||The Impact of Interactivity, Virtual Embodiment and Virtual Crowd on Virtual Reality Experiences and Impulse Buying
||The Impact of Interactivity, Virtual Embodiment and Virtual Crowd on Virtual Reality Experiences and Impulse Buying
||Institute of International Management
||Ha Quang An
召集委員-Shuk Ying Ho
Perceived social presence
With the growth of virtual reality (VR) devices and applications, VR is asserted to be a successful internet shopping technology in the future. However, only a few studies have investigated the VR shopping context. Applying the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) model, this research examines the influences of some VR environment stimuli (interactivity, virtual embodiment, virtual crowd) on a customer’s organism (local presence, telepresence, perceived social presence, and playfulness) and a customer’s urge to buy impulsively in a VR store. To examine these relationships, the author conducted a 2x2x3 factorial design experiment with 364 participants. The findings revealed that interactivity has positive impacts on local presence and playfulness, virtual embodiment has positive impacts on telepresence and playfulness, and virtual crowd has positive impacts on perceived social presence. Additionally, except telepresence, local presence, perceived social presence, and playfulness are found to have positive impacts on the urge to buy impulsively. The results of this research contribute to the literature on consumer behaviors in VR shopping as well as the understanding of the impacts of VR environmental factors on impulse buying.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS III
LIST OF FIGURES VIII
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivations. 1
1.1.1 Virtual Reality and Applications. 1
1.1.2 Research Gaps. 4
1.2 Research Objectives and Contributions. 8
1.3 Research Procedure. 9
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 Stimulus-Organism-Response Model. 10
2.2 Virtual Reality Product Presentation and Interactivity. 14
2.3 Theories of Embodied Cognition and Virtual Embodiment. 15
2.3.1 Embodied Cognition. 15
2.3.2 Virtual Embodiment and Virtual Body. 16
2.4 Social Presence and Virtual Crowd. 17
2.4.1 Perceived Social Presence. 17
2.4.2 Virtual Crowd. 18
2.5 Local Presence. 20
2.6 Telepresence. 20
2.7 Playfulness. 22
2.8 Urge to Buy Impulsively. 24
2.9 Hypothesis Developments. 25
2.9.1 The Impact of Interactivity on VR Shopping Experiences. 25
2.9.2 The Impact of Virtual Embodiment on VR Shopping Experiences. 27
2.9.3 The Impact of Virtual Crowd on VR Shopping Experiences. 28
2.9.4 The Impact of Telepresence on Playfulness. 30
2.9.5 The Impact of Perceived Social Presence on Playfulness. 31
2.9.6 The Impact of Local Presence on the Urge to Buy Impulsively. 32
2.9.7 The Impact of Telepresence on the Urge to Buy Impulsively. 33
2.9.8 The Impact of Playfulness on the Urge to Buy Impulsively. 34
2.9.9 The Impact of Perceived Social Presence on the Urge to Buy Impulsively. 35
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 37
3.1 Research Framework. 37
3.2 Research Variables. 38
3.3 Experimental Design. 38
3.4 Independent Variables Manipulation. 39
3.4.1 Manipulation for Interactivity. 39
3.4.2 Manipulation for Virtual Embodiment. 39
3.4.3 Manipulation for Virtual Crowd. 40
3.5 App Development. 41
3.6 Experimental Task. 42
3.7 Construct Measurements. 42
3.8 Sampling Plan. 44
3.9 Control Variables. 45
3.10 Data Analysis Methods 45
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS AND FINDING 46
4.1 Data Collection. 46
4.2 Characteristics of the Respondents. 46
4.3 Descriptive Statistical Analysis. 48
4.4 Factor Analysis and Reliability Test. 49
4.5 Manipulation Checks. 52
4.6 Hypothesis Testing: Multivariate Analysis of Variance among Research Variables. 54
4.6.1 The Main Effects of Interactivity. 56
4.6.2 The Main Effects of Virtual Embodiment. 57
4.6.3 The Main Effects of Virtual Crowd. 57
4.6.4 The Interaction Effect between Interactivity and Virtual Crowd. 59
4.6.5 The Interaction Effect between Virtual Embodiment and Virtual Crowd 62
4.7 Hypothesis Testing: Structural Equation Model 65
4.8 The mediating role of Playfulness 67
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSION 68
5.1 Discussions 68
5.2 Theoretical Contributions and Practical Implication 71
5.3 Research Limitation and Suggestion for Future Research. 73
Descriptive Statistics of MANOVA 87
Adelaar, T., Chang, S., Lancendorfer, K. M., Lee, B., & Morimoto, M. (2003). Effects of media formats on emotions and impulse buying intent. Journal of Information Technology, 18(4), 247-266.
Aitamurto, T., Zhou, S., Sakshuwong, S., Saldivar, J., Sadeghi, Y., & Tran, A. (2018). Sense of presence, attitude change, perspective-taking and usability in first-person split-sphere 360 degrees video. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Montreal QC, Canada.
Animesh, A., Pinsonneault, A., Yang, S.-B., & Oh, W. (2011). An odyssey into virtual worlds: Exploring the impacts of technological and spatial environments on intention to purchase virtual products. MIS Quarterly, 35(3), 789-810.
Archambault, P., Routhier, F., Gagnon, D., & Miller, W. (2018). Usability and efficacy of a virtual reality simulator for power wheelchair training. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 61(0), e90.
Argelaguet, F., Hoyet, L., Trico, M., & Lecuyer, A. (2016, 19-23 March 2016). The role of interaction in virtual embodiment: Effects of the virtual hand representation. Paper presented at the 2016 IEEE Virtual Reality (VR), Greenville, South Carolina.
Argo, J. J., Dahl, D. W., & Manchanda, R. V. (2005). The influence of a mere social presence in a retail context. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(2), 207-212.
Ariely, D. (2000). Controlling the information flow: Effects on consumers' decision making and preferences. Journal of Consumer Research, 27(2), 233-248.
Badgaiyan, A. J., & Verma, A. (2015). Does urge to buy impulsively differ from impulsive buying behaviour? Assessing the impact of situational factors. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 22(0), 145-157.
Bagozzi, R. P. (1986). Principles of marketing management: Science Research Associates.
Bailey, J. O., Bailenson, J. N., & Casasanto, D. (2016). When does virtual embodiment change our minds? Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 25(3), 222-233.
Balcetis, E., & Dunning, D. (2007). Cognitive dissonance and the perception of natural environments. Psychological Science, 18(10), 917-921.
Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta‐analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44(1), 1-26.
Barsom, E., Graafland, M., & Schijven, M. (2016). Systematic review on the effectiveness of augmented reality applications in medical training. Surgical Endoscopy, 30(10), 4174-4183.
Beatty, S. E., & Ferrell, M. E. (1998). Impulse buying: Modeling its precursors. Journal of retailing, 74(2), 169-191.
Bekkering, H., & Neggers, S. F. W. (2002). Visual search is modulated by action intentions. Psychological Science, 13(4), 370-374.
Beuckels, E., & Hudders, L. (2016). An experimental study to investigate the impact of image interactivity on the perception of luxury in an online shopping context. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 33(0), 135-142.
Bigné, E., Llinares, C., & Torrecilla, C. (2016). Elapsed time on first buying triggers brand choices within a category: A virtual reality-based study. Journal of Business Research, 69(4), 1423-1427.
Bittner, J. V., & Kulesz, M. M. (2015). Health promotion messages: The role of social presence for food choices. Appetite, 87(0), 336-343.
Borghi, A. M., & Cimatti, F. (2010). Embodied cognition and beyond: Acting and sensing the body. Neuropsychologia, 48(3), 763-773.
Buchner, A., Erdfelder, E., Faul, F., & Lang, A.-G. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39.
Bulu, S. T. (2012). Place presence, social presence, co-presence, and satisfaction in virtual worlds. Computers & Education, 58(1), 154-161.
Businesswire. (2018). Global augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) market worth $60.55 billion and $34.08 billion by 2023 - Researchandmarkets.com. Retrieved April 1 2019, from https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20180508005963/en/Global-Augmented-Reality-AR-Virtual-Reality-VR
Chan, T. K., Cheung, C. M., & Lee, Z. W. (2017). The state of online impulse-buying research: A literature analysis. Information & Management, 54(2), 204-217.
Chen, H. (2006). Flow on the net–detecting web users’ positive affects and their flow states. Computers in Human Behavior, 22(2), 221-233.
Chen, J. V., Su, B.-c., & Widjaja, A. E. (2016). Facebook C2C social commerce: A study of online impulse buying. Decision Support Systems, 83(0), 57-69.
Chin, W. W. (1998). Issues and opinions on structural equation modeling. MIS Quarterly, 22(1), 7-10.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Play and intrinsic rewards. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, (0), 135-153.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow. The psychology of optimal experience. . New York HarperPerennial.
Cyr, D., Head, M., Larios, H., & Pan, B. (2009). Exploring human images in website design: A multi-method approach. MIS Quarterly, 33(3), 539-566.
Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Warshaw, P. R. (1992). Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation to use computers in the workplace. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22(14), 1111-1132.
Dawson, S., & Kim, M. (2009). External and internal trigger cues of impulse buying online. Direct Marketing: An International Journal, 3 (1), 20-34.
Dittmar, H., Beattie, J., & Friese, S. (1996). Objects, decision considerations and self-image in men's and women's impulse purchases. Acta Psychologica, 93(1-3), 187-206.
Doll, W. J., Xia, W., & Torkzadeh, G. (1994). A confirmatory factor analysis of the end-user computing satisfaction instrument. MIS Quarterly, 453-461.
Donovan, R. J., Rossiter, J. R., Marcoolyn, G., & Nesdale, A. (1994). Store atmosphere and purchasing behavior. Journal of Retailing, 70(3), 283-294.
Eroglu, S. A., Machleit, K. A., & Davis, L. M. (2001). Atmospheric qualities of online retailing: A conceptual model and implications. Journal of Business research, 54(2), 177-184.
Eroglu, S. A., Machleit, K. A., & Davis, L. M. (2003). Empirical testing of a model of online store atmospherics and shopper responses. Psychology & Marketing, 20(2), 139-150.
Evans, K. R., Christiansen, T., & Gill, J. D. (1996). The impact of social influence and role expectations on shopping center patronage intentions. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 24(3), 208-218.
Faiola, A., Newlon, C., Pfaff, M., & Smyslova, O. (2013). Correlating the effects of flow and telepresence in virtual worlds: Enhancing our understanding of user behavior in game-based learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 1113-1121.
Farah, M. F., Ramadan, Z. B., & Harb, D. H. (2019). The examination of virtual reality at the intersection of consumer experience, shopping journey and physical retailing. Journal of Retailing & Consumer Services, 48. doi: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2019.02.016
Fiore, A. M., Kim, J., & Lee, H.-H. (2005). Effect of image interactivity technology on consumer responses toward the online retailer. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 19(3), 38-53.
Floh, A., & Madlberger, M. (2013). The role of atmospheric cues in online impulse-buying behavior. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 12(6), 425-439.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 39-50.
Freina, L., & Ott, M. (2015). A literature review on immersive virtual reality in education: state of the art and perspectives The international scientific conference elearning and software for education (Vol. 1, pp. 133). " Carol I" National Defence University.
Fulk, J., Steinfield, C. W., Schmitz, J., & Power, J. G. (1987). A social information processing model of media use in organizations. Communication Research, 14(5), 529-552.
Gefen, D., & Straub, D. (2003). Managing user trust in b2c e-services. e-Service Journal, 2(2), 7-24.
Gefen, D., & Straub, D. W. (2004). Consumer trust in B2C e-commerce and the importance of social presence: Experiments in e-products and e-services. Omega, 32(6), 407-424.
Goldenson, R. M. (1984). Longman dictionary of psychology and psychiatry: Addison-Wesley Longman Ltd.
Greenbaum, P. (1992). The lawnmower man. Film and Video, 9(3), 58-62.
Guo, Y., & Barnes, S. (2007). Why people buy virtual items in virtual worlds with real money. ACM SIGMIS Database: the DATABASE for Advances in Information Systems, 38(4), 69-76.
Gutierrez, B. P. B. (2004). Determinants of planned and impulse buying: The case of the Philippines. Asia Pacific Management Review, 9(6), 1061-1078.
Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B. J., Anderson,, Anderson, R., & Tatham, R. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. A global perspective: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Hamari, J. (2015). Why do people buy virtual goods? Attitude toward virtual good purchases versus game enjoyment. International Journal of Information Management, 35(3), 299-308.
Hamilton, R. W., & Thompson, D. V. (2007). Is there a substitute for direct experience? Comparing consumers' preferences after direct and indirect product experiences. Journal of Consumer Research, 34(4), 546-555.
Harmancioglu, N., Finney, R. Z., & Joseph, M. (2009). Impulse purchases of new products: An empirical analysis. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 18(1), 27-37.
Hassanein, K., & Head, M. (2005). The impact of infusing social presence in the web interface: An investigation across product types. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 10(2), 31-55.
Hassanein, K., & Head, M. (2007). Manipulating perceived social presence through the web interface and its impact on attitude towards online shopping. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 65(8), 689-708.
Hayes, A. F. (2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach: Guilford Publications.
Heeter, C. (1995). Communication research on consumer VR. Communication in the age of virtual reality, 191-218.
Held, R. M., & Durlach, N. I. (1992). Telepresence. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 1(1), 109-112.
Helmefalk, M., & Hultén, B. (2017). Multi-sensory congruent cues in designing retail store atmosphere: Effects on shoppers’ emotions and purchase behavior. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 38(0), 1-11.
Hernandez, J. M. C., Han, X. Q., & Kardes, F. R. (2014). Effects of the perceived diagnosticity of presented attribute and brand name information on sensitivity to missing information. Journal of Business Research, 67(5), 874-881. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.07.006
Ho, S. Y., & Lim, K. H. (2018). Nudging moods to induce unplanned purchases in imperfect mobile personalization contexts. MIS Quarterly, 42(3), 757-778.
Huang, T.-L. (2017). Creating e-shopping multisensory flow experience through augmented-reality interactive technology. Internet Research, 27(2), 449-475.
Huang, Y. C., Backman, K. F., Backman, S. J., & Chang, L. L. (2016). Exploring the implications of virtual reality technology in tourism marketing: An integrated research framework. International Journal of Tourism Research, 18(2), 116-128.
Hütt, C., & Vaizey, M. (1966). Differential effects of group density on social behaviour. Nature, 209(0), 1371-1372.
IJsselsteijn, W. A., De Ridder, H., Freeman, J., & Avons, S. E. (2000). Presence: concept, determinants, and measurement Human vision and electronic imaging V (Vol. 3959, pp. 520-529). International Society for Optics and Photonics.
Jin, S.-A. A., & Bolebruch, J. (2009). Avatar-based advertising in Second Life: The role of presence and attractiveness of virtual spokespersons. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 10(1), 51-60.
Keane, C. (1991). Socioenvironmental determinants of community formation. Environment and Behavior, 23(1), 27-46.
Kim, J., & Lennon, S. J. (2013). Effects of reputation and website quality on online consumers' emotion, perceived risk and purchase intention: Based on the stimulus-organism-response model. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 7(1), 33-56.
Kim, T., & Biocca, F. (1997). Telepresence via television: Two dimensions of telepresence may have different connections to memory and persuasion. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 3(2), JCMC325.
Kim, Y. J., Baker, J., & Song, J. (2007). An exploratory study of social factors influencing virtual community members' satisfaction with avatars. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 20(1), 36.
Klein, L. R. (2003). Creating virtual product experiences: The role of telepresence. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 17(1), 41-55.
Klimmt, C., Hartmann, T., & Frey, A. (2007). Effectance and control as determinants of video game enjoyment. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 10(6), 845-848.
Koo, D.-M., & Ju, S.-H. (2010). The interactional effects of atmospherics and perceptual curiosity on emotions and online shopping intention. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(3), 377-388.
Krotoski, A. K., Lyons, E., & Barnett, J. (2009). The social life of second life: An analysis of the social networks of a virtual world: New York: Peter Lang Publishing.
Krueger, M. (1991). Artificial reality (2nd ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Lau, K. W., & Lee, P. Y. (2018). Shopping in virtual reality: a study on consumers’ shopping experience in a stereoscopic virtual reality. Virtual Reality, 1-14.
Le Bon, G. (2017). The crowd: Routledge.
Lee, K. C., & Chung, N. (2008). Empirical analysis of consumer reaction to the virtual reality shopping mall. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(1), 88-104.
Lee, K. M. (2004). Why presence occurs: Evolutionary psychology, media equation, and presence. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 13(4), 494-505.
Li, H., Daugherty, T., & Biocca, F. (2001). Characteristics of virtual experience in electronic commerce: A protocol analysis. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 15(3), 13-30.
Liao, C., To, P.-L., Wong, Y.-C., Palvia, P., & Kakhki, M. D. (2016). The impact of presentation mode and product type on online impulse buying decisions. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 17(2), 153.
Lim, J., & Ayyagari, R. (2018). Investigating the determinants of telepresence in the e-commerce setting. Computers in Human Behavior, 85(0), 360-371.
Lin, C. S., Wu, S., & Tsai, R. J. (2005). Integrating perceived playfulness into expectation-confirmation model for web portal context. Information & Management, 42(5), 683-693.
Liu, Y., Li, H., & Hu, F. (2013). Website attributes in urging online impulse purchase: An empirical investigation on consumer perceptions. Decision Support Systems, 55(3), 829-837.
Lombard, M., & Ditton, T. (1997). At the heart of it all: The concept of presence. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 3(2), 0-0.
Lombard, M., & Snyder-Duch, J. (2001). Interactive advertising and presence: A framework. Journal of interactive Advertising, 1(2), 56-65.
Lu, B., Fan, W., & Zhou, M. (2016). Social presence, trust, and social commerce purchase intention: An empirical research. Computers in Human Behavior, 56, 225-237.
Luqman, A., Cao, X., Ali, A., Masood, A., & Yu, L. (2017). Empirical investigation of Facebook discontinues usage intentions based on SOR paradigm. Computers in Human Behavior, 70, 544-555.
M. Lombard, M. T. J. (2015). Defining presences. In F. B. M. Lombard, J. Freeman, W. IJsselsteijn, R.J. Schaevitz (Ed.), Immersed in Media: Telepresence Theory, Measurement & Technology (pp. 12-34). US: Springer International.
Martocchio, J. J., & Webster, J. (1992). Effects of feedback and cognitive playfulness on performance in microcomputer software training. Personnel Psychology, 45(3), 553-578.
McMahan, R. P., Bowman, D. A., Zielinski, D. J., & Brady, R. B. (2012). Evaluating display fidelity and interaction fidelity in a virtual reality game. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 18(4), 626-633.
Mehrabian, A., & Russell, J. A. (1974). An approach to environmental psychology. UK: the MIT Press.
Mehta, R. (2013). Understanding perceived retail crowding: A critical review and research agenda. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 20(6), 642-649.
Minsky, M. (1980). Telepresence.
Miranda, S. M., & Saunders, C. S. (2003). The social construction of meaning: An alternative perspective on information sharing. Information Systems Research, 14(1), 87-106.
Mohan, G., Sivakumaran, B., & Sharma, P. (2013). Impact of store environment on impulse buying behavior. European Journal of Marketing, 47(10), 1711-1732.
Moon, J.-W., & Kim, Y.-G. (2001). Extending the TAM for a World-Wide-Web context. Information & Management, 38(4), 217-230.
Nasar, J. L., & Julian, D. A. (1995). The psychological sense of community in the neighborhood. Journal of the American Planning Association, 61(2), 178-184.
Nelson, P. (1974). Advertising as information. Journal of Political Economy, 82(4), 729-754.
Nicholas, S., Haldane, C., & Wilson, J. R. (2000). Measurement of presence and its consequences in virtual environment. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 52(3), 471-491.
Ning Shen, K., & Khalifa, M. (2012). System design effects on online impulse buying. Internet Research, 22(4), 396-425.
Pallavicini, F., Argenton, L., Toniazzi, N., Aceti, L., & Mantovani, F. (2016). Virtual reality applications for stress management training in the military. Aerospace medicine and human performance, 87(12), 1021-1030.
Pantano, E., Rese, A., & Baier, D. (2017). Enhancing the online decision-making process by using augmented reality: A two country comparison of youth markets. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 38(0), 81-95.
Papagiannidis, S., Pantano, E., See-To, E. W., & Bourlakis, M. (2013). Modelling the determinants of a simulated experience in a virtual retail store and users’ product purchasing intentions. Journal of Marketing Management, 29(13-14), 1462-1492.
Parboteeah, D. V., Valacich, J. S., & Wells, J. D. (2009). The influence of website characteristics on a consumer's urge to buy impulsively. Information Systems Research, 20(1), 60-78.
Park, C., & Jun, J.-K. (2003). A cross-cultural comparison of Internet buying behavior: Effects of Internet usage, perceived risks, and innovativeness. International Marketing Review, 20(5), 534-553.
Park, M., Im, H., & Kim, D. Y. (2018). Feasibility and user experience of virtual reality fashion stores. Fashion and Textiles, 5(1), 32.
Pecher, D., & Zwaan, R. A. (2005). Grounding cognition: The role of perception and action in memory, language, and thinking. UK: Cambridge University Press.
Peck, J., & Childers, T. L. (2006). If I touch it I have to have it: Individual and environmental influences on impulse purchasing. Journal of Business Research, 59(6), 765-769.
Peter, J. P., Olson, J. C., & Grunert, K. G. (1999). Consumer behaviour and marketing strategy. US: McGraw-hill London.
Peukert, C., Pfeiffer, J., Meißner, M., Pfeiffer, T., & Weinhardt, C. (2019). Shopping in virtual reality stores: The influence of immersion on system adoption. Journal of Management Information Systems, 36(3), 755-788.
Pizzi, G., Scarpi, D., Pichierri, M., & Vannucci, V. (2019). Virtual reality, real reactions?: Comparing consumers' perceptions and shopping orientation across physical and virtual-reality retail stores. Computers in Human Behavior, 96, 1-12.
Riva, G. (2007). Virtual reality and telepresence. Science, 318(5854), 1240-1242.
Riva, G., Davide, F., & IJsselsteijn, W. A. (2003). Being there: Concepts, effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments: Ios Press.
Rook, D. W. (1987). The buying impulse. Journal of Consumer Research, 14(2), 189-199.
Rook, D. W., & Gardner, M. P. (1993). In the mood: Impulse buying’s affective antecedents. Research in consumer behavior, 6(7), 1-28.
Sautter, P., Hyman, M. R., & Lukosius, V. (2004). E-tail atmospherics: A critique of the literature and model extension. J. Electron. Commerce Res., 5(1), 14-24.
Scarpetta, F. (2008). Practices to display social presence: A study in a shared mediated environment. PsychNology Journal, 6(1).
Schuemie, M. J., Van Der Straaten, P., Krijn, M., & Van Der Mast, C. A. (2001). Research on presence in virtual reality: A survey. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 4(2), 183-201.
Shahrbanian, S., Ma, X., Aghaei, N., Korner-Bitensky, N., Moshiri, K., & Simmonds, M. J. (2012). Use of virtual reality (immersive vs. non immersive) for pain management in children and adults: A systematic review of evidence from randomized controlled trials. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2(5), 1408-1422.
Sherman, E., Mathur, A., & Smith, R. B. (1997). Store environment and consumer purchase behavior: mediating role of consumer emotions. Psychology & