進階搜尋


下載電子全文  
系統識別號 U0026-0502201302503100
論文名稱(中文) 高齡者獨立能力與居住安排之區域差異分析
論文名稱(英文) A Study of Independence and Living Arrangements for the Elderly in Different Areas
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 都市計劃學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Urban Planning
學年度 101
學期 1
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 陳靜怡
研究生(英文) Ching-Yi Chen
電子信箱 chingyichen@alumni.ccu.edu.tw
學號 p28941029
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 208頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳彥仲
召集委員-張金鶚
口試委員-何東波
口試委員-林峰田
口試委員-陳明吉
口試委員-謝宏昌
中文關鍵字 高齡者  人口老化  獨立能力  居住安排  標準常態化  階層線性模型  不連續選擇模型 
英文關鍵字 The Elderly  Population Aging  Independence  Living Arrangements  Normalized Standard  Hierarchical Linear Model  Discrete Choice Model 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究嘗試建立衡量高齡者生活獨立能力指標。首先,以「成功老化」及「活躍老化」為理論基礎,定義高齡者獨立能力之概念。接續,將獨立能力之衡量概念操作化,分別對應至「身體健康」、「心理健康」、「社會支持」與「經濟安全」等四個面向,進行高齡者相對獨立能力之比較。目的為瞭解台灣地區高齡者之相對獨立能力與晚年生活之適應性。其後,透過多元迴歸模型與線性階層模型,探討影響高齡者獨立能力之因素及高齡者之獨立能力是否存在區域差異?並以不連續選擇模型,探討各項獨立能力指標,配偶的健康狀況與子女狀況,對高齡者居住安排之影響。希冀藉由實證研究,瞭解少子化,高齡者在缺乏家庭資源的情況下,高齡者在生活方面之相對獨立能力與居住安排狀況,藉此提出適宜的政策建議,以期維持或改善高齡者晚年生活之適應性與獨立性。各階段所採用之實證資料為2007年「中老年身心社會生活狀況長期追蹤調查」資料。
高齡者獨立能力在常態標準化的相對比較下,經濟安全是高齡者在晚年生活時,相對較不獨立的項目。其次相對不獨立的項目為社會支持,且兩者隨著年齡的增加,不獨立的現象相對嚴重。在影響高齡者獨立能力的解釋變數中,主要以性別、教育程度、就醫路程所需時間、過去一年發生過跌倒與喪偶事件等變數為顯著影響變數。且實證結果也顯示,喪偶與過去一年有過跌倒經驗,顯著影響高齡者之社會與心理健康。因此,改善物理環境,降低高齡者發生意外事件,並鼓勵高齡者積極參與各項活動,將有助於維持高齡者之身心理健康及其獨立能力。依據高齡者平均獨立能力的檢定結果發現,高齡者之平均獨立能力存在縣市差異。在縣市行政資源挹注差異下,愈都市化地區,高齡者之獨立能力愈佳。最後,居住安排狀況之檢定結果則顯示,高齡者之居住安排顯著的受到獨立能力之影響。社經條件愈獨立、高齡者身體、社會支持愈健康者或配偶健康條件愈佳者,愈傾向僅與配偶共居。顯示高齡者較有能力或意願購買個人隱私。除此之外,高齡者之居住安排狀況,主要仍依賴在需要受照顧程度與資源的提供者方面。在討論親子代間的互惠情況方面,仍以父母相對於子女,有較顯著的利他行為。
依據實證結果,本研究建議,維持高齡者退休後的經濟獨立性與社會參與,有助於維持或改善高齡者晚年生活之適應性與獨立性。在少子化下,也有助於高齡者更有能力與意願接受更獨立的居住安排方式。
英文摘要 This research includes three parts. First, this research developed the elder independence indices to realize the living independence and adaptation of the elderly in Taiwan. The purpose was to understand how many of the elderly live relatively independently in their life, in an era of low birth rate. Second, the research gave the suggestions by analyzing the independent determinants of the elderly. The purpose of this part tried to improve or to maintain independence of the elderly. Finally, the study discussed about the living arrangements of the elderly by considering independence of the elderly, spouse’s healthy, and adult children’s situations, and thereby helped understand the elderly personal carer.
This research employed methodologies, including normalized standard Z scores, hierarchical linear model, and discrete choice model. The data used in this study was drawn from the “2007 Survey of Health and Living Status of the Middle Aged and Elderly in Taiwan Survey.”
The findings from the section of the independence of the elderly show that most of the elderly in Taiwan have the problems of economic insecurity, which may worsen as the elderly ages, compared the four indices. Furthermore, the elderly is weaker in social support. In addition, the research also found that there are variations existed in living independence of the elderly between different areas. The elderly in urban areas has better independent ability.
Concerning about the living arrangements, the study shows that the elderly with higher socioeconomic status tends to have higher probabilities of residing at independently living arrangements. On the other hand, the elderly with low socioeconomic status much more relies on coresidence with children, which means that elderly people would value more individual privacy. The elderly with adequate social support or better physical health significantly appears to have higher probability of residing at independent living arrangements. In the meantime, the elderly having healthy spouse tends to have higher probabilities of living in independently living arrangements, which demonstrates that elderly people would accept non-traditional living arrangements, such as coresiding with spouses only. When intergenerational relationship is considered into living arrangements, the elderly still tends to live with their children even though they have poor status, which means that parents show more altruistic behavior to their children.
According to the findings above, an important policy of developing a pension system is recommended to maintain financial independence after the elderly retire and it would benefit the government to respond to an aged society in the near future. The policy and family members should encourage the elderly to continue with social participations, which would be beneficial for them to maintain the living independence and adaptation.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 01-11
第一節 研究動機 02
第二節 研究目的 05
第三節 資料來源與評述 07
第四節 研究流程 09

第二章 理論基礎 13-15
第一節 成功老化 13
第二節 活躍老化 15

第三章 文獻回顧與評述 17-30
第一節 高齡者獨立能力的定義 17
第二節 獨立能力的衡量指標應用 20
第三節 高齡者獨立能力的影響因素分析 23
第四節 高齡者居住安排研究 26

第四章 研究方法與內容 31-38
第一節 標準常態化的概念 31
第二節 線性階層模型之應用 35
第三節 不連續選擇模型之應用 37

第五章 高齡者生活獨立能力及其影響因素分析 39-80
第一節 前言 39
第二節 高齡者獨立能力之衡量指標與資料來源 40
第三節 指標分數標準常態化 46
第四節 獨立能力分析 50
第五節 高齡者獨立能力影響因素分析 56
第六節 小結 79

第六章 高齡者獨立能力之區域差異分析 81-95
第一節 前言 81
第二節 研究設計、方法與資料來源 82
第三節 實證分析與討論 88
第四節 小結 94

第七章 高齡者居住安排與城鄉比較分析 97-115
第一節 前言 97
第二節 研究方法與資料來源 97
第三節 實證分析與討論 101
第四節 小結 114

第八章 結論與後續研究建議 117-122
第一節 研究結論與建議 117
第二節 後續研究建議 119

參考文獻 123-132
附錄一 133-141
附錄二(2007年中老年身心社會生活狀況長期追蹤調查問卷題本) 143-208
參考文獻 中華民國統計資訊網(2012),人口統計。
內政部戶政司(2009),人口資料庫人口統計資料。
內政部統計處(2009),老人生活狀況調查報告書。
內政部統計處(2005),老人生活狀況調查報告書。
王順民、黃民發(2012),<關於長期照顧機構管理約制的若干芻議>,國家政策研究基金會,社會(析) 101-006 號。
