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系統識別號 U0026-0502201301132800
論文名稱(中文) 地電阻法應用於探測地下異質性之研究
論文名稱(英文) Application of ERT Method on Detecting Underground Abnormality
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 101
學期 1
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 魏毓亭
研究生(英文) Yu-Ting Wei
學號 N66004234
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 110頁
口試委員 指導教授-倪勝火
口試委員-李德河
口試委員-宋見春
口試委員-陳景文
口試委員-謝旭昇
中文關鍵字 土層  地電阻影像法  非破壞性檢測  視電阻率  異質性 
英文關鍵字 soil deposit  electrical resistivity tomography  nondestructive test  apparent resistivity  abnormality 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究目的是應用地電阻影像剖面法,對地下結構的異質性進行探測。而地電阻影像剖面法,是透過電流於地層中的流動,量測電位,以測其視電阻率,最後經反算獲得地層真實電阻率,求得地層的電阻率剖面圖,由電阻率的差異,分析及判別地下結構的異質性。
本文研究兩個案,第一案為興建中水庫,於南壩及副壩之壩心處進行施測,探測壩基回填滾壓夯實後的土層狀況,並將結果配合水庫相關檢測報告,發現兩者結果大致相符。第二案則於成功大學土木系系館北側進行地下異質性的探測,主要欲探測研究用基樁的深度,並利用不同間距與Wenner、Schlumberger 和Dipole - Dipole 等三種排列方式進行探測,將結果綜合比較。結果發現,測線東側由於地下結構為回填材料,結構複雜且質地不均勻,造成電阻率變化大於草地上研究用基樁與土壤的電阻率差異,導致基樁處不易判別。另外,於反算結果發現,東側以鋼筋代替不鏽鋼棒的電極所測得資料,常出現過高電阻值,或因電阻值過高而未取得資料,疑是使用鋼筋代替不鏽鋼棒,使其電流較不易傳入地下。因此,於草地再進行施測,結果與先前於草地上測試的資料做比對,發現利用鋼筋代替不鏽鋼棒所測之實際測深較淺。
英文摘要 The purpose of this study is to use electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method to survey the underground abnormal composition through different level of electrical resistivity. By applying electrical current through the soil and measuring the specific resistance of the underground soil, the resistance data of solid or rock can be analyzed. Thus, the underground profile can be obtained due to the difference resistivity of soil deposit.
Two sites are investigated in this study. The first site is to explore the soil profile of the two dams of a new under construction reservoir, which used back-filled, rolled, and compacted methodology of construction. The results show that there are the same characteristics as the reservoir’s survey report. The second site is located at the north side of the civil engineering building in the National Cheng Kung University. The main purpose of this exploration is to determine the depth of foundation pile. After applying three different patterns of examinations, i.e. the Wenner array, Schlumberger array, and ipole-Dipole array, the results show that the depth of the foundation pile is not easy to be detected. This may be due to the soil profile under both sides of survey line is different. East side is a back-filled material, while the west side is pure soil deposits. In the measurement, the different metal electrodes, one is rebar (the east side) while the other is stainless steel (the west side), were used. The data of specific resistance of the back-filled material on the east side of the survey line is greater than those of the other side. For the purpose of comparison, the same soil site was used with different metal electrodes. The result shows that the survey depth is shallow as the rebar is used.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 IV
目錄 V
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
符號介紹 XVII
第一章緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的與方法 1
1.3 研究內容 2
第二章相關理論與文獻回顧 3
2.1 地電阻起源 3
2.2 地電阻基本原理 4
2.2.1 直流電流原理 4
2.2.2 單點電極 5
2.2.3 雙點電極 6
2.3 地質材料之電阻率特性 7
2.4 土層中的電流流線與密度 8
2.4.1 均質土中電流流線 8
2.4.2 均質土中電流密度 9
2.4.3 非均質土中電流流線 10
2.4.4 非均質土中電流密度 13
2.5 施測方法與原理 14
2.5.1 電極施測原理 14
2.5.2 各種施測幾何排列方式原理 15
2.5.3 現場施測原理及方式 21
2.6 正算與反算模擬方法 23
2.6.1 正算模擬法(2D Forward model) 23
2.6.2 反算模擬法(2D inversed model) 26
2.7 資料層數對於地電阻解析度影響 29
2.8 非破壞式電極 30
2.9 地電阻時間序列反算法 32
2.10 二維地電組探測的三維效應 34
2.11 三維地電阻施測方式 36
2.12 地電阻影像剖面法應用案例 39
第三章研究方法 43
3.1 研究內容介紹 43
3.2 施測儀器介紹 43
3.2.1 主要儀器 43
3.2.2 其他用具 45
3.3 施測方法 48
3.3.1 執行檔建立 48
3.3.2 測線佈設 50
3.3.3 主機設定 52
3.3.4 施測 57
3.4 反算軟體操作介紹 61
第四章試驗結果與討論 69
4.1 前言 69
4.2 試驗場地介紹 69
4.2.1 興建中水庫 69
4.2.2 成大土木系系館北側 71
4.3 施測結果與討論 75
4.3.1 興建中水庫 75
4.3.2 成大土木系系館北側 85
4.3.3 鋼棒與鋼筋於施測上的比較 98
第五章結論與建議 102
5.1 結論 102
5.2 建議 103
參考文獻 104
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