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系統識別號 U0026-0503201603450800
論文名稱(中文) 探討問題解決途徑–以幼兒相關設計問題為例
論文名稱(英文) The bridge between problems and solutions in design – taking a toddler’s case as an example
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業設計學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Design
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 黃申貴
研究生(英文) Shen-Kuei Huang
學號 P36024043
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 166頁
口試委員 口試委員-陸定邦
口試委員-楊佳翰
指導教授-周君瑞
中文關鍵字 設計問題  問題解決  問題界定  解法發想  TRIZ 
英文關鍵字 Design problem  Problem solving  Problem identification  Solution generation  TRIZ 
學科別分類
中文摘要 中 文 摘 要
設計領域的問題解決(problem solving)重視想法概念化的導向,思考具體的解決方式,以作為後續產品開發之概念構想。設計師往往會依其過往經驗與創意思考,作為發想概念以解決問題。然而,截至目前為止,在問題界定到解法發想的設計過程中仍有鴻溝,而設計問題與設計解法之間仍有斷層。因此,如何協助設計者從問題產生解法是值得探討的議題。
本研究可區分為六階段。第一階段為藉由觀察與訪談,發現幼兒在不同場域的問題,以蒐集幼兒相關之設計問題。第二階段為運用分類相關之設計方法,將問題依屬性作分類。第三階段為訂定準則並參考本研究之問題分類結果,以篩選出重要性問題。第四階段為依據問題樣本,蒐集現有市面產品與父母親的解決方式。第五階段為參考TRIZ的創新原則,推演問題與解法之間的關係,以提出問題解決途徑。第六階段為邀請主修工業設計系的學生運用本研究提出的問題解決途徑在設計發想的過程。驗證問題解決途徑之效用,並探討問題、途徑與解法之間的對應關係。
本研究根據上述結果,提出十一項問題解決途徑分別為:「使其模組化」、「改變局部」、「合併」、「預先緩衝」、「事先預防」、「可調整/改變」、「滿足其能力與喜好」、「導入隔絕物/中介物」、「移除/修改造成問題的部分」、「減少敏感/ 增強抗害」與「限制問題的發生」,供設計學習者能針對設計問題,運用適當的途徑發想設計解法。
英文摘要 ABSTRACT
Problem solving in Industrial Design is focused on the realization of ideas. In the end, the ideas are applied as practical design solutions for product development. Designers generate ideas to solve problems based on their past experiences and creative thinking. However, there has been a gap between problem identification and solution generation within the design process. Thus, it is reasonable to study how designers find solutions.
In addition, there are six phases in this study. In the first phase, design problems related to toddlers in diverse scenarios are collected through observation and interviews. In the second phase, design problems are classified according to attributes by Card Sorting and the KJ method. In the third phase, important design problems are selected based on evaluation criteria and problem classification. In the fourth phase, solutions from both existing products and parents are collected according to problem samples. The fifth phase proposes the problem-solving approaches by exploration of the relationship between design problems and solutions referring TRIZ inventive principles. In the final phase, university students were involved in the verification as participants to use the problem-solving approaches in the design process in order to discuss the correspondence among problems, approaches and solutions.
Based on the results, eleven problem-solving approaches were proposed in this study and designated as follows: “Making it modular”, “Changing Parts of it”, “Merging”, “Pre-buffering”, “Advancing Prevention”, “Making it Adjustable or Changeable”, “Meeting User Preferences and Ability”, “Importing Isolated Objects or Mediators”, “Removing or Modifying Parts Causing Problems”, “Reducing Sensitivity or Enhancing Anti-harm”, and “Limiting Problems Occurring”. Consequently, design novices can use the approaches to generate solutions according to specific design problems.
論文目次 CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ...............................I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .........................IV
CONTENTS ................................V
LIST OF TABLES ..........................VIII
LIST OF FIGURES .............................IX
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION.........................1
1.1 Research Background.................................1
1.2 Motivations.....................................3
1.3 Purpose.......................................4
1.4 Research scope and limitations .......................... 5
1.5 Organization of the thesis...............................7
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW......................8
2.1 Problem-solving process..............................8
2.2 Understanding and observation of toddlers’ behavior...............9
2.2.1 Observation of toddlers’ behavior.....................10
2.2.2 Cognitive development of toddlers.....................11
2.2.3 How to define a severe problem......................11
2.3 Behavioral observations and records related research...............12
2.3.1 Observation Research Methods.......................12
2.3.2 Sampling method related to direct observation...............13
2.4 Product design for toddlers............................14
2.5 Methods of sorting and screening design problems................15
2.5.1 Grounded Theory..............................15
2.5.2 Card Sorting................................16
2.5.3 Kawakita Jiro Method, KJ Method.................... 16
2.5.4 Cluster Analysis............................. 18
2.5.5 Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).....................19
2.5.6 Metrics for measuring ideation effectiveness................20
2.5.7 Concept Selection in Flexible Design Strategies..............21
2.6 Problem-solving related research.........................22
2.6.1 Problem-solving approach of design problems...............22
2.6.2 The Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ).............23
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES.......27
CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH RESULTS AND ANALYSIS.........33
4.1 Selecting research samples.............................33
4.1.1 Collection and definition of design problems...............33
4.1.2 Classification of problems according to properties.............35
4.1.3 Criteria of problem evaluation........................39
4.2 Collection of existing products and solutions for parents..............44
4.2.1 Collection of existing products.......................44
4.2.2 Collect of solutions form parents...................45
4.3 The relationship between problems and solutions................45
4.3.1 Analysis of problems and solutions.....................46
4.3.2 The establishment of problem-solving approaches..............49
CHAPTER 5 VERIFIVATION.........................54
5.1 Verification I: Explore the utility of problem-solving approaches.........54
5.1.1 Verification procedure............................54
5.1.2 Analysis of results.........................57
5.2 Verification II : Explore the correspondence between problems and problem-solving approaches....................................71
5.2.1 Verification II procedure..........................71
5.2.2 Analysis of results..........................74
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS.........................82
6.1 Accomplishments.................................82
6.2 Suggestion.....................................87
REFERENCES...................................92
APPENDIX.....................................96
VITA.....................................168
參考文獻 REFERENCES

Chinese section
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English section
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 Webb, A. (2002). TRIZ: an inventive approach to invention. Engineering management journal, 12(3), 117-124.
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