進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-0502201411244000
論文名稱(中文) 以碳足跡與成本評估物流業之最佳運輸模式
論文名稱(英文) Optimal transport mode for logistics based on the carbon footprint, cost and time value
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 交通管理科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Transportation & Communication Management Science
學年度 102
學期 1
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 林思萱
研究生(英文) Szu-Hsuan Lin
學號 r56014044
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 130頁
口試委員 指導教授-張瀞之
口試委員-林珮珺
口試委員-謝金原
中文關鍵字 低溫物流  碳足跡  時間成本  易腐性產品  運輸成本  碳稅 
英文關鍵字 Cold chain logistics  Carbon footprint  Time cost  Perishable product  Transportation cost  Carbon tax 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本文以國際貿易之常溫與低溫物流為主體,探討貨櫃從出口地倉庫運輸至進口地倉庫所產生之碳足跡與成本。因低溫物流具有時間成本之特性,本文將時間成本做為成本之重要考量之一,之後納入碳稅做進一步的成本分析,比較碳稅對物流業者所選擇之運輸模式有何影響。本文之運輸路線以台灣之楊梅廠與台中廠做為出口地倉庫,運輸貨櫃至德國法蘭克福及中國西安為例,而運具模式包含純公路運輸(使用大型、中型、小型貨車)、鐵公路複合運輸及水公路複合運輸,各種運輸模式之組合形成18種物流情境。本文碳足跡以SimaPro之資料庫為參考來源,建構公路貨車、鐵路貨車、內陸水運船及貨櫃船之碳足跡模型,成本包含營運成本、時間成本及碳稅模型,本文評估出碳足跡最小化及成本最小化之情境,提供物流業者最佳運輸模式之參考。
研究結果顯示:(1) 常溫與低溫物流中,複合運輸模式相較於純公路運輸模式具有環境效益 (2) 海運部分使用大型船舶較具環境效益 (3) 在台灣,鐵公路複合運輸較適宜使用在長距離之貨物運輸 (4) 水公路複合運輸模式因速度太慢導致時間價值過高,因此在低溫物流中不具優勢 (5) 碳稅之實施將促進物流業者實施複合運輸策略,尤其低溫物流中具有顯著效果 (6) 綜合鐵公路與水公路複合運輸之比較結果,鐵公路複合運輸無論在碳足跡或成本上皆較水公路複合運輸具有優勢。
英文摘要 This study analyzes the carbon footprint and cost of normal temperature and cold chain logistics. The research area includes Yangmei and Taichung in Taiwan the as locations of the export warehouses, and Frankfurt in Germany and Xian in China as those of the import warehouses. The time cost is as an important factor, and this is combined with the operating cost and carbon tax into total cost. The transport modes are road transport, rail intermodal transport and waterway intermodal transport, and these can be combined into 18 scenarios. This study uses the SimaPro database and constructs truck, train, inland vessel and container carbon footprint models, based on which the optimal scenarios with the minimum cost and carbon footprint can be provided for the logistics industry.
The results are as follows: 1. No matter whether normal temperature or cold chain logistics, the intermodal transport mode has better environmental performance. 2. Large shipping vessels have better environmental performance. 3. In Taiwan, the rail intermodal transport mode can be used for long distance transport. 4. Waterway intermodal transport mode has no advantages for cold chain logistics, because of its low speed and high time cost. 5. The implementation of a carbon tax can be an effective strategy to promote intermodal transportation, especially in cold chain logistics. 6. Overall, rail intermodal transportation has better environmental and cost advantages than waterway intermodal transportation.
論文目次 Contents I
Table contents III
Figure contents V
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Research Motivation 7
1.3 Research Objectives 8
1.4 Research Framework 9
Chapter 2 Literature Review 10
2.1 Cold chain logistics, food emissions & transport mode selection 10
2.2 Intermodal transportation cost assessment 13
2.3 Methodology literature 15
2.3.1 Life cycle assessment principle: ISO 14040 15
2.3.2 Life cycle assessment procedure: Publicity Available Specification [PAS] 2050:2011 16
2.3.3 Carbon footprint calculation methods 18
2.3.4 Life cycle assessment and carbon footprint literature 19
2.4 Summary 22
Chapter 3 Methodology 26
3.1 Variable description 26
3.2 Scenarios 33
3.3 Carbon footprint models 42
3.3.1 Refrigerated container carbon footprint 43
3.3.2 Transport mode carbon footprints 44
3.3.3 Carbon footprint scenarios 49
3.4 Cost models 52
3.4.1 Operating cost 52
3.4.2 Time cost 57
3.4.3 Carbon tax 57
Chapter 4 Empirical Analysis 59
4.1 Data collection 59
4.1.1 Containers 59
4.1.2 Truck and freight train 60
4.1.3 Container ships and inland vessels 62
4.1.4 Energy prices 64
4.1.5 Distance 65
4.1.6 Variables summary 73
4.2 Carbon footprint & cost analysis of normal temperature logistics 79
4.3 Carbon footprint & cost analysis of cold chain logistics 94
4.4 Changes in time cost, carbon price and break-even distance 106
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Suggestions 118
5.1 Conclusions 118
5.2 Suggestions 121
5.3 Research limitations and future work 122
Reference 125
參考文獻 Bouwman, M. E., & Moll, H. C. (2002). Environmental analyses of land transportation systems in The Netherlands. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 7(5), 331-345.
British Standard Institute (2011). Guide to PAS 2050: How to assess the carbon footprint of goods and services.
British Standard Institute (2011). PAS 2050:2011-Specification for the assessment of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of goods and services.
Carbon Disclosure Project (2006). Carbon disclosure project report global FT500. London.
Cariou, P. (2011). Is slow steaming a sustainable means of reducing CO2 emissions from container shipping? Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 16(3), 260-264.
Chang C. C., & Tsai, T. Y. (2012). Energy Conservation of Logistics Industry with Intermodal Transport. Unpublished master's thesis, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan.
Containerization International (2007). Containing the cold chains, August, 10.
Corbett, J. J., & Koehler, H. W. (2003). Updated emissions from ocean shipping. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 108(D20), 4650.
Diesel, M. A. N. (2009). Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels. MAN Diesel A/S, Copenhagen.
Ecoinvent Centre (2013), ecoinvent data v3.0. Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories, Dubendorf, 2013, retrieved from: www.ecoinvent.org.
Endresen, Ø., & Sørgard, E. (2003). Emission from international sea transportation and environmental impact. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(D17), 4560.
Endresen, Ø., Sørgård, E., Behrens, H. L., Brett, P. O., & Isaksen, I. S. A. (2007). A historical reconstruction of ships' fuel consumption and emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 112(D12), D12301.
Environmental Product Declaration (2009). Environmental Product Declaration for Interurban railway transport services of passengers, Railway transport services of freight and Railways. Retrieved data June 15, 2013, http://www.environdec.com/PCR/Detail/?Pcr=5794#.UsUcwdIW2ks
Fitzgerald, W. B., Howitt, O. J. A., Smith, I. J., & Hume, A. (2011). Energy use of integral refrigerated containers in maritime transportation. Energy Policy, 39(4), 1885-1896.
Hanssen, T. E. S., Mathisen, T. A., & Jørgensen, F. (2012). Generalized Transport Costs in Intermodal Freight Transport. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 54(0), 189-200.
Ierland, E., Graveland, C., & Huiberts, R. (2000). An environmental economic analysis of the new rail link to European main port Rotterdam. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 5(3), 197-209.
International Energy Agency (2012). IEA Statistics. CO2 emissions from fuel combustion highlights 2012 edition. Retrieved date June 10, 2013, http://www.iea.org/co2highlights/co2highlights.pdf
International Energy Agency (2012). World Energy Outlook, 2012. OECD/IEA.
International Maritime Organization (2009). Second IMO GHG Study 2009. Retrieved date June 11, 2013, http://www.imo.org/blast/blastData.asp?doc_id=12612&filename=GHG%20StudyFINAL.pdf
International Organization for Standardization (2006). ISO 14040: 2006 Environmental management: life cycle assessment- principles and framework.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (1997). Revised 1996 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007). The Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007. Retrieved date June 6, 2013, http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr_cn.pdf
Janic, M. (2007). Modelling the full costs of an intermodal and road freight transport network. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 12(1), 33-44.
Ji, J. P., & Ma, X. M. (2011). Review of Carbon Footprint: Definitions and Accounting Methods. Low carbon economy, 2011 (4), 76-80.
Kim, N. S., & Van Wee, B. (2009). Assessment of CO2 emissions for truck-only and rail-based intermodal freight systems in Europe. Transportation Planning and Technology, 32(4), 313-333.
Kim, N. S., & Van Wee, B. (2011). The relative importance of factors that influence the break-even distance of intermodal freight transport systems. Journal of Transport Geography, 19(4), 859-875.
Liao, C. H., Tseng, P. H., & Lu, C. S. (2009). Comparing carbon dioxide emissions of trucking and intermodal container transport in Taiwan. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 14(7), 493-496.
Lloyds Register (2008). Container ship speed matters. Retrieved date January 4, 2014, http://www.martek-marine.com/downloads/119/0/SLOWSTEAMINGFUELEFFICIENCYANDTHEENVIRONMENTv6.pdf.aspx
Milford, R. L., & Allwood, J. M. (2010). Assessing the CO2 impact of current and future rail track in the UK. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 15(2), 61-72.
O’Donnell, B., Goodchild, A., Cooper, J., & Ozawa, T. (2009). The relative contribution of transportation to supply chain greenhouse gas emissions: A case study of American wheat. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 14(7), 487-492.
Patterson, Z., Ewing, G., & Haider, M. (2008). The Potential for Premium-intermodal Services to Reduce Freight CO2 Emissions in the Quebec City - Windsor Corridor. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 13(1), 1-9.
Pekin, E., Macharis, C., Meers, D., & Rietveld, P. (2013). Location Analysis Model for Belgian Intermodal Terminals: Importance of the value of time in the intermodal transport chain. Computers in Industry, 64(2), 113-120.
Quinteiro, P., Araújo, A., Oliveira, B., Dias, A. C., & Arroja, L. (2012). The carbon footprint and energy consumption of a commercially produced earthenware ceramic piece. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 32(10), 2087-2094.
Ramanathan, R. (2000). A holistic approach to compare energy efficiencies of different transport modes. Energy Policy, 28(11), 743-747.
Roy, P., Nei, D., Orikasa, T., Xu, Q., Okadome, H., Nakamura, N., & Shiina, T. (2009). A review of life cycle assessment (LCA) on some food products. Journal of Food Engineering, 90(1), 1-10.
Spielmann, M., & Scholz, R. (2005). Life Cycle Inventories of Transport Services: Background Data for Freight Transport. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 10(1), 85-94.
Tsamboulas, D. (2008). Development strategies for intermodal transport in Europe. The Future of Intermodal Freight Transport - Operations, Design and Policy. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham.
United Nations Environment Programme (2010). 2010 Report of the refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pumps technical options committee. Retrieved data June 10, 2013, http://www.epa.ie/pubs/advice/air/ods/2010assessmentreport-refrigerationtechnicaloptionscommittee.html#.UsUasNIW2ks
Vanek, F., & Sun, Y. (2008). Transportation versus perishability in life cycle energy consumption: A case study of the temperature-controlled food product supply chain. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 13(6), 383-391.
Webb, J., Williams, A., Hope, E., Evans, D., & Moorhouse, E. (2013). Do foods imported into the UK have a greater environmental impact than the same foods produced within the UK? The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 18(7), 1325-1343.
Wiedmann, T., & Minx, J. (2008). A definition of 'carbon footprint'. Ecological economics research trends, 1, 1-11.
Williams, A. G., Pell, E., Webb, J., Tribe, E., Evans, D., Moorhouse, E., et al. (2007). Comparative life cycle assessment of food commodities procured for UK consumption through a diversity of supply chains. J Bates, AEA.
Xiao B. R., & Lu C. S. (2004). An Evaluation of Market Segmentation in Reefer Services. Master's thesis, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan.
Yang, X., Low, J. M. W., & Tang, L. C. (2011). Analysis of intermodal freight from China to Indian Ocean: A goal programming approach. Journal of Transport Geography, 19(4), 515-527.

Bureau of Energy, Ministy of Economic Affairs, October 28, 2013. http://web3.moeaboe.gov.tw/ECW/populace/content/ContentLink.aspx?menu_id=378
CIP, October 28, 2013. http://cip.chinatimes.com/
Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, June 12, 2013. http://agrstat.coa.gov.tw/sdweb/public/trade/TradeReport.aspx
Evergreen shipping company, October 28, 2013. http://www.evergreen-marine.com/tw/tei1/jsp/TEI1_Containers.jsp#Refrigerated_2
GDV-Container Handbook, October 28, 2013. http://www.containerhandbuch.de/
GeneratorJoe- Thermo King 15KW, October 28, 2013. http://www.generatorjoe.net/SpecSheet.asp?ID=1009
Global container fleet , June 12, 2013. http://www.worldshipping.org/about-the-industry/containers/global-container-fleet
Google Map, October 28, 2013. https://maps.google.com.tw/
Maritime Connector, October 28, 2013. http://maritime-connector.com/ship/
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, May 28, 2013. http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/weekly.html
Taiwan product carbon footprint database, October 28, 2013. http://cfp.epa.gov.tw/carbon/ezCFM/Function/PlatformInfo/FLFootProduct/ModulusDataBase.aspx
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2019-02-14起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw