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系統識別號 U0026-0407201822013500
論文名稱(中文) 不同經濟景氣海運碳權之分配
論文名稱(英文) Carbon Allowance Allocation in the Shipping Industry under Different Economic Activities
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 交通管理科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Transportation & Communication Management Science
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生(中文) 黃博建
研究生(英文) Po-Chien Huang
學號 R56054167
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 50頁
口試委員 指導教授-張瀞之
口試委員-沈宗緯
口試委員-謝金原
中文關鍵字 碳權分配  油輪  貨櫃船  散裝船  景氣 
英文關鍵字 carbon allowance allocation  tanker  container shipping  bulk carrier  economic activities 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究透過美國聯邦政府利率,定義景氣循環之繁榮、平穩及衰退。並透過景氣循環之結果,分析油輪、貨櫃船與散裝船之海運費率。接著,結合碳排限額和碳交易之概念,提出考慮景氣循環與船舶是否依據EEDI情境之模型,來優化海運碳權分配之問題,進而建議決策者最小化免費碳權分配,與海運公司最小化其成本效益比率之目標。結果顯示,海運費率在景氣繁榮下較高。在不同景氣下,船舶高航速行駛,燃油成本對整體營收之占比較高;若比較不同景氣,船舶於景氣衰退下,燃油成本對整體營收之占比較高。在不同碳交易價格方面,船舶於高碳交易價格,其碳排成本對整體營收之占比亦較高;若比較不同景氣,在衰退景氣下,無論是碳交易價格之高低,海運公司碳排成本對整體營收之占比皆較低。在碳權分配方面,在船舶依據EEDI與無依據EEDI之兩種情境,海運部門在景氣繁榮環境中,因其排放量遠高於碳排限額,故須購買較多碳權,唯在景氣衰退之環境下,有多餘碳權可出售。最後,在成本效益分析方面,海運公司於景氣繁榮下,成本效益比率較低,表示其成本佔整體營收較低;於景氣衰退下,其成本效益比率較高。若比較船舶依據EEDI與無依據EEDI兩種情境中,海運公司於前者情境中,可有效降低其成本。因此,本研究建議海運公司於景氣衰退之環境下,可以透過降低船速,減少其成本;此外,海運公司使用EEDI所規範之船舶,亦能達到降低船舶排放,與減少成本之功效。
英文摘要 This study utilizes the Federal Fund Rate to identify three business cycles in the field of international shipping: prosperous, steady, and sluggish. Then by combining the data regarding emission caps and the trade mechanisms, this study proposes models which consider two different scenarios for shipping vessels depending on whether they are in keeping with the EEDI or not during the different business cycles based on carbon allowance allocation problems (CAAP) in the shipping sector. For the CAAP, the critical issues for the decision maker is to decide the free carbon allowance level α to achieve the emission target set by the Paris Agreement. This is critical for shipping companies which want to follow the allocated free carbon allowance to minimize their cost-benefit ratio (CBR). The results show that the shipping freight rates during prosperous business cycles are higher. In addition, vessels which travel at higher speeds use more of their total profits for fuel costs. When comparing during the different business cycles, the proportion spent on shipping is higher in the sluggish business cycles. When comparing different carbon trading prices, vessels travel at higher trading prices the proportion of the emission costs of the total profit is higher. When comparing shipping costs during the different business cycles, the proportion spent by shipping companies during the sluggish business cycles is higher. Regarding carbon allowance allocation, for vessels keeping within the EEDI scenarios and for those without, the shipping companies need to buy more carbon allowance in the prosperous business cycle because vessels emit more CO2, while in the sluggish business cycle the shipping companies can sell their allowances. Finally, for the cost-benefit analysis, during the prosperous business cycle, the shipping companies’ cost-benefit ratio (CBR) is lower, indicating their expenditures as a percentage of total profits are lower. While in the sluggish business cycle, their CBR is higher. When comparing two scenarios in which companies follow or do not follow the EEDI, it was found that shipping companies can save more costs in the former scenario. Therefore, this study suggests that in the sluggish business cycles, shipping companies can cut cost by reducing vessel speeds. In addition, if shipping companies deploy the vessels in keeping with the EEDI, they can reduce both vessel emissions and operation cost.
論文目次 摘要 Ⅰ
Abstract Ⅱ
致謝 Ⅲ
TABLE OF CONTENT Ⅳ
LIST OF TABLES Ⅴ
LIST OF FIGURES Ⅵ
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Research Motivation 6
1.3 Research Objectives 7
1.4 Research Flow 7
Chapter 2 Literature Review 9
2.1 Shipping Companies’ Decision Making under Emissions Trading System 9
2.2 The Business Cycle of the Shipping Industry 11
2.3 Carbon Allowance Allocation Problems in Transportation 12
2.4 Summary 13
Chapter 3 Research Methodology 17
3.1 Data Description 17
3.2 Notation and Models 24
3.3 Summary 30
Chapter 4 Empirical Result 32
4.1 Data Analysis 32
4.2 Analysis of Vessels’ Emissions and Emission Cap 33
4.3 Proportion of Fuel Cost and Emissions Cost as Proportion of Total Profit 36
4.4 Carbon Allowance Allocation and Cost-benefit Analysis 38
4.5 Summary 42
Chapter 5 Conclusion and Suggestions 43
5.1 Conclusion and Suggestions 43
5.2 Limitations 45
5.3 Future Research 46
Reference 47
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