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系統識別號 U0026-0502201422125200
論文名稱(中文) 臺灣西南部西部麓山帶甲仙地區上新世古冷泉自生性碳酸鹽及其有孔蟲群集之研究
論文名稱(英文) Study of authigenic carbonates and associated foraminiferal assemblages in the Pliocene paleoseeps of Chiahsien area in Western Foothills, southwestern Taiwan
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 102
學期 1
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 簡至暐
研究生(英文) Chih-Wei Chien
電子信箱 blattus@gmail.com
學號 L48941012
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 211頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊耿明
共同指導教授-黃奇瑜
口試委員-魏國彥
口試委員-楊燦堯
口試委員-游鎮烽
中文關鍵字 臺灣西南部  西部麓山帶  古冷泉  自生性碳酸鹽  有孔蟲 
英文關鍵字 SW Taiwan  Western Foothills  paleoseeps  authigenic carbonates  foraminifera 
學科別分類
中文摘要 在臺灣西南部高雄市甲仙區的地區出露許多保存在早上新世前陸盆地層序中鹽水坑頁岩的白雲石質自生性碳酸鹽結塊,碳同位素特徵、形貌與伴生的化能共生性二枚貝化石揭示其為甲烷冷泉來源。自生性碳酸鹽結塊可分為三類:(1)大型角礫狀團塊(δ13C值範圍為-49.57~-38.20‰,δ18O值範圍為1.59~4.25‰)、(2)巨型煙囪(δ13C值範圍為-43.14~-17.73‰,δ18O值範圍為-7.64~3.36‰)及(3)細管狀網絡(δ13C值範圍為-43.51~5.91‰,δ18O值範圍為-6.90~-3.57‰)。不同的形狀、尺寸、在地層中的位置以及碳同位素組成來自於逸散甲烷不同程度的通量和不同的流動型式(流型)。大型角礫狀團塊可能來自擴散式甲烷並形成於較深部,巨型煙囪可標誌出甲烷的主要通路(斷層)和噴發口之位置,細管狀網絡則沿著層面或岩石裂隙發育,可伴隨著著大型角礫狀團塊或巨型煙囪而生,亦可能由較後期/微弱的殘留地質流體所形成,後者具有較高的碳同位素值並遠離大型角礫狀團塊及巨型煙囪出露之露頭。
與同樣屬於鹽水坑頁岩但無冷泉跡象的對照組相比較,在大型角礫狀團塊之間或周邊小於30公分範圍內的泥質圍岩中,碳酸鈣(CaCO3)含量非常低(小於1.03%)且膠結質殼有孔蟲比例甚高(佔底棲群落的80.83~100%),石灰質殼體(無論底棲性或浮游性)則甚少甚至完全缺乏,然而,超過50公分以外的圍岩則迅速變為類似「正常海洋沈積物」的碳酸鈣含量(3.4~7.8%),膠結質殼比例也降至整體群落的12.78%以下。在巨大煙囪型結塊周邊60公分以內的圍岩也呈現反常的碳酸鈣含量(7.70~28.20%)與膠結質殼有孔蟲所佔底棲群落比例(77.02~93.94%),而距離超過60公分者則呈現較類似「正常海洋」組成(碳酸鈣含量6.66~9.88%,膠結質殼有孔蟲所佔底棲群落比例4.68~28.66%)。細管狀網絡型結塊周邊與之間的圍岩則類似於對照組。石灰質殼有孔蟲化石的缺乏肇因於埋葬學活躍區間內孔隙水酸化的現象,此酸化作用係甲烷冷泉環境中經由硫化氫(甲烷無氧氧化作用的產物之一)有氧氧化作用所驅動與促進。本研究之結果指出有孔蟲化石群落可受到足夠強度之冷泉活動相關的化學-埋葬學作用影響,因此,它們可以在僅數十公分內的尺度內記錄古冷泉中的地球化學介面(埋葬學活躍區間、甲烷無氧氧化作用盛行之硫酸鹽—甲烷反應介面)之位置與遷移情形。
英文摘要 Several dolomitic authigenic carbonate concretions were preserved in the Yenshuikeng Shale of the Early Pliocene foreland sequence in the Chiahsien District, Kaohsiung City, southwestern Taiwan. Carbon isotopic signatures and the morphology of these carbonates and associated chemosymbiotic bivalve fossils reveal their methane seep origin. There are three types of authigenic carbonate concretions: (1) massive brecciated blocks (MBBs; δ13C = -49.57~-38.20‰; δ18O = 1.59~4.25‰); (2) giant chimneys (GCs; δ13C = -43.14~-17.73‰; δ18O = -7.64~3.36‰); and (3) slender pipe networks (SPNs; δ13C = -43.51~5.91‰; δ18O = -6.90~-3.57‰). Different shapes, sizes, stratigraphic positions, and carbon isotopic compositions are due to different flux and flow pattern of discharging methane. MBBs may be derived from diffusion of methane and formed in deeper positions, whereas GCs mark the locations of feeder faults and main outlets of methane emission. SPNs formed along fractures or bedding planes; they were (1) accessories of MBBs and GCs, or (2) products of minor releases of residual geofluids; the later one yields highe δ13C and is away from the outcrop where MBBs and GCs expose.
Compared to the non-seep controls in the Yenshuiken Formation, muddy host rocks that were between or <30 cm around MBBs yield low CaCO3 contents (<1.03%), high percentages of agglutinated foraminifera (80.83~100%), and almost no calcareous foraminifera (both benthic and planktonic); however, host rocks that were >50 cm away from MBBs yield “normal marine” assemblages (fair CaCO3 content, 3.4-7.8%, and low agglutinated foraminifera percentages to total assemblages, <12.78%). Host rocks that were <60 cm from GCs also yield abnormal assemblages (high CaCO3 content, 7.70-28.20%, and high agglutinated foraminifera percentages to benthic assemblages, 77.02-93.94%), whereas those >60cm away from GCs yielded normal assemblages (slightly high CaCO3 content, 6.66-9.88%, and low agglutinated foraminifera percentages to benthic assemblages, 4.68-28.66%). Host rocks around and between SPNs yield consistent characteristics at control sites. The absence of calcareous foraminiferal fossils may be due to pore water acidification within the taphonomically active zone, which is triggered and accelerated by aerobic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (a product of anaerobic oxidation of methane) in the methane seep environments. The observations of this research indicates that foraminiferal assemblages can be taphonomically influenced by adequate methane seep activities; therefore, they can reflect and record geochemical interface (e.g. taphonomically active zone; sulfate-methane interface where anaerobic oxidation of methane occurs) shifts in a scale of only few decimeters within paleoseeps.
論文目次 摘要 i
致謝 v
目錄 vi
表目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 地質背景與前人研究 7
2.1 大地構造與區域地質背景 7
2.2 四德巷地區之冷泉軟體動物化石群 10
2.3 有孔蟲在冷泉環境中的相關研究 11
第三章 研究材料與方法 14
3.1 自生性碳酸鹽結塊 16
3.2 自生性碳酸鹽結塊之圍岩樣本 17
3.2.1 有孔蟲化石之處理與研究方法 18
3.2.2 圍岩標本之碳酸鈣含量與穩定碳氧同位素 22
第四章 研究結果 24
4.1 自生性碳酸鹽結塊 24
4.1.1 野外觀察與分類 24
4.1.2 礦物組成 26
4.1.3 碳氧同位素組成 28
4.2 有孔蟲化石群落 32
4.2.1 底棲性有孔蟲化石組合 32
4.2.2 殼體組成比例 37
4.3 圍岩所含之無機碳 40
4.3.1 碳酸鈣含量 40
4.3.2 無機碳之碳氧穩定同位素組成 41
第五章 討論 44
5.1 自生性碳酸鹽結塊 44
5.1.1 古冷泉遺跡之確證:碳氧同位素與化學能共生性化石證據 44
5.1.2 白雲石含量 47
5.1.3 各種自生性碳酸鹽結塊形貌之意義與重建古冷泉環境 49
5.2 有孔蟲化石群落與圍岩所含無機碳 52
5.2.1 底棲性有孔蟲化石組合與歧異度 52
5.2.2 殼體材質比例之埋葬學意義 57
第六章 結論 65
參考文獻 69
圖 版 88
附 錄 103
附錄一 冷泉環境有孔蟲相關研究列表 104
附錄二 精查樣本與對照組底棲性有孔蟲化石列表 111
附錄三 底棲性有孔蟲系統分類與描述 113
附錄四 底棲性有孔蟲化石圖版 164
附錄五 有孔蟲分類學參考文獻 177
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