||Characterization and identification of dissolved organic matter sources in a drinking water reservoir using fluorescence spectroscopy methods
||Department of Environmental Engineering
Dissolved Organic Matter
Dissolved organic matters easily generate color, taste, and odor in waterbodies. These matters are also a precursor of disinfection by-products (DBPs) that are harmful to the human health. At present, more and more researchers devoted to detecting the outflow from various processes in water treatment plants. This study mainly analyzes the DOM of drinking water in the catchment, characterize the temporal and spatial distribution of DOM in Wang-Lai creek and Zhuo-Shui creek in the upstream catchment, and uses the conventional analysis of water quality parameters, such as non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon (NPDOC), nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), turbidity and suspended solid (SS). Compared with the fluorescence spectroscopy method used mainly in this study, because conventional water quality parameters can’t find the pollution sources, fluorescence excitation/emission matrix (FEEM) analysis methods were used to evaluate the distribution of major fluorescent dissolved organic pollution sources.
A-Gong-Dian (AGD) reservoir is a multi-functional reservoir that raw water enters Lu-Zhu water treatment plant to supply water for Kaohsiung area. In addition to public drinking water, it also includes agricultural irrigation and industry in the Lu-Zhu Science Park. It also has the operating conditions for flood control and dredging, and implements water trans-basin diversion according to the reservoir capacity from around mid-September to the beginning of March every year to divert water from the Qi-Shan creek, through the tunnel flows into Wang-Lai creek. The land use in the catchment area is mostly orchard and forest. The crops are mainly guava and jujube. In order to enhance production, a large number of organic fertilizers and chemical fertilizers are used. These matters are easily flushed into the creek with rainwater and soil.
This study collected water samples 7 times from March to October in 2017, there are seven sampling points and the AGD outflow. In addition to collecting water samples in the catchment area, in order to understand whether the sediment in the reservoir has a significant effect on water quality. The sediment collected in August, through analyzed the dissolved organic matters characterization released from sediment, assess the degree of influence to the reservoir. Using FEEM quantification, and find out the fluorescent pollution source, FEEM is the major analysis method in this study. The fluorescence spectrum quality using principal component analysis (PCA) method, classified the similar fluorescence intensity characteristics, it can regard as preliminary discrimination, which may derive from the same pollution source. The quantitation adopts average fluorescence intensity (AFI) and parallel factor (PARAFAC). AFI is a simple classification method, the average of fluorescence organic matter intensity in the region. The PARAFAC analysis uses statistical modeling to decompose the fluorescence spectrum into an individual component. Finally, utilize the Pearson correlation between quantitative components and conventional water quality parameters.
The FEEM results showed that in the shortage of precipitation, and the land use of orchard-based area fulvic acid-like (FA) has a higher fluorescent intensity, followed by humic acid-like (HA), while the lower anthropogenic organic pollutants fluorescent intensity. Before sampling date, water samples with effective precipitation will measure higher fluorescence intensity. Because organic fertilizers in the soil flush into the river mixing with rainwater. In addition, through PCA qualitative analysis, it could be clearly observed that in the non-transbasin diversion, the fluorescent organic matter is mainly affected by the Zhuo-Shui creek, and in the transbasin diversion is affected by Wang-Lai creek. The PARAFAC decomposition and Tucker’s convergence coefficient validation results show that the water collection area is fulvic acid-like is dominated, followed by humic acid-like, and last is soluble microbial by-products (SMP).
The influence of anthropogenic activities is not the main source of fluorescent organic matter. Only a few areas where population density is high. Therefore, if we dedicated to reducing the amount of fluorescent organic matter in water bodies, we should adopt the concept of agricultural fertilization, and domestic sewage should be diverted. The conventional water quality combined with fluorescence spectroscopy analysis method can effectively identify the pollution source.
LIST OF TABLES XI
LIST OF FIGURES XII
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Research motivation 2
1.3 Research objective 3
1.4 Thesis structure 4
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 5
2.1 What’s DOM 5
2.1.1 DOM sources 5
2.1.2 DOM characterization 5
2.1.3 The effect of coagulation 6
2.1.4 The effect of human health 7
2.1.5 Membrane fouling 8
2.2 DOM characterization methods 8
2.2.1 Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) 8
2.2.2 Ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) absorbance 9
2.2.3 Specific UV- absorbance (SUVA) 9
2.2.4 Fluorescence Excitation Emission Matrix (F-EEM) 11
2.2.5 Principal Component Analysis (PCA) 13
2.2.6 Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) method 15
2.2.7 High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography 16
2.3 Application of DOM characteristic in water quality management 17
2.3.1 River 17
2.3.2 Lake 18
2.3.3 Sediment 18
2.3.4 Marine 18
2.3.5 Water Treatment Plant (WTP) 19
2.3.6 Waste water treatment plant (WWTP) 19
2.4 Current status 20
CHAPTER 3 METHOLOGY 21
3.1 Study area 21
3.1.1 Location 21
3.1.2 Land use 25
3.1.3 Sampling frequency 29
3.2 Conventional analysis methods 30
3.2.1 Non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon (NPDOC) 30
3.2.2 UV-Visible and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) 30
3.3 Sediment released 31
3.4 Characteristic methods 34
3.4.1 Fluorescence EEM spectroscopy 34
3.4.2 Principal Component Analysis (PCA) 35
3.4.3 Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) modeling 35
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 39
4.1 Conventional water quality 39
4.2 The temporal and spatial distribution of DOM quality in reservoir and catchment 43
4.2.1 Spatial and temporal distribution of FEEM 43
4.3 Quantity the fluorescence intensity 47
4.3.1 Spatial distribution 47
4.3.2 Temporal distribution between non-transbasin diversion and transbasin diversion 50
4.4 Non-transbasin / Transbasin diversion comparison 53
4.5 Dimensional reduction of fluorescence spectrum 53
4.5.1 FEEM-PCA 54
4.5.2 FEEM-PARAFAC 56
4.6 Comparison of the compounds in non-transbasin and transbasin diversion 60
4.7 Reservoir released test 62
4.8 The correlation between human and agriculture sources 64
4.8.1 The correlation in the non-transbasin diversion period 64
4.8.2 The correlation in the transbasin diversion period 67
4.8.3 Summary 70
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS 71
5.1 Conclusions 71
5.2 Suggestions 72
CHAPTER 6 REFERENCES 73
Ågren, A, Buffam, I, Berggren, M, Bishop, K, Jansson, M, & Laudon, H. Dissolved organic carbon characteristics in boreal streams in a forest‐wetland gradient during the transition between winter and summer. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 113 (G3)(2008).
Amy, G. Fundamental understanding of organic matter fouling of membranes. Desalination, 231 (1-3), 44-51, (2008).
Baghoth, S A, Sharma, S K, & Amy, G L. Tracking natural organic matter (NOM) in a drinking water treatment plant using fluorescence excitation-emission matrices and PARAFAC. water research, 45 (2), 797-809, (2011).
Baker, A, & Spencer, R G. Characterization of dissolved organic matter from source to sea using fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy. Science of The Total Environment, 333 (1-3), 217-232, (2004).
Boehme, J, Coble, P, Conmy, R, & Stovall-Leonard, A. Examining CDOM fluorescence variability using principal component analysis: seasonal and regional modeling of three-dimensional fluorescence in the Gulf of Mexico. Marine chemistry, 89 (1-4), 3-14, (2004).
Bond, T, Goslan, E H, Parsons, S A, & Jefferson, B. A critical review of trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation from natural organic matter surrogates. Environmental Technology Reviews, 1 (1), 93-113, (2012).
Bot, A, & Benites, J. The importance of soil organic matter: Key to drought-resistant soil and sustained food production: Food & Agriculture Org., (2005).
Bridgeman, J, Bieroza, M, & Baker, A. The application of fluorescence spectroscopy to organic matter characterisation in drinking water treatment. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 10 (3), 277-290, (2011).
Bro, R. PARAFAC. Tutorial and applications. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 38 (2), 149-171, (1997).
Carstea, E M, Baker, A, Bieroza, M, & Reynolds, D. Continuous fluorescence excitation-emission matrix monitoring of river organic matter. water research, 44 (18), 5356-5366, (2010).
Carstea, E M, Baker, A, Pavelescu, G, & Boomer, I. Continuous fluorescence assessment of organic matter variability on the Bournbrook River, Birmingham, UK. Hydrological Processes, 23 (13), 1937-1946, (2009).
Chen, F, Peldszus, S, Peiris, R H, Ruhl, A S, Mehrez, R, Jekel, M, . . . Huck, P M. Pilot-scale investigation of drinking water ultrafiltration membrane fouling rates using advanced data analysis techniques. water research, 48, 508-518, (2014).
Chen, W, Westerhoff, P, Leenheer, J A, & Booksh, K. Fluorescence Excitation−Emission Matrix Regional Integration to Quantify Spectra for Dissolved Organic Matter. Environmental Science & Technology, 37 (24), 5701-5710, (2003).
Chen, Y, Dosoretz, C G, Katz, I, Jüeschke, E, Marschner, B, & Tarchitzky, J. Organic Matter in Wastewater and Treated Wastewater‐Irrigated Soils: Properties and Effects. Treated Wastewater in Agriculture: Use and Impacts on the Soil Environment and Crops, 400-417, (2011).
Cheng, X, Liang, H, Ding, A, Tang, X, Liu, B, Zhu, X, . . . Li, G. Ferrous iron/peroxymonosulfate oxidation as a pretreatment for ceramic ultrafiltration membrane: Control of natural organic matter fouling and degradation of atrazine. water research, 113, 32-41, (2017).
Chow, C W, Fabris, R, Leeuwen, J v, Wang, D, & Drikas, M. Assessing natural organic matter treatability using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Environmental Science & Technology, 42 (17), 6683-6689, (2008).
Coble, P G. Characterization of marine and terrestrial DOM in seawater using excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy. Marine chemistry, 51 (4), 325-346, (1996).
Delpla, I, Jung, A-V, Baures, E, Clement, M, & Thomas, O. Impacts of climate change on surface water quality in relation to drinking water production. Environment International, 35 (8), 1225-1233, (2009).
Edzwald, J K, & Tobiason, J E. Enhanced coagulation: US requirements and a broader view. Water Science and Technology, 40 (9), 63-70, (1999).
Ewald, M, Belin, C, Berger, P, & Weber, J H. Corrected fluorescence spectra of fulvic acids isolated from soil and water. Environmental Science & Technology, 17 (8), 501-504, (1983).
Fabris, R, Chow, C W, Drikas, M, & Eikebrokk, B. Comparison of NOM character in selected Australian and Norwegian drinking waters. water research, 42 (15), 4188-4196, (2008).
Feng, X, Foucher, D, Hintelmann, H, Yan, H, He, T, & Qiu, G. Tracing mercury contamination sources in sediments using mercury isotope compositions. Environmental Science & Technology, 44 (9), 3363-3368, (2010).
Fuentes Rivas, R M, Santacruz de León, G, Ramos Leal, J A, Morán Ramírez, J, & Martín Romero, F. Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter in an Agricultural Wastewater-Irrigated Soil, in Semi Arid Mexico. Revista Internacional de Contaminación Ambiental, 33 (4), 575-590, (2017).
Garcia, R D, Reissig, M, Queimaliños, C P, Garcia, P E, & Dieguez, M C. Climate-driven terrestrial inputs in ultraoligotrophic mountain streams of Andean Patagonia revealed through chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter. Science of The Total Environment, 521, 280-292, (2015).
Ghernaout, D. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio vs. dissolved organics removal by coagulation–A review. Journal of King Saud University-Science, 26 (3), 169-180, (2014).
Gonsior, M, Schmitt-Kopplin, P, Stavklint, H, Richardson, S D, Hertkorn, N, & Bastviken, D. Changes in dissolved organic matter during the treatment processes of a drinking water plant in Sweden and formation of previously unknown disinfection byproducts. Environmental Science & Technology, 48 (21), 12714-12722, (2014).
Goslan, E H, Seigle, C, Purcell, D, Henderson, R, Parsons, S A, Jefferson, B, & Judd, S J. Carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection by-product formation from algal organic matter. Chemosphere, 170, 1-9, (2017).
Guo, X, Yu, H, Yan, Z, Gao, H, & Zhang, Y. Tracking variations of fluorescent dissolved organic matter during wastewater treatment by accumulative fluorescence emission spectroscopy combined with principal component, second derivative and canonical correlation analyses. Chemosphere, 194, 463-470, (2018).
Hambly, A, Arvin, E, Pedersen, L-F, Pedersen, P B, Seredyńska-Sobecka, B, & Stedmon, C. Characterising organic matter in recirculating aquaculture systems with fluorescence EEM spectroscopy. water research, 83, 112-120, (2015).
Heibati, M, Stedmon, C A, Stenroth, K, Rauch, S, Toljander, J, Säve-Söderbergh, M, & Murphy, K R. Assessment of drinking water quality at the tap using fluorescence spectroscopy. water research, 125, 1-10, (2017).
Henderson, R K, Baker, A, Murphy, K, Hambly, A, Stuetz, R, & Khan, S. Fluorescence as a potential monitoring tool for recycled water systems: a review. water research, 43 (4), 863-881, (2009).
Her, N, Amy, G, Park, H-R, & Song, M. Characterizing algogenic organic matter (AOM) and evaluating associated NF membrane fouling. water research, 38 (6), 1427-1438, (2004).
Hong, H, Huang, F, Wang, F, Ding, L, Lin, H, & Liang, Y. Properties of sediment NOM collected from a drinking water reservoir in South China, and its association with THMs and HAAs formation. Journal of hydrology, 476, 274-279, (2013).
Hua, B, Dolan, F, Mcghee, C, Clevenger, T E, & Deng, B. Water-source characterization and classification with fluorescence EEM spectroscopy: PARAFAC analysis. International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, 87 (2), 135-147, (2007a).
Hua, G, & Reckhow, D A. Characterization of disinfection byproduct precursors based on hydrophobicity and molecular size. Environmental Science & Technology, 41 (9), 3309-3315, (2007b).
Hua, G, Reckhow, D A, & Abusallout, I. Correlation between SUVA and DBP formation during chlorination and chloramination of NOM fractions from different sources. Chemosphere, 130, 82-89, (2015).
Huang, M, Li, Z, Huang, B, Luo, N, Zhang, Q, Zhai, X, & Zeng, G. Investigating binding characteristics of cadmium and copper to DOM derived from compost and rice straw using EEM-PARAFAC combined with two-dimensional FTIR correlation analyses. Journal of hazardous materials, 344, 539-548, (2018).
Hudson, N, Baker, A, & Reynolds, D. Fluorescence analysis of dissolved organic matter in natural, waste and polluted waters—a review. River Research and Applications, 23 (6), 631-649, (2007).
Jarvis, P, Jefferson, B, & Parsons, S. Characterising natural organic matter flocs. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 4 (4), 79-87, (2004).
Karlsson, T, Persson, P, & Skyllberg, U. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy evidence for the complexation of cadmium by reduced sulfur groups in natural organic matter. Environmental Science & Technology, 39 (9), 3048-3055, (2005).
Kowalczuk, P, Durako, M J, Young, H, Kahn, A E, Cooper, W J, & Gonsior, M. Characterization of dissolved organic matter fluorescence in the South Atlantic Bight with use of PARAFAC model: interannual variability. Marine chemistry, 113 (3-4), 182-196, (2009).
Lai, C-H, Chou, Y-C, & Yeh, H-H. Assessing the interaction effects of coagulation pretreatment and membrane material on UF fouling control using HPSEC combined with peak-fitting. Journal of Membrane Science, 474, 207-214, (2015).
Lawaetz, A J, & Stedmon, C. Fluorescence intensity calibration using the Raman scatter peak of water. Applied spectroscopy, 63 (8), 936-940, (2009).
Lee, N, Amy, G, Croue, J-P, & Buisson, H. Identification and understanding of fouling in low-pressure membrane (MF/UF) filtration by natural organic matter (NOM). water research, 38 (20), 4511-4523, (2004).
Liu, S, Lim, M, Fabris, R, Chow, C, Drikas, M, & Amal, R. Comparison of photocatalytic degradation of natural organic matter in two Australian surface waters using multiple analytical techniques. Organic Geochemistry, 41 (2), 124-129, (2010).
Mao, J, Cao, X, Olk, D C, Chu, W, & Schmidt-Rohr, K. Advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy of natural organic matter. Progress in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, 100, 17-51, (2017).
Matilainen, A, & Sillanpää, M. Removal of natural organic matter from drinking water by advanced oxidation processes. Chemosphere, 80 (4), 351-365, (2010).
McKnight, D M, Boyer, E W, Westerhoff, P K, Doran, P T, Kulbe, T, & Andersen, D T. Spectrofluorometric characterization of dissolved organic matter for indication of precursor organic material and aromaticity. Limnology and Oceanography, 46 (1), 38-48, (2001).
Mohora, E, Rončević, S, Dalmacija, B, Agbaba, J, Watson, M, Karlović, E, & Dalmacija, M. Removal of natural organic matter and arsenic from water by electrocoagulation/flotation continuous flow reactor. Journal of hazardous materials, 235, 257-264, (2012).
Moncayo-Lasso, A, Rincon, A-G, Pulgarin, C, & Benitez, N. Significant decrease of THMs generated during chlorination of river water by previous photo-Fenton treatment at near neutral pH. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 229 (1), 46-52, (2012).
Murphy, K R, Butler, K D, Spencer, R G, Stedmon, C A, Boehme, J R, & Aiken, G R. Measurement of dissolved organic matter fluorescence in aquatic environments: an interlaboratory comparison. Environmental Science & Technology, 44 (24), 9405-9412, (2010).
Murphy, K R, Stedmon, C A, Graeber, D, & Bro, R. Fluorescence spectroscopy and multi-way techniques. PARAFAC. Analytical Methods, 5 (23), 6557, (2013).
Murphy, K R, Stedmon, C A, Waite, T D, & Ruiz, G M. Distinguishing between terrestrial and autochthonous organic matter sources in marine environments using fluorescence spectroscopy. Marine chemistry, 108 (1-2), 40-58, (2008).
Murphy, K R, Stedmon, C A, Wenig, P, & Bro, R. OpenFluor–an online spectral library of auto-fluorescence by organic compounds in the environment. Analytical Methods, 6 (3), 658-661, (2014).
Nerger, B A, Peiris, R H, & Moresoli, C. Fluorescence analysis of NOM degradation by photocatalytic oxidation and its potential to mitigate membrane fouling in drinking water treatment. Chemosphere, 136, 140-144, (2015).
Papageorgiou, A, Stylianou, S K, Kaffes, P, Zouboulis, A I, & Voutsa, D. Effects of ozonation pretreatment on natural organic matter and wastewater derived organic matter–Possible implications on the formation of ozonation by-products. Chemosphere, 170, 33-40, (2017).
Peiris, R H, Hallé, C, Budman, H, Moresoli, C, Peldszus, S, Huck, P M, & Legge, R L. Identifying fouling events in a membrane-based drinking water treatment process using principal component analysis of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices. water research, 44 (1), 185-194, (2010).
Richardson, S D, Fasano, F, Ellington, J J, Crumley, F G, Buettner, K M, Evans, J J, . . . Luther, G W. Occurrence and mammalian cell toxicity of iodinated disinfection byproducts in drinking water. Environmental Science & Technology, 42 (22), 8330-8338, (2008).
Sanchez, Skeriotis, A T, & Miller, C M. Assessment of dissolved organic matter fluorescence PARAFAC components before and after coagulation-filtration in a full scale water treatment plant. Water Res, 47 (4), 1679-1690, (2013a).
Sanchez, N P, Skeriotis, A T, & Miller, C M. Assessment of dissolved organic matter fluorescence PARAFAC components before and after coagulation–filtration in a full scale water treatment plant. water research, 47 (4), 1679-1690, (2013b).
Sgroi, M, Roccaro, P, Korshin, G V, & Vagliasindi, F G A. Monitoring the Behavior of Emerging Contaminants in Wastewater-Impacted Rivers Based on the Use of Fluorescence Excitation Emission Matrixes (EEM). Environ Sci Technol, 51 (8), 4306-4316, (2017).
Sillanpää, M, Ncibi, M C, & Matilainen, A. Advanced oxidation processes for the removal of natural organic matter from drinking water sources: A comprehensive review. Journal of environmental management, 208, 56-76, (2018).
Stanley, E H, Powers, S M, Lottig, N R, Buffam, I, & Crawford, J T. Contemporary changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in human‐dominated rivers: is there a role for DOC management? Freshwater Biology, 57 (s1), 26-42, (2012).
Stedmon, C A, Markager, S, & Bro, R. Tracing dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments using a new approach to fluorescence spectroscopy. Marine chemistry, 82 (3-4), 239-254, (2003).
Stedmon, C A, Markager, S, Søndergaard, M, Vang, T, Laubel, A, Borch, N H, & Windelin, A. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) export to a temperate estuary: seasonal variations and implications of land use. Estuaries and Coasts, 29 (3), 388-400, (2006).
Stedmon, C A, Markager, S, Tranvik, L, Kronberg, L, Slätis, T, & Martinsen, W. Photochemical production of ammonium and transformation of dissolved organic matter in the Baltic Sea. Marine chemistry, 104 (3-4), 227-240, (2007).
Tfaily, M M, Chu, R K, Tolić, N, Roscioli, K M, Anderton, C R, Paša-Tolić, L, . . . Hess, N J. Advanced Solvent Based Methods for Molecular Characterization of Soil Organic Matter by High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry, 87 (10), 5206-5215, (2015).
Velapoldi, R A, & Tønnesen, H H. Corrected emission spectra and quantum yields for a series of fluorescent compounds in the visible spectral region. Journal of fluorescence, 14 (4), 465-472, (2004).
von Wachenfeldt, E, Sobek, S, Bastviken, D, & Tranvik, L J. Linking allochthonous dissolved organic matter and boreal lake sediment carbon sequestration: The role of light‐mediated flocculation. Limnology and Oceanography, 53 (6), 2416-2426, (2008).
Wall, N A, & Choppin, G R. Humic acids coagulation: influence of divalent cations. Applied Geochemistry, 18 (10), 1573-1582, (2003).
Wang, D, Zhao, Y, Xie, J, Chow, C W, & van Leeuwen, J. Characterizing DOM and removal by enhanced coagulation: A survey with typical Chinese source waters. Separation and Purification Technology, 110, 188-195, (2013).
Weishaar, J L, Aiken, G R, Bergamaschi, B A, Fram, M S, Fujii, R, & Mopper, K. Evaluation of specific ultraviolet absorbance as an indicator of the chemical composition and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon. Environmental Science & Technology, 37 (20), 4702-4708, (2003).
Wu, F, Evans, R, & Dillon, P. Separation and characterization of NOM by high-performance liquid chromatography and on-line three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence detection. Environmental Science & Technology, 37 (16), 3687-3693, (2003).
Xu, Y, Chen, T, Liu, Z, Zhu, S, Cui, F, & Shi, W. The impact of recycling alum-humic-floc (AHF) on the removal of natural organic materials (NOM): behavior of coagulation and adsorption. Chemical Engineering Journal, 284, 1049-1057, (2016).
Yamamura, H, Okimoto, K, Kimura, K, & Watanabe, Y. Hydrophilic fraction of natural organic matter causing irreversible fouling of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes. water research, 54, 123-136, (2014).
Yan, M, Wang, D, Qu, J, Ni, J, & Chow, C W. Enhanced coagulation for high alkalinity and micro-polluted water: the third way through coagulant optimization. water research, 42 (8-9), 2278-2286, (2008).
Yang, L, Zhuang, W-E, Chen, C-T A, Wang, B-J, & Kuo, F-W. Unveiling the transformation and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter in contrasting hydrothermal vents using fluorescence EEM-PARAFAC. water research, 111, 195-203, (2017).
Yu, H, Liang, H, Qu, F, Han, Z-s, Shao, S, Chang, H, & Li, G. Impact of dataset diversity on accuracy and sensitivity of parallel factor analysis model of dissolved organic matter fluorescence excitation-emission matrix. Scientific reports, 5, 10207, (2015).
Zhang, Y, Yin, Y, Feng, L, Zhu, G, Shi, Z, Liu, X, & Zhang, Y. Characterizing chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Lake Tianmuhu and its catchment basin using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and parallel factor analysis. water research, 45 (16), 5110-5122, (2011).
Zhao, X, Hu, H-Y, Yu, T, Su, C, Jiang, H, & Liu, S. Effect of different molecular weight organic components on the increase of microbial growth potential of secondary effluent by ozonation. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 26 (11), 2190-2197, (2014).