進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-0402201614300600
論文名稱(中文) 探討行人使用智慧型手機傳訊對其道路事件偵測能力所造成之影響
論文名稱(英文) Effect of Using Short Message Service by Smart Phone on Pedestrian’s Road Event Detection
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊管理研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Information Management
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 柯欣旻
研究生(英文) Hsin-Min Ke
學號 R76021150
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 90頁
口試委員 指導教授-林明毅
口試委員-卓瓊鈺
口試委員-柳永青
中文關鍵字 NSEEV  注意力策略(優先權)  行人安全  智慧型手機 
英文關鍵字 NSEEV  priority paradigm  pedestrian safety  smart phone 
學科別分類
中文摘要 根據統計2013年在台灣智慧型手機普及率已經有51%,有時使用手機上網的行為會產生安全上的疑慮,而目前有關行人使用手機影響其注意力與心智負荷變化仍屬稀少。
因此本研究欲探討行走時使用智慧型手機傳訊對道路事件反應能力的影響,透過實驗收集受測者的行為變化,再使用視覺監督模型(Visual monitoring model)預測實驗結果,並與實際收集而來的資料相互比對。
本研究共18位受測者,模擬行走時使用智慧型手機傳訊,採用兩種路況複雜度與三種任務反應優先順序組合出六種情境,進行5分鐘的模擬實驗。實驗過程中收集眼動資料、手機績效、路況反應績效以及測量心智負荷,再進行綜合評估。
結果發現邊走路邊打字對道路情況的反應能力會下降、延長反應時間、將視覺注意力明顯從道路上移開,然而雙重任務下注意力策略會對行為表現有顯著的影響,在路況任務優先的前提下會有較佳的路況反應能力與較多的視線停留在道路上,若手機任務優先則完全相反。因此不建議邊走路時邊使用手機傳訊,若無法避免行走時使用手機傳訊,至少要確保自身注意力不會過於著重在手機上。
英文摘要 In 2013, 51% of Taiwanese have smart phones. Sometimes, behaviors of using smart phone would lead to insecurity actions. However, only few studies focus on pedestrian’s reaction performance and perceived workload on using phone while walking, now.
For this reason, this study aimed to investigate pedestrians’ reaction abilities on using smart phone with SMS(Short Message Service). We collected data of change in behaviors by experiment. Then using visual monitoring model predicted the experiment result and compared to practiced data.
There were two traffic complexity and three priority strategies. Every eighteen participants completed all the six tested 5-min scenarios, where participants’ eye movement data, cell phone tasks performance, reaction performance and perceived workload were recorded for examining further.
The results showed that using phone with SMS while walking would make worse reaction ability, longer reaction time and visual distracted from road. However, attention strategies had significant effect on behaviors (i.e. Priority-Road had better reaction ability and longer vision dwelling on road) SO we suggest do not use phone with SMS while walking. If this condition can’t be avoided, let not attention strategy be Priority-Phone.
論文目次 摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
誌謝 V
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 3
1.3 研究範圍與限制 3
1.4 研究流程 5
第二章 文獻探討 7
2.1 手機對生活之影響 7
2.1.1 手機對汽車駕駛人之影響 7
2.1.2 手機對行人之影響 8
2.2 注意力 10
2.3 眼動追蹤 13
2.3.1 眼動追蹤技術定義與應用 13
2.3.2 眼動與注意力 14
2.4 模擬視覺模型 14
2.4.1 視覺模型 14
2.4.2 SEEV 模型 15
2.4.3 NSEEV 模型 15
2.4.4 視覺模型與注意力 17
2.5 心智負荷 17
2.6 小結 18
第三章 研究方法與工具 20
3.1 實驗設計 20
3.1.1 實驗流程 21
3.1.2實驗順序 23
3.2 研究對象 24
3.3 實驗變項 25
3.3.1 自變項 (independent variables) 25
3.3.2 依變項 (dependent variables) 27
3.3.4 控制變項(control variables) 30
3.3.5 實驗設備 32
3.4 實驗環境 35
3.5 模型預測 36
3.6 統計方法 38
第四章 研究成果 40
4.1 受測者基本資料 40
4.2 路況反應能力 41
4.3 眼動指標 48
4.4 心智負荷量 54
4.5 手機任務績效 56
4.6 NSEEV模型預測結果 60
4.7 小結 61
第五章 討論 62
5.1 路況反應能力表現結果探討 62
5.2 眼動指標表現探討 65
5.3 心智負荷量表結果探討 66
5.4 手機任務表現結果探討 69
5.5 NSEEV模型探討 69
5.6 綜合比較 71
第六章 結論與建議 72
參考文獻 74
附錄一 NASA-TLX 79
附錄二 MRQ問項 81
附錄三 統計結果數據 85
附錄四 IRB同意人體研究證明書 90
參考文獻 英文文獻
Allport, D. A., Antonis, B., Reynolds, P. (1972). On the Division of Attention: A
Disproof of the Single Channel Hypothesis. The Quarterly journal of
experimental psychology, 24(2), 225-235.
Anderson, J. R. (2004). Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications (6th Ed.): WH
Freeman/Times Books/Henry Holt & Co.
Arthur, K. W. (2000). Effects of Field of View on Performance with Head-Mounted
Displays. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Boles, D. B., & Adair, L. P. (2001). The Multiple Resources Questionnaire (Mrq). Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 45(25), 1790-1794.
Broadbent, D. E. (1958). Perception and Communication. New York: Pergamon Press.
Bundesen, C. (1990). A Theory of Visual Attention. Psychological review, 97(4), 523.
Byington, K. W., & Schwebel, D. C. (2013). Effects of Mobile Internet Use on College
Student Pedestrian Injury Risk. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 51, 78-83.
Card, S. K. (1984). Visual Search of Computer Command Menus. Attention and
performance X: Control of language processes, 97-108.
Cassavaugh, N. D., Bos, A., McDonald, C., Gunaratne, P., & Backs, R. W. (2013). Assessment of the Seev Model to Predict Attention Allocation at Intersections During Simulated Driving. Paper presented at the 7th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design.
Cho, C.-Y. (2005). The Effects of Divided Attention on Walking Task Performance in Young Adults. Formosan Journal of. Physical Therapy, 30(4), 162-169.
Drews, F. A., Pasupathi, M., & Strayer, D. L. (2004). Passenger and Cell-Phone
Conversations in Simulated Driving. Proceedings of the Human Factors and
Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 48(19), 2210-2212.
Drews, F. A., Pasupathi, M., & Strayer, D. L. (2004). Passenger and Cell-Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 48(19), 2210-2212.
Duchowski, A. (2007). Eye Tracking Methodology: Theory and Practice (Vol. 373):
Springer.
Fleetwood, M., & Byrne, M. (2004). An Analysis of Two (or Three) Models of Visual
Attention Allocation. Paper presented at the ICCM.
GHSA. (2011). Distracted Driving: What Research Shows and What States Can Do:
Governors Highway Safety Association.
GHSA. (2014). Distracted Driving Laws November 2014: Governors Highway Safety
Association.
Gijsenij, A., Gevers, T., & Lucassen, M. P. (2008). A Perceptual Comparison of
Distance Measures for Color Constancy Algorithms. In Computer Vision–Eccv
2008 (pp. 208-221): Springer.
Gore, B. F., Hooey, B. L., Wickens, C. D., Sebok, A., Hutchins, S., Salud, E., Small, R., Koenecke, C., & Bzostek, J. (2010). Identification of Pilot Performance Parameters for Human Performance Models of Off-Nominal Events in the Nextgen Environment: NASA/CR—2010-216411). NASA Ames Research Center: Moffett Field, CA.
Gresko, J. (2014). Divide Washington Dc Pavement and Add a ‘No Cellphones’ Lane.
From http://www.news.com.au/technology/national-geographic-channel-
divide-washington-dc-pavement-and-add-a-no-cellphones-lane/story-e6frfrnr-
1226997296304
Hart, S., & Staveland, L. (1988). Development of Nasa-Tlx (Task Load Index)_ Results
of Empirical and Theoretical Research. Advances in psychology, 52, 139-183.
Horrey, W. J., Wickens, C. D., & Consalus, K. P. (2006). Modeling Drivers' Visual Attention Allocation While Interacting with in-Vehicle Technologies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 12(2), 67-78.
Hyman, I. E., Boss, S. M., Wise, B. M., McKenzie, K. E., & Caggiano, J. M. (2009).
Did You See the Unicycling Clown? Inattentional Blindness While Walking and
Talking on a Cell Phone. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24(5), 597-607.
Ipsos, & Google. (2013). Google Smart Mobile 2013-Tw-Local.
Itti, L., & Koch, C. (2000). A Saliency-Based Search Mechanism for Overt and Covert
Shifts of Visual Attention. Vision research, 40(10), 1489-1506.
James, W. (1980). The Principles of Psychology: Digireads. com Publishing.
Jonides, J. (1983). Further toward a Model of the Mind's Eye's Movement. Bulletin of
the Psychonomic Society, 21(4), 247-250.
Kahneman, D. (1973). Attention and effort (p. 246).
Lamberg, E. M., & Muratori, L. M. (2012). Cell Phones Change the Way We Walk. Gait & posture, 35(4), 688-690.
Libby, D., Chaparro, A., & He, J. (2013). Distracted While Driving: A Comparison of the Effects of Texting and Talking on a Cell Phone. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 57(1), 1874-1878..
Müller, H. J., & Krummenacher, J. (2006). Visual Search and Selective Attention.
Visual Cognition, 14(4-8), 389-410.
Ma, R., & Kaber, D. B. (2005). Situation Awareness and Workload in Driving While
Using Adaptive Cruise Control and a Cell Phone. International Journal of
Industrial Ergonomics, 35(10), 939-953.
Mustonen, T., Olkkonen, M., & Hakkinen, J. (2004). Examining Mobile Phone Text
Legibility While Walking. Paper presented at the CHI'04 extended abstracts on
Human factors in computing systems.
Nasar, J., Hecht, P., & Wener, R. (2008). Mobile Telephones, Distracted Attention, and
Pedestrian Safety. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 40(1), 69-75.
Nasar, J. L., & Troyer, D. (2013). Pedestrian Injuries Due to Mobile Phone Use in Public
Places. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 57, 91-95.
Navon, D., & Gopher, D. (1979). On the Economy of the Human-Processing System. Psychological review, 86(3), 214.
Neider, M. B., McCarley, J. S., Crowell, J. A., Kaczmarski, H., & Kramer, A. F. (2010).
Pedestrians, Vehicles, and Cell Phones. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 42(2),
589-594.
Nicolau, H., & Jorge, J. (2012). Touch Typing Using Thumbs: Understanding the Effect
of Mobility and Hand Posture. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the
SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems.
Nikolic, M. I., Orr, J. M., & Sarter, N. B. (2004). Why Pilots Miss the Green Box: How
Display Context Undermines Attention Capture. The International Journal of
Aviation Psychology, 14(1), 39-52.
Rubio, S., Díaz, E., Martín, J., & Puente, J. M. (2004). Evaluation of Subjective Mental
Workload: A Comparison of Swat, Nasa‐Tlx, and Workload Profile Methods.
Applied Psychology, 53(1), 61-68.
Schabrun, S. M., van den Hoorn, W., Moorcroft, A., Greenland, C., & Hodges, P. W.
(2014). Texting and Walking: Strategies for Postural Control and Implications
for Safety. PLoS One, 9(1), e84312.
Schiessl, M., Duda, S., Thölke, A., & Fischer, R. (2003). Eye Tracking and Its
Application in Usability and Media Research. MMI-interaktiv Journal, 6, 41-
50.
Schwebel, D. C., Stavrinos, D., Byington, K. W., Davis, T., O'Neal, E. E., & de Jong,
D. (2012). Distraction and Pedestrian Safety: How Talking on the Phone,
Texting, and Listening to Music Impact Crossing the Street. Accident Analysis
& Prevention, 45, 266-271.
Sereno, S. (2003). Measuring Word Recognition in Reading: Eye Movements and
Event-Related Potentials. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(11), 489-493.
Steelman, K. S., McCarley, J. S., & Wickens, C. D. (2013). Great Expectations: Top-
Down Attention Modulates the Costs of Clutter and Eccentricity. Journal of
experimental psychology: applied 19(4), 403-419.
Steelman-Allen, K. S., McCarley, J. S., Wickens, C., Sebok, A., & Bzostek, J. (2009). N-Seev: A Computational Model of Attention and Noticing. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting.
Steelman, K. S., McCarley, J. S., & Wickens, C. D. (2011). Modeling the Control of Attention in Visual Workspaces. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 53(2), 142-153.
Strayer, D. L., Drews, F. A., & Johnston, W. A. (2003). Cell Phone-Induced Failures of Visual Attention During Simulated Driving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 9(1), 23-32.
Strayer, D. L., Drews, F. A., & Johnston, W. A. (2003). Cell Phone-Induced Failures of
Visual Attention During Simulated Driving. Journal of Experimental
Psychology: Applied, 9(1), 23-32.
Thompson, L. L., Rivara, F. P., Ayyagari, R. C., & Ebel, B. E. (2013). Impact of Social and Technological Distraction on Pedestrian Crossing Behaviour: An Observational Study. Injury prevention, 19(4), 232-237.
TSANG, P. S., & VELAZQUEZ, V. L. (1996). Diagnosticity and Multidimensional
Subjective Workload Ratings. Ergonomics, 39(3), 358-381.
Walther, D., & Koch, C. (2006). Modeling Attention to Salient Proto-Objects. Neural networks, 19(9), 1395-1407.
Wickens, C. D. (2002). Multiple Resources and Performance Prediction. Theoretical
issues in ergonomics science, 3(2), 159-177.
Wickens, C. D. (2008). Multiple Resources and Mental Workload. Human Factors: The
Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 50(3), 449-455.
Wickens, C. D., John Helleberg, J. G., & Xidong Xu, W. J. H. (2001). Pilot Task
Management Testing an Attentional Expected Value Model of Visual Scanning.
U.S. Army Research Laboratory
Wickens, C. D., Kroft, P., & Yeh, M. (2000). Data Base Overlay in Electronic Map
Design: Testing a Computational Model. Paper presented at the Proceedings of
the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting.
Wickens, C. D., McCarley, J. S., Alexander, A. L., Thomas, L. C., Ambinder, M., &
Zheng, S. (2008). Attention-Situation Awareness (a-Sa) Model of Pilot Error.
Human performance modeling in aviation, 213-239.
Wickens, C., McCarley, J., & Steelman-Allen, K. (2009). Nt-Seev: A Model of Attention Capture and Noticing on the Flight Deck. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting.
Wolfe, J. M. (1994). Guided Search 2.0 a Revised Model of Visual Search.
Psychonomic bulletin & review, 1(2), 202-238.
Yarbus, A. L., Haigh, B., & Rigss, L. A. (1968). Eye Movement and Vision: PLENUM PRESS . NEW YORK.

中文文獻
道路交通管理處罰條例第七十八條條文修正案【提案】,立法院第08屆第6會期(民103年5月2日)
道路交通管理處罰條例(民102年5月8日修正公布)
交通工程手冊【修正案】 (民101年11月9日修正公布)
環境音量標準(民99年1月21日修正公布)
Nexus International(民95年5月27)。台灣測驗中心【常用2000字詞-依主題分類】。取自 http://www.taiwantestcentral.com/WordList/WordListBySubject.aspx
林冠宏(民104)。行進中同步進行視覺認知任務對步態表現及大腦前額葉活動之影響探討(未出版之碩士論文)。國立成功大學,台南市。
黃育平(民103)。行人使用手機之雙重任務情境其環境察覺程度及反應能力之影響(未出版之碩士論文)。國立成功大學,台南市。
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2030-12-31起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw