||Parental Perspectives on the Adoption of Mobile Learning Applications with In-App Advertisements in Taiwan
||Parental Perspectives on the Adoption of Mobile Learning Applications with In-App Advertisements in Taiwan
||Institute of International Management
Theory of planned behavior
Children online privacy protection act
Partial least squares
The present study investigates the parental perspectives on the adoption of mobile learning applications with in-app advertisement for their children enlisted in elementary schools. Mobile learning is a new method of learning via the utilization of ubiquitous devices that can be accessed anywhere at any time. Although mobile devices and the usage of applications are abundant, parental readiness for allowing their children to utilize mLearning to learn and develop new skills has not been explored in Taiwan. The research is based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to explain parental attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs towards intention in adoption. Partial least squares (PLS) is used to analyze the collected data from 167 parents, whose children are between the ages of 5 and 13 studying in the city of Tainan, Taiwan. The findings show that TPB explained parental attitudes towards adoption of mLearning with in-app advertisement quite well. Moreover, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control influenced their intention to adopt mLearning with in-app advertisement.
TABLE OF CONTENTS III
LIST OF TABLES VII
LIST OF FIGURES IX
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background. 1
1.2 The Rise in Usage of Mobile Learning Applications. 2
1.3 Children and Interest. 3
1.4 Youth Market as an Opportunity. 3
1.5 Research Objectives. 4
1.6 Research Contribution. 5
1.7 Research Project and Scope Study. 6
1.8 Research Procedure. 7
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 The Evolution of Electronic Learning. 8
2.2 Mobile Learning Market Size. 10
2.3 Opportunity of Monetizing Through In-App Advertisement. 11
2.3.1 Mobile Application Banner Advertisement (MABA). 12
2.3.2 Mobile Application Interstitial Advertisement (MAIA). 12
2.3.3 Rich Media Mobile Advertisement (RMMA). 13
2.4 Privacy and Behavioral Targeting. 13
2.5 Marketing Practices and its Negative Effects on Children. 15
2.6 Laws Protecting Children from Marketers in Western Countries 18
2.6.1 United States’ Children Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA). 18
2.7.2 European and North American Laws Protecting Children. 20
2.7.3 Taiwan Protecting Children against Advertisement. 21
2.7.4 Issues When Advertising to Children. 23
2.8 Theory of Planned Behavior. 24
2.8 Relationship between Variables and Hypotheses Construct. 26
2.8.1 Attitudinal Beliefs toward Attitude. 26
2.8.2. Perceived Risk toward Attitude. 26
2.8.3. Perceived Usefulness toward Attitude. 27
2.8.4. Perceived Parental Readiness to Subjective Norm. 27
2.8.5. Perceived Child Readiness To Subjective Norms. 28
2.8.6. Perceived Child Self-efficacy toward Perceived Behavioral Control. 29
2.8.7. Perceived Child Learning Autonomy toward Perceived Behavioral Control. 29
2.8.8. Attitudes toward Behavioral Intention. 30
2.8.9. Subjective Norms toward Behavioral Intention. 30
2.8.10. Perceived Behavioral Control toward Behavioral Intention. 31
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 32
3.1 Research Framework. 32
3.2 Summary of Hypotheses. 33
3.3 Questionnaire Design. 33
3.4 Construct measurement. 34
3.5 Control Variables. 40
3.6 Sampling Plan. 40
3.3.1 Pilot Test 41
3.7 Data Analysis Procedure. 42
3.6.1 Descriptive Statistical Analysis. 43
3.6.2 Common Factor Analysis. 43
3.6.3 Structural Equation Analysis. 44
3.6.3 Partial Least Squares Path Modeling. 44
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS 45
4.1 Data Collection. 45
4.2 Descriptive Respondents’ Characteristics. 46
4.3. Descriptive Statistical Analysis 47
4.4 Confirmatory Factor Analysis. 52
4.5 Common Method Bias. 55
4.3.1 Path Coefficients. 56
4.6 Hypothesis Testing. 57
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 60
5.1 Discussion. 60
5.1.1 Perceived Risk and Attitude toward Adoption of mLearning with In-app Advertisement. 61
5.1.2. Perceived usefulness toward attitude. 62
5.1.3. Perceived Parental Readiness to Subjective Norm. 62
5.1.4. Perceived Child Readiness to Subjective Norms. 62
5.1.5. Perceived Child’s Self-Efficacy toward Perceived Behavioral Control. 63
5.1.6. Perceived Child’s Learning Autonomy toward Perceived Behavioral Control. 63
5.1.7. Attitudes toward Behavioral Intention. 63
5.1.8. Subjective Norms toward Behavioral Intentions. 64
5.1.9. Perceived Behavioral Control toward Behavioral Intention. 64
5.2 Theoretical Implications. 64
5.3 Practical Implications. 65
5.4. Limitation and Future Reference. 66
Appendix 1: Finalized Questionnaire. 74
Appendix 2: Smart PLS-SEM model. 78
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