行政院主計處(2006),<健康平均餘命>,中華民國統計資料網。
行政院衛生署國民健康局(2012),中老年身心社會生活狀況長期追蹤調查。http://www.bhp.doh.gov.tw/bhpnet/portal/Them.aspx?No=200712270002
行政院衛生署國民健康局(2009),國民健康促進計畫(2009-2012)。
行政院經濟建設委員會(2010),2010年至2060年台灣人口推估,台灣:台北。
行政院經濟建設委員會(2006),中華民國台灣95年至140年人口推估,台灣:台北。
朱岑樓(1975),<我國老人問題產生背景及其對策>,社會建設季刊,第23期,頁1-15。
朱經明(2007),教育及心理統計學,台北:五南圖書出版公司。
伊慶春、陳玉華(1998),<奉養方式與未來奉養態度之關連>,人口學期刊,第19期,頁1-32。
危芷芬譯(1999),心理測驗。台北:雙葉書廊。
吳文傑、連明賢、林祖嘉 (2004),<居住住宅所有權屬與住宅品質對於老年人健康狀態的影響>,都市與計劃,第31卷第4期,頁313-324。
吳老德(2003),高齡社會理論與策略,新文京開發出版有限公司:台北。
呂寶靜(2007),人口政策白皮書及實施計畫之研究期末報告書-子計畫二「因應我國邁入高齡社會對策之研究」,內政部委託研究計畫。
李宗派(2007),<老化概念(II)行為科學之老化理論與老化理論研究趨勢>,台灣老人保健學刊,第3卷第2期,頁25-61。
李宗派(2004),<老化理論與老人保健(二)>,身心障礙研究,第2卷第2期,頁77-94。
李庚霖、區雅倫、陳淑惠、翁儷禎(2009),<「臺灣地區中老年身心社會生活狀況長期追蹤調查」短版CES-D量表之心理計量特性>,中華心理衛生學刊,第22卷第4期,頁383-410。
李春長、童作君(2010),<住宅特徵價格模型之多層次分析>,經濟論文叢刊,第38卷第2期,頁289-325。
林美玲、翁註重、李昀儒、邱文科(2009),<以健康成功老化為願景—探討高齡者參與產出型志願服務活動之實證研究>,台灣職能治療研究與實務,第5卷第1期,頁27-40。
林麗惠(2006),<台灣高齡學習者成功老化之研究>,人口學刊,第33期,頁133-170。
林靜湄(2001),老人居住安排決定過程之探討,碩士論文,國立台灣大學社會學研究所。
卓春英(2001),台灣家庭老人照護的變遷。台北:巨流圖書公司。
柯瓊芳(2002),<誰來照顧老人?歐盟各國奉養態度的比較分析>,人口學刊,第24期,頁1-32。
胡幼慧、周雅容(1996),<婦女與三代同堂:老年婦女的經濟依賴與居住困境探索>,婦女與兩性學刊,第7期,頁27-57。
胡愈寧、酈欽菁、李佳、林榮輝、胡國琦(2009),<老年人各項日常生活活動功能與自評健康狀態之調查及相關性探討>,台灣復健醫誌,第37卷第2期,頁107-114。
施鴻志(1984),都市交通計畫,茂昌圖書有限公司:台北。
徐慧娟、張明正(2004),<台灣老人成功老化與活躍老化現況:多層次分析>,台灣社會福利學刊,第3卷第2期,頁1-36。
徐慧娟(2003),<成功老化:老人健康的正向觀點>,社區發展季刊,第103期,頁225-233。
舒昌榮(2008),<由積極老化觀點論我國因應高齡社會的高齡社會的主要策略~從人口白皮書談起>,社區發展季刊,第122期,頁215-235。
陳正芬、王彥雯(2010),<從生命週期觀點檢視台灣老人居住安排的模式與轉換>,台灣社會福利學刊,第8卷第2期,頁67-116。
陳妙盡(1996),影響老年人居住安排因素之分析,中正大學社會福利研究所碩士論文。
陳彥仲(1998),<對多項Logit模型參數指定方式之比較分析>,交大管理學報,第18卷,第2期,頁171-185。
陳彥仲、陳靜怡(2012),<從高齡者自評健康條件、家庭資源及社會參與探討高齡者期望之居住安排>,台灣土地研究,第15卷第2期,頁127-158。
陳建良(2005),<親子居住安排在家庭內與跨家戶成員間的權力互動>,住宅學報,第14卷第2期,頁51-82。
陳淑美、林佩萱(2010)<親子世代的經濟支援、照顧需要對老人居住安排與生活滿意度影響之研究>,住宅學報,第19卷第1期,頁29-58。
陳淑美(2006),<親子世代的經濟支援、照顧需要、老年人獨立性與居住安排之研究>,2007年中華民國住宅學會第十六屆年會學術研討會論文集。
章英華(1994),<變遷社會中的家戶組成與奉養態度-台灣的例子>,台灣大學社會學刊,第23期,頁1-34。
陸洛、陳欣宏(2002),<台灣變遷社會中老人的家庭角色調適及代間關係之初探>,應用心理研究,第14期,頁221-249。
張桂霖、張金鶚(2012),<年齡增長與居住安排:從初老到老老之相同樣本縱斷面研究>,都市與計劃,已接受刊登。
張家銘、蔡智能(2003),<老年人之周全性評估>,台灣醫學,第7卷第3期,頁364-374。
張席熒、謝妤葳、薛漪平、謝清麟(2006),<日常生活活動功能評量之四十年回顧>,台灣復健醫誌,第34卷第2期,頁63-71。
曾瀝儀、張金鶚、陳淑美(2006),<老人居住安排-代間關係之探討>,住宅學報,第15卷第2期,頁45-63。
黃信豪(2006),<多層模型於選民投票行為研究的應用:以2004年總統選舉為例>,東吳政治學報,第21期,頁161-201。
黃時遵1994,<老人安養的人口基礎-代間共居可能性的模擬分析>,人口學期刊,第16期,頁53-77。
楊志良(2010),<由活躍老化觀點建構國民健康新願景>,社區發展季刊,第132期,頁26-40。
楊靜利(2009):<被誤導了?--人口老化與醫療費用的關係>,台灣老年學論壇,第2期,頁1-5。
楊靜利(1999):<老年人的居住安排-子女數量與同居傾向因素之探討>,人口學刊,第20期,頁167-183。
溫福星(2009),階層線性模式,台北:雙葉書廊有限公司。
蔡文輝(2003),老年社會學,台北:五南出版社。
葉光輝(1998),<年老父母居住安排的心理學研究>,中央研究院民族學研究所集刊,第83期,頁121-168。
劉鶯釧(1995),台灣老人居住安排的經濟分析,行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫成果報告,NSC84-2415-H-002-008。
蔡素蘭、林茂榮(2002),<跌倒對台灣鄉村社區老人日常生活活動能力衰退與害怕跌倒心理的影響>,物理治療,第27卷第4期,頁155-164。
