||A Cooperative Transmission Game Using Anti-Eavesdropper Cooperative Beamforming
||Institute of Computer & Communication
cognitive radio, cooperative communication, physical layer security, Stackelberg game, game theory .
近來, 反竊聽的技術已被廣泛的討論。然而, 大多方法都假設已知竊聽者的通道資訊。換句話說, 在大多數的現有文獻中, 都只著重在如何避免被竊聽, 而非考慮在竊聽者隨機出現的情況下, 設計出一個的完整的傳輸方法。因此, 在此論文中, 我們考慮了在感知無線電網路中利用反竊聽叢集波束成型的策略, 設計出當竊聽者隨機出現的完整傳輸方案。
當竊聽者不存在, 使用基於公平性三階史塔博格賽局的合作傳輸方案。若其存在, 則利用傳統未知竊聽者通道資訊的叢集波束成型方法。在公平性的三階史塔博格賽局中, 由次要使用者所形成的叢集先決定欲協助主要使用者的傳輸功率。接著, 主要使用者也會調整欲分享給次要使用者的傳輸時間。為了避免主要使用者極端的分配時間, 由裁判做出一個公平的決定使得主要使用者及次要使用者的效用函數差值為最小。透過模擬結果可得知, 此方法的總傳輸速率及功率效率優於傳統的方法。
Recently, the anti-eavesdropper (anti-EVE) technique has been well explored in the literature. However, the constant appearance of EVEs was generally assumed. In other words, these works focused on how to escape from being overheard rather than designing a complete transmission scheme with random appearances of EVEs. Thus, in this paper, we take the random appearances into consideration when designing a cooperative transmission scheme in the cognitive radio (CR) network using the anti-EVE cluster beamforming (CB) strategy.
When EVE is not observed, the proposed cooperative scheme based on the fair three-stage Stackelberg (FTS) game is carried out; Otherwise, the the conventional CB cooperative scheme without eavesdropper’s channel state information (CBNE) is executed. In the FTS game, the cluster of SUs first determines the transmission power to help PU for packet transmissions. Afterwards, PU can also adjust its willingness of transmission time sharing. To avoid extremely selfish time allocation by PU, a referee can make a fair decision of time sharing based on the minimization of the difference between PU’s and SUs’ utility functions. Compared with the conventional method, the superior performance in the sum transmission rates and power efficiency are proved by simulation results.
Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract ii
List of Tables vi
List of Figures vii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Overview 1
1.2 Thesis Outline 2
2 Background and Literature Survey 3
2.1 Cognitive Radio Network 3
2.1.1 Spectrum Management for Cognitive Radio Network 3
2.1.2 Dynamic Spectrum Access for Cognitive Radio 7
2.2 Cooperative Communication 9
2.2.1 Cooperative Model and Protocols 9
2.2.2 Cooperative Communication for Cognitive Radio Network 11
2.3 Game Theory 13
2.3.1 Cournot Model 14
2.3.2 Bertrand Model 14
2.3.3 Stackelberg Model 15
2.4 Literature Survey on Secure Communications 16
2.4.1 Introduction of Physical Layer Security 17
2.4.2 Cooperative Communication in Physical Layer Security 17
2.4.3 Cooperative Cognitive Radio Network in Physical Layer Security 20
3 System Model 23
3.1 Network Model 23
3.2 Time Frame Structure 25
3.3 Cooperation Schemes 27
4 Fair Three-Stage Stackelberg Game 32
4.1 Stackelberg Game between PU and SU 32
4.2 Utility Function of Players 33
4.3 Best Response of Players 36
5 Simulation Results 40
5.1 Simulation Setup 40
5.2 Property of Fair Three-Stage Stackelberg Game 42
5.3 Transmission Rate 46
5.4 Transmission Power Efficiency 48
5.5 Secrecy Rate 50
6 Conclusions and Future Works 51
6.1 Conclusions 51
6.2 Future Works 52
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