work, 20(2), 97-102.
Teixeira, P. J., Carraça, E. V., Markland, D., Silva, M. N., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: a systematic review. International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity, 9(1), 78.
Thomson, K., Pollock, A., Bugge, C., & Brady, M. (2014). Commercial gaming devices for stroke upper limb rehabilitation: a systematic review. International Journal of Stroke, 9(4), 479-488.
Tiffin, J., & Asher, E. J. (1948). The Purdue Pegboard: norms and studies of reliability and validity. Journal of applied psychology, 32(3), 234.
Valtorta, N. K., Kanaan, M., Gilbody, S., Ronzi, S., & Hanratty, B. (2016). Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for coronary heart disease and stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal observational studies. Heart, 102(13), 1009-1016. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308790
Veerbeek, J. M., van Wegen, E., van Peppen, R., van der Wees, P. J., Hendriks, E., Rietberg, M., & Kwakkel, G. (2014). What is the evidence for physical therapy poststroke? A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 9(2), e87987.
Walston, J. D. (2012). Sarcopenia in older adults. Current opinion in rheumatology, 24(6), 623.
Wang, P., Koh, G. C.-H., Boucharenc, C. G., & Yen, C.-C. (2017). Designing Two-player Competitive Games for the Rehabilitation of Upper-Limb Motor Function after Stroke. 2201-2209. doi:10.1145/3027063.3053069
Wang, P., Koh, G. C. H., Boucharenc, C. G., Xu, T. M., & Yen, C. C. (2017). Developing a tangible gaming board for post-stroke upper limb functional training. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction.
Wang, P., Koh, R. K. C., Boucharenc, C. G., & Yen, C.-C. (2016). Lights Out: An Interactive Tangible Game for Training of Post-Stroke Reaching. 1937-1944. doi:10.1145/2851581.2892422
Wells, J. L., Seabrook, J. A., Stolee, P., Borrie, M. J., & Knoefel, F. (2003). State of the art in geriatric rehabilitation. Part I: Review of frailty and comprehensive geriatric assessment1. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84(6), 890-897.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2023-12-19起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2023-12-19起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw