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系統識別號 U0026-0407201711440700
論文名稱(中文) 從玩家涉入程度探討行動裝置遊戲設計的魅力因素
論文名稱(英文) Exploring the Attractiveness Factors of Mobile Games with Involvement of Players
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業設計學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Design
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 李學然
研究生(英文) Shyue-Ran Li
學號 P38961152
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 225頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳國祥
共同指導教授-何俊亨
召集委員-馬敏元
口試委員-謝毓琛
口試委員-陳俊東
中文關鍵字 涉入  魅力要素  遊戲  行動裝置  魅力工學 
英文關鍵字 Involvement  Attractiveness Factor  Game  Mobile Device  Miryoku Engineering 
學科別分類
中文摘要 由於近年來遊戲產業的發展對於經濟與文化有決定性的影響,遊戲設計更代表著一種滿足人類精神生活需求的方式,本研究希望探討當前遊戲設計的趨勢並滿足遊戲設計師在具體設計要素方面的決策需求。
從相關文獻中,本研究發現當前遊戲產業的發展趨勢,是以休閒遊戲類型為主流,並逐漸將遊戲平台的發展重心從個人電腦轉移至行動裝置上。休閒玩家是行動遊戲玩家的主要族群,也是跨越傳統與新興、年輕與年長、男性與女性的遊戲族群。在行動遊戲設計中,本研究認為設計師可以配合文獻中所提到遊戲App的特點調整策略,才能成功吸引行動遊戲玩家。另外,為了探究行動遊戲不同開發程度的玩家族群,本研究根據涉入程度的相關文獻,採用Laurent & Kapferer 所提出之「消費者涉入剖面」模型,做為涉入程度的衡量構面的基礎型態,並配合行動裝置遊戲的特性,設計問項做問卷調查,找出不同涉入程度的族群。
在遊戲魅力特質的研究方面,本研究希望彌補過去文獻中,偏向多以玩家抽象感覺與功能認知的研究方向,改以將感覺轉化為具體設計要素,藉由魅力工學(Miryoku Engineering)與評價構造法的概念,以跑酷遊戲、消除型遊戲與精靈寶可夢遊戲三種不同類型遊戲為案例,探究行動遊戲不同涉入程度的玩家族群所偏好或在意的設計魅力要素,藉此幫助遊戲設計師,開發出更有魅力的行動遊戲。
因此,本研究利用深度訪談法(in-depth interview),獲得深度使用者所提供該類型遊戲之魅力因素,並且製作出評價構造圖(EGM Structure)。然後利用單因子變異數分析以及多元回歸分析,探討高、中、低三個不同涉入程度的群體與各遊戲魅力要素之間的關係。
研究結果發現,從本研究所發掘的遊戲魅力要素中,都可以看見跑酷遊戲、消除遊戲,和精靈寶可夢遊戲的設計,多數符合文獻中休閒遊戲簡單化的設計原則。然而,跑酷遊戲與精靈寶可夢遊戲的特性,對於涉入程度較高的玩家,與涉入程度較低的玩家,感受上會有較大的差別。這是因為,跑酷遊戲的本質,主要是追求速度的刺激與多變化的場景,遊戲設計在其他的部份不論再怎麼簡化,都改變不了滿足高涉入程度玩家對感官刺激需求的功能,相對低涉入程度的玩家也就不會有相同程度的認知與感受。而精靈寶可夢遊戲的最終目標為達到訓練大師的高難度等級,雖然表面上的玩法容易,但遊戲設計是憑藉著背後複雜的屬性設定與升等系統去驅動玩家逐步進階,對於低涉入程度的玩家而言,自然無法理解投入大量時間去熟悉這些設定的高涉入程度玩家如何樂在其中的感受。相反的,消除型遊戲不愧為休閒遊戲的代表,幾乎符合所有文獻中休閒遊戲的設計原則,在本研究大部份的魅力因素,對於高、中、低三群不同涉入群體而言,都沒有顯著的認知上的差別,因為該類型遊戲的所有相關設計,能滿足所有階級或年齡層的需求,不會使不同涉入程度的玩家在遊戲過程中,因為時間的長短或等級的不同,造成明顯的認知分歧。
最後,根據研究結果來比較這三種不同類型遊戲成功的關鍵,除了盡可能符合文獻中休閒遊戲的設計原則以外,消除型遊戲最吸引玩家的魅力在於它全方面的設計所造成簡單與輕鬆的效果,讓玩家可以在忙碌的工作與生活中依然可以安心地利用零碎時間享受遊戲的樂趣;跑酷型遊戲的主要魅力則是它場景快速變化產生的視覺刺激與享受,使玩家輕鬆地利用直覺的操作,就能滿足現實世界中無法體驗高速衝刺所獲得的成就感;而精靈寶可夢之所以掀起全球玩家的瘋狂熱潮,主要是因為該遊戲採用行動裝置的新科技,結合熟悉的文創角色所帶來的新鮮樂趣,完全推翻過去對於電子遊戲玩家總是待在室內的刻版印象。
本研究認為,從上述這三類遊戲的魅力因素,可以反映出現今行動遊戲玩家渴求短暫脫離現實世界、進入美好而舒適的遊戲情境中的需求,加上當前智慧型行動裝置與介面功能設計的技術出現,兩者完美的搭配,造就這三類型遊戲的盛行。
本文提供完整研究流程,其所建立具體的設計要素,包含三類型遊戲各自的魅力構面及魅力要素、不同涉入程度玩家所重視的魅力要素、各類型遊戲必須具備的基本要件或特色等,對於遊戲設計者,樹立了更明確的市場目標。遊戲設計決策者,可以配合不同涉入程度的玩家市場,根據本研究所探討獲得的魅力要素,調整設計決策,以符合不同玩家的需求,為這個行動裝置技術成熟而普遍的社會,提供更多紓解心理壓力的方式,也提升遊戲文化產業的發展,帶領人類進入更美好的精神世界。
英文摘要 As the development of the game industry in recent years has a decisive impact on economy and culture, and game design even represents a way to meet the needs of human spiritual life, this study hopes to explore the current trend of game design in order to meet the decision-making needs regarding concrete factors for game designers.
According to related literature, this study found that casual games are the mainstream in the development trend of the contemporary game industry, and the focus of game platform development has gradually shifted from personal computers to mobile devices. Casual gamers are the main groups to play mobile games and are also crossing groups, traditional and new, young and old, male and female.
In mobile game design, this study suggests that designers can coordinate with the characteristics of game Apps mentioned in the literature to successfully attract mobile gamers.
In addition, in order to explore player groups with different levels of development of mobile games, this study adopted the consumer involvement profile proposed by Laurent and Kapferer (1993; 1985) as a basic form to measure involvement according to the relevant literature. Then, designed questions coordinating the characteristics of mobile games to do the questionnaire and find the groups of different involvement. In terms of attractiveness factors of games, this study hopes to make up for the past research biasing in the players’ abstract feelings and functional cognition, and changes the researching focus to transforming feelings into concrete factors of design. It will take Parkour Games, Tile-matching Games, and Pokémon GO as examples and explore different developed player groups of mobile games via the concepts of Myrioku engineering and Evaluation Grid Method to discover attractiveness factors the three different groups prefer or are concerned about. As a result, game designers will benefit from it to create more attractive mobile games.
Therefore, this study used in-depth interviews to obtain attractiveness factors of specific games from familiar users and made pictures of EGM structures. Afterwards, this study conducted One-Way ANOVA and multiple regression analysis to explore the relationship between the attractiveness factors and the three different involvement groups in the games.
The results of the attractiveness factors discovered by this study show that Parkour Games, Tile-matching Games, and Pokémon GO are most in accord with the simplified principles of casual game design. However, a relatively greater difference in terms of feeling, was found in Parkour Games and Pokémon Go between players with higher and lower involvement due to the game features. This is because the essence of Parkour Games is about speed, excitement, and various changes in scenes. No matter how simplified the other parts in the game design become, the function of satisfying the high involvement players’ need for sensory stimulation cannot be changed. Players with lower involvement consequently will not have the same level of recognition and feelings. The ultimate goal of Pokémon Go is to achieve the difficult level of training master. Even though the game rule is simple on the surface, the game design is based on the complicated attribute setting and level up system in the background, so as to promote players to gradually advance in game level. Players with low involvement naturally cannot comprehend the feeling of enjoyment gained by players with high involvement after investing a large amount of time to become familiarized with these settings. On the contrary, Tile-matching Games are the representative game of casual games because they almost entirely accord with the design principle of casual games indicated in the literature. Among most of the attractiveness factors in this study, no significant difference was found in the high, medium, and low involvement groups in terms of recognition. The reason is that all the relevant designs in that game type can satisfy the needs of players of all stages and age groups, and will not significantly affect the recognition of game players with different degrees of involvement because of the different time invested or game level.
Finally, according to the results, this study compared the key to the success of these three different game types and found that except for meeting the design principle of casual games as indicated in the literature, the biggest attractiveness of Tile-matching Games is as follows: the comprehensive design of the game brings simple and relaxed effects, enabling players to use odd moments to enjoy the game during their busy work schedule and daily life. The main charm of Parkour Games is the visual excitement and enjoyment derived from the rapid changes of scenes, enabling players to easily and intuitively operate the game to satisfy the speed and sense of achievement that cannot be experienced in real life. The reason why Pokémon Go attracted an enormous number of players around the globe is mainly because of the following: the game integrated advanced technology into mobile devices and brought fun and joy through a combination of familiar creative and cultural characters. Pokémon Go entirely topples the stereotype that players of electronic games always stay indoors.
This study believes that the attractiveness factors of the aforementioned three game types reflect that (1) the mobile game players’ desire to temporarily escape from reality and enter into a wonderful and comfortable game world; (2) contemporary smart mobile devices and interface feature design technology have emerged as successful aspects of game playing. The perfect match of these two conditions has brought about the prevalence of these three game types.
This study provides a complete research procedure and builds concrete design elements, including attractiveness dimensions and attractiveness factors of three types of games, attractiveness factors of different involvement groups, and basic elements and features of every type of game, which builds clear targets in the market for game designers. The decision-makers of game design can coordinate with the market of different involvement players, and can adjust the design decisions according to the attractiveness factors gained from this study, thereby meeting the needs of different players and offering more methods for relieving people’s psychological stress in this society where mobile device technology is mature and ubiquitous. The development of the game culture industry can be elevated and can lead human beings to a more wonderful spiritual world.
論文目次 中文摘要 i
ABSTRACT iii
序言 vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF TABLES xii
LIST OF FIGURES xv
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. RESEARCH BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION 1
1.1.1. The Rise of the Game Industry 1
1.1.2. The Booming Market of Mobile Games 3
1.2. RESEARCH PURPOSE 4
1.3. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS 5
1.3.1. Gaming Platform 6
1.3.2. Game Genre 7
1.3.3. Casual Games 8
1.3.4. APP 9
1.3.5. Niche Market 10
1.3.6. Involvement 11
1.3.7. Attractiveness Factors 11
1.4. RESEARCH SCOPE AND LIMITATION 12
1.5. ORGANIZATION OF THE DISSERTATION 13
1.6. RESEARCH FLOW CHART 14
CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 16
2.1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF CASUAL GAMES 16
2.1.1. The History of Casual Game 16
2.1.2. Composition of Casual Gamers 18
2.1.3. Common Characteristics of Casual Games 18
2.2. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF GAME APPS 20
2.2.1. Technologies of game APPs 21
2.2.2. The Reasons of Using Game APPs 23
2.2.3. Game producers’ points of view 25
2.3. INVOLVEMENT 30
2.3.1. The definition of involvement 30
2.3.2. Measurement of various dimensions of involvement 32
2.3.3. Summary 36
2.4. STUDIES REGARDING THE ATTRACTIVENESS FACTORS OF GAMES. 38
2.4.1. Studying Gamers’ Satisfaction through Evaluations of User Interfaces. 38
2.4.2. Studying the Reasons of Gamers’ Enthusiasm through Their Emotions or Satisfaction 38
2.5. MIRYOKU ENGINEERING AND EVALUATION GRID METHOD 39
2.5.1. The Origin of Miryoku Engineering 39
2.5.2. Evaluation Grid Method 40
2.5.3 Applications of Miryoku Engineering 41
2.6. CONCLUSION OF LITERATURE REVIEWS 45
CHAPTER 3. INVESTIGATING PARKOUR GAMES ON MOBILE DEVICES 47
3.1. DESIGN CONCEPT OF PARKOUR GAMES 47
3.2. SAMPLE COLLECTION AND IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWS OF PARKOUR GAMES 50
3.3. THE EGM DIAGRAM AND DIMENSIONS OF THE ATTRACTIVENESS FACTORS FROM PARKOUR GAMES 54
3.4. QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PARKOUR GAMES 58
3.4.1. General Statistical Analysis 58
3.4.2. Analysis of Player Involvement 59
3.4.3. Analysis of Cognitive Differences among Groups of Different Involvement to 49 Concrete Attractiveness Factors 61
3.4.4. Analysis of Attractiveness Factors which Different Groups are Concerned about in Every Dimension 79
CHAPTER 4. INVESTIGATING TILE-MATCHING GAMES ON MOBILE DEVICES 84
4.1. DEVELOPMENT OF TILE-MATCHING GAMES 84
4.2. SAMPLE COLLECTION AND IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWS OF TILE-MATCHING GAMES 86
4.3. THE EGM DIAGRAM AND DIMENSIONS OF THE ATTRACTIVENESS FACTORS FROM TILE-MATCHING GAMES 91
4.4. QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TILE-MATCHING GAMES 95
4.4.1. General Statistical Analysis 95
4.4.2. Analysis of Player Involvement 96
4.4.3. Analysis of Cognitive Differences among Groups of Different Involvement to 40 Concrete Attractiveness Factors 97
4.4.4. Analysis of Attractiveness Factors which Different Groups are Concerned about in Every Dimension 106
CHAPTER 5. INVESTIGATING POKÉMON GO ON MOBILE DEVICES 113
5.1. INTRODUCTION OF POKÉMON GO 113
5.1.1 History of Pokémon GO 114
5.1.2. Mobile Game Design of Pokémon Go 117
5.1.3. Features of Pokémon Go 119
5.1.4. Summary 125
5.2. IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWS WITH FAMILIAR USERS OF THE GAME 126
5.3. THE EGM DIAGRAM AND DIMENSIONS OF ATTRACTIVENESS FACTORS FROM POKÉMON GO 129
5.4. QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF POKÉMON GO 132
5.4.1. General Statistical Analysis 132
5.4.2. Analysis of Player Involvement 133
5.4.3. Analysis of Cognitive Differences among Groups of Different Involvement to 38 Concrete Attractiveness Factors 134
5.4.4. Analysis of Attractiveness Factors which Different Groups are Concerned about in Every Dimension 151
CHAPTER 6. COMPARISON AND DISCUSSION 159
6.1. THE FEATURES OF PARKOUR GAMES ON MOBILE DEVICES 159
6.2. THE FEATURES OF TILE-MATCHING GAMES ON MOBILE DEVICES 161
6.3. THE FEATURES OF POKÉMON GO ON MOBILE DEVICES 163
6.4. THE COMPARISON AND DISCUSSION OF THREE MOBILE GAMES 165
CHAPTER 7. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 168
7.1. THE ATTRACTIVENESS FACTORS OF PARKOUR GAMES ON MOBILE DEVICES 169
7.2. THE ATTRACTIVENESS FACTORS OF TILE-MATCHING GAMES ON MOBILE DEVICES 178
7.3. THE ATTRACTIVENESS FACTORS OF POKÉMON GO ON MOBILE DEVICES 189
7.4. RESEARCH SUGGESTIONS 198
REFERENCE 203
APPENDIX 214
APPENDIX 1. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PARKOUR GAMES ON MOBILE DEVICES 214
APPENDIX 2. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TILE-MATCHING GAMES ON MOBILE DEVICES 218
APPENDIX 3. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR POKÉMON GO ON MOBILE DEVICES 222
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