齊力(1995),<台灣地區家戶組成變遷趨勢之研究:1984-1991>,社會變遷調查與研究論文集,台北:中央研究院民族學研究所。
薛承泰(2003),<台灣地區人口特質與趨勢:對社會福利政策的幾個啟示>,國家政策季刊,第2卷第4期,頁1-22。
羅紀瓊(1987),<近十年來台灣地區老人家庭結構變遷的研究>,台灣經濟預測,第18卷第2期,頁83-107。
顏敏玲、陳玉敏(2008),<安養機構老人身體活動及其相關因素>,實證護理,第4卷第2期,頁89-98。
Anastasi, A. and Urbina, S. (1997), Psychological Testing. Prentice Hall, 7 Edition.
Anikeeff, M. A. and Mueller, G. R. (1997), Seniors Housing. Research Issues in Real Estate. 4, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Atchley, R. C. (1993), ‘‘Continuity Theory and the Evolution of Activity in Later Adulthood,’’ in Families and Retirement, ed. J. R. Kelly (London: Sage).
Becker, G. S. (1981), A Treatise on the Family. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Blieszner, R. and Bedford, V. H. (1996), Aging and the Family - Theory and Research. Praeger Publishers.
Ben-Akiva, M. E. and Lerman, S. R. (1985), Discrete Choice Analysis: Theory and Application to Travel Demand. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Bossé, R., Aldwin, C. M., Levenson, M. R. and Workman-Daniels, K. (1991), “How Stressful is Retirement: Findings from the Normative Aging Study.” Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 46, PP. 9-14.
Bryk, A. S. and Raudenbush, S. W. (1992), Hierarchical Linear Models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Burr J. A. and Mutchler, J. E. (2007), “Residential Independence Among Older Persons: Community and Individual Factors.” Population Research Policy Review, 26, PP. 85-101.
Cameron, A. L. (2000), “The Residency Decision of Elderly Indonesians: A Nested Logit Analysis.” Demography. 37(1), PP. 17-27.
Chappell, N. and Blandford, A. (1991), “Informal and Formal Care: Exploring the Complementarity.” Aging and Society, 11(3), PP. 299-317.
Chen, C. N. (1994), “The Determinants of Satisfaction with Living Arrangements for the Elderly in Taiwan.” Journal of Population Studies, 16, PP. 29-51。
Chen, C. N. (1996a), “Living Apart from one’s Children in Late Life - The Case of Taiwan.” Taiwanese Journal of Sociology. 19, PP. 57-93.
Chen, C. N. (1996b), “Living Arrangements and Economic Support for the Elderly in Taiwan.” Journal of Population Studies, 17, PP. 59-79。
Chen Y. J. and Chen, C. Y. (2012), “Living Arrangement Preferences of Elderly People in Taiwan as Affected by Family Resources and Social Participation.” Journal of Family History, 37(4), PP. 381-394.
Chou, K. L. and Chi, I. (2002), “Successful Aging Among the Young-Old, Old-Old, and Oldest-Old Chinese.” International Journal of Aging and Human Development 54(1), PP. 1-14.
Crimmins, E. M. and Ingegneri, D. G. (1990), “Interaction and Living Arrangements of Older Parents and Their Children: Past Rend, Present Determinants, Future Implications.” Research on Aging. 12(1), PP. 3-35.
DaVanzo, J. and Chan, A. (1994), “Living Arrangements of Older Malaysians: Who Coresides with Their Adult Children?” Demography. 31(1), PP. 95-113.
Davey, J. A. (2002), “Active Ageing and Education in Mid and Later Life.” Ageing and Society, 22, PP. 95-113.
Demeny, P. (2011), “Population Policy and the Demographic Transition: Performance, Prospects, and Options.” Population and Development Review, 37, PP. 249-274.
DeWit, D. J. and Frankel, B. G. (1998), “Geographic Distance and Intergenerational Contact: A Critical Assessment and Review of the Literature.” Journal of Aging Studies. 2, PP. 25-43.
Gabriel, Z. and Bowling A. (2004), “Quality of Life from the Perspectives of Older People.” Ageing and Society. 24, PP. 675-691.
Garfein, A. J. and Herzog, R. (1995), “Robust Aging Among the Young-Old, Old-Old, and Oldest-Old.” Journal of Gerontology, 50B, PP. S77-S87.
Glass, T. A., Seeman, T. E., Herzog, A. R., Kahn, R. and Berkman, L. F. (1995), “Change in Productive Activity in Late Adulthood: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging.” Journal of Gerontology, 50(2), PP. S65-76.
Goggin, N. L. and Morrow, J. R., Jr. (2001), “Physical Activity Behaviors of Older Adults.” Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 9, PP. 58-66.
Guilford, J. P. (1965), Fundamental Statistics in Psychology and Education, McGraw-Hill (New York), 4 Edition.
Greene, W. H., (2000), Econometric Analysis. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Hayashi, F. (1995), “Is the Japanese Extended Family Altruistically Linked? A Test Based on Engel Curves.” Journal of Political Economy. 103(3), PP. 661-74.
Hoffman, S. D. and Duncan, G. J. (1988), A Comparison of Choice-Based Multinomial and Nested Logit Model: The Family Structure and Welfare Use Decisions of Divorced or Separated Women. The Journal of Human Resources, 23(4), PP. 550-562.
Howell, D. C. (1997), Statistical Methods for Psychology. Wadsworyh Publishing, 7 Edition.
Ishimoto, Y., Wada, T., Hirosaki, M., Kasahara, Y., Kimura, Y., Konno, A., Nakatsuka, M., Sakamoto, R., Ishine, M., Okumiya, K., Fujisawa, M., Otsuka, K. and Matsubayashi, K. (2009), “Age and Sex Significantly Influence Fall Risk in Community-Dwelling Elderly People in Japan.” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57(5). PP. 930-932.
Khaw, K. T. (1997), “Healthy Aging.” British Medical Journal, 315, PP. 1090-1096.
Kim, C. S. and Rhee, K. O. (1997), “Variations in Preferred Living Arrangements among Korean Elderly Parents.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology. 12, PP. 189-202.
Kinsella, K. (1995), “Aging and the Family: Present and Future Demography Issue.” in R. Blieszner and V. H. Bedford (Eds). Handbook of Aging and the Family. PP. 32-56.
Kind, P., Dolan, P., Gudex, C. and Williams, A. (1998), “Variations in Population Health Status: Results From a United Kingdom National Questionnaire Survey.” British Medical Journal, 316, PP. 736-741.
Lopata, H. Z. (1995), “Feminist Perspectives on Social Gerontology.” in R. Blieszner and V. H. Bedford (Eds). Handbook of Aging and the Family. PP. 114-131.
Luke, D. A. (2004), Multilevel Modeling. Sage Publications, Inc.
Macintyre, S., Ellaway, A., Graeme, G. and Hunt, K. (1998), “Do Housing Tenure and Car Access Predict Health Because They are Simply Makers of Income or Self-Esteem?” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 52, PP. 57-664.
Maddala, G. S. (1989), Limited dependent and Qualitative Variables in Econometrics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Maslow (1943), “A Theory of Human Motivation.” Psychological Reiview. 50, PP. 370-396.
Mathieson, K. M., Kronenfeld, J. J. and Keith, V. M. (2002), “Maintaining Functional Independence in Elderly Adults: The Roles of Health Status and Financial Resources in Predicting Home Modifications and Use of Mobility Equipment.” The Gerontologist, 42(1), PP. 24-31.
Mazzeo, R. S., Cavanagh, P., Evans, W. J., Fiatarone, M., Hagberg, J., McAuley, E. and Staitzell, J. (1998), “Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30, PP. 992-1008.
McCulloch, B. J. (1995), “Aging and Kinship in Rural Context.” in R. Blieszner and V. H. Bedford (Eds). Handbook of Aging and the Family. PP. 332-354.
McFadden, D. (1981), Econometric Model of Probabilistic Choice in Structural Analysis of Discrete Data with Econometric Applications, (Eds.) By C.F. Manski and D. McFadden, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Minkler, M. (1985), Social Support and Health of the Elderly. In: S. Cohen & S. Syme (Eds.), Social Support and Health (PP. 199-218). New York, NY: Academic Press.
Mone, P., Dempster-McClain, D. and Williams, R. M. (1992), “Successful Aging: A Life-Course Perspective on Woman’s Multiple Roles and Health.” The American Journal of Sociology. 97(6), PP. 1612-1638.
O’Bryant, S. L. and Hansson, R. O. (1995), “Widowhood.” in R. Blieszner and V. H. Bedford (Eds). Handbook of Aging and the Family. PP. 440-458.
Phelan, E. A. and Larson, E. B. (2002), “Successful Aging – Where Next?” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50(7), PP. 1306-1308.
Raudenbush S. W. and Bryk, A. S. (2002), Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Reiss, I. L. and Lee, G. R. (1988), Family Systems in America. (4 Edition). New York Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
Revelt, D. and Train, K. (1998), “Mixed Logit with Repeated Choices: Households’ Choices of Appliance Efficiency Level.” The Review of Economics and Statistics, 80(4), PP. 647-657.
Rogowski, J., Freedman, V. and Schoeni R. (2006), “Neighborhoods and the Health of the elderly: Challenges in Using National Survey Data.” Population Studies Center, University of Michigan Institude for Social Research.
Rowe, J. W. and Kahn, R. L. (1998), Successful Aging. New York: Dell publishing.
Rowe, J. W. and Kahn, R. L. (1997), “Successful Aging.” The Gerontologist, 37(4), PP. 433-440.
Seccombe, K and Ishii-Kuntz, M. (1991), “Perceptions of Problems Associated with Aging: Comparisons Among Four Older Age Cohorts.” The Gerontologist, 31(4), PP. 527-33.
Secker, J., Hill, R., Villeneau, L. and Parkman, S. (2003), “Promoting Independence: but Promoting What and How?” Ageing and Society, 23, PP. 375-391.
Shanas, E. (1979), “The Family as a Support System in Old Age.” The Gerontologist, 19, PP. 169-174.
Sirven, N. and Debrand, T. (2008), “Social Participation and Healthy Ageing: An International Comparison Using SHARE Data.” Social Science and Medicine, 67(2), PP. 2017-2026.
Spillman B. C. (2003), “Changes in Elderly Disability Rates and the Implications for Health Care Utilization and Cost.” Milbank Q, 82(1), PP. 157-94.
Strawbridge, W. J., Cohen, R. D., Shema, S. J. and Kaplan, G. A. (1996), “Successful Aging: Predictors and Associated Activities.” American Journal of Epidemiology, 144, PP. 135-41.
Thompson, I. W., Gallagher-Thompson, D., Futterman, A., Gilewski, M. J. and Peterson, J. (1991), “The Effects of Late-Life Spousal Bereavement Over a 30-Month Interval.” Psychology and Aging, 6, PP. 434-441.
Tracy, B. H. (1990), “Sex Role and Social Support as Moderators of Life Stress Adjustment,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(3), PP. 576-585.
United Nations (2011), World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision.
Vaillant, G. E. and Mukamal, K. (2001), “Successful aging.” The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(6), PP. 839-847.
Weinstein M., Sun, T. H., Chang, M. C. and Freedam, R. (1994), “Co-Residence and Other Ties Linking Couples and Their Parents.” in Arland Thornton and Hui-Sheng Lin. Social Changes and the Family in Taiwan (eds.,), Chicago Press. PP. 305-334.
Walker, A. (2002), “A Strategy for Active Ageing.” International Social Security Review, 55(1), PP. 121-139.
Wang, H. P. (2011), “The Determinants of Income for the Elderly in Taiwan.” Social Behavior and Personality, 39 (7), PP. 915-924.
World Health Organization (2007), Global Age-Friendly Cities: A Guide. World Health Organization.
World Health Organization (2002), Active Ageing: A Policy Framework. World Health Organization.
Yamada, K. (2003), “Intra-Family Transfers in Japan: Intergenerational Co-Residence, Distance, and Contact.” Applied Economics. 38, PP. 1839-1861.

論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2016-02-06起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2016-02-06起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw