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系統識別號 U0026-0408201618052900
論文名稱(中文) 國家治理、勞動參與率對個人生活滿意度之性別差異比較
論文名稱(英文) Gender Differences in Effects of Governance, Labor Force Participation Rates on Life Satisfaction.
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 老年學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Gerontology
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 何子欣
研究生(英文) Tzu-Hsin, Ho
學號 TC6031028
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 72頁
口試委員 召集委員-楊靜利
口試委員-邱靜如
指導教授-翁慧卿
中文關鍵字 高齡者  性別差異  勞動參與率  國家治理  生活滿意度 
英文關鍵字 elderly  gender  labor force participation rate  governance  life satisfaction 
學科別分類
中文摘要 研究背景
  依據經濟合作與發展組織(OECD)、國際勞工組織(International Labour Organization)65歲以上高齡者勞動參與率顯示,2012年在亞洲的勞動參與率分別為南韓30.7%、泰國28%、日本19.9%、香港12%,而台灣則是8.1%位居亞洲最低之國家。且目前多數文獻紛紛提出晚年較少的工作狀況參與,將會導致健康狀況變差,如短暫性記憶、身體失能、憂鬱症狀的不利影響(Wickrama, O’Neal, Kwag, & Lee, 2013)。甚至有研究者提出,漸進式退休的方式,能使生活滿意度下滑幅度較為緩慢,使長者較能適應生活(Hershey & Henkens, 2013)。綜合以上,可了解到現今研究對於工作與否對生活滿意度之相關性仍不清楚。
研究目的
  本研究以二十八個國家之高齡者為樣本,藉由跨層次的國家層次變數與個人層次變數,探討兩性高齡者的勞動參與、國家治理與生活滿意度的相關性。
研究方法
  本研究使用五個資料庫。個人層次變數取自世界價值觀調查(World Values Survey,簡稱WVS),國家層次變數取自世界銀行(World Bank)、國際勞工組織(International Labor Organization)、經濟合作暨發展組織 (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)及全球繁榮指標 (Legatum Prosperity Index)。研究樣本為28個國家65歲以上之兩性高齡者,共6,498位。分析方法使用多層次分析來進行個人層次與國家層次變項,在勞動參與率、生活滿意度之間的直接與間接效果關係之探討。
研究結果
(一) 對於65歲以上長者而言,男性、年齡較高、有偶、較高的社會階層、健康較佳、高齡態度較友善,其生活滿意度較佳。而其中女性,認為工作越重要者,生活滿意度越佳。
(二) 國家治理越好,國家生活滿意度越佳。而勞參率越高,女性生活滿意度越佳。
(三) 交互作用:對於女性而言,國家勞動參與率會弱化個人社會階層對生活滿意度的影響。
結論
  對於影響高齡者的生活滿意度,除了個人層次之外,本研究之重點為國家層次的影響。因此,國家治理的好壞是首要條件,越良好的治理環境,將能帶給高齡者較有制度、保障的生活環境,帶來較佳的生活滿意度。而進一步,在無須擔憂的保障環境下,女性高齡者受到勞動環境的友善度影響更勝於男性。因此,在未來高齡勞動力運用中,需更加注重女性工作對生活滿意度的影響。
英文摘要 SUMMARY
The purposes of this study was to find the correlation between governance ,the elderly’s labor force participation rate and life satisfaction will be examined through national and individual level variables. The study uses five databases. The individual level variables examined are from the World Values Survey, while that of the national level variables are from the World Bank, International Labor Organization, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and Legatum Prosperity Index. The total sample of this study is 6,498 people of the age of 65. Hierarchical Linear Modeling method of analysis was used to investigate the relationship between labor force participation rate and life satisfaction. The findings suggest: First, from the individual level, we found that those who are men over 65 years of age who are of a higher age, have a married status, belong to a higher social class, have better health and attitudes toward aging are shown correlate positively with higher life satisfaction. Women who sees more importance in work is also shown to be positively correlated with life satisfaction. Moreover, with regards to the national level, we found that Governance correlates positively with a higher score of life satisfaction. And Labor force participation rate correlates positively with a higher score of female’s life satisfaction. Lastly, for women only, the national labor force participation rate weakens the impact of social class on personal life satisfaction.

Keywords:elderly, gender, labor force participation rate, governance, life satisfaction
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌 謝 v
目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 vii
第一章 前言 8
第一節 研究背景與目的 8
第二節 研究重要性 11
第三節 名詞解釋 12
第二章 文獻回顧 13
第一節 成功老化、活躍老化、生產力老化 13
第二節 撤退理論和活動理論 20
第三節 生活滿意度的定義與測量 21
第四節 影響高齡者生活滿意度的個人與國家層次因素 24
第三章 研究方法 31
第一節 研究架構與研究假設 31
第二節 研究樣本 33
第三節 資料來源與變項說明 36
第四節 分析方法 43
第四章 研究結果 44
第一節 描述性統計 44
第二節 多層次模型分析 48
第三節 研究假設驗證結果整理 54
第五章 討論與建議 55
第一節 討論 55
第二節 研究限制與建議 60
參考文獻 63

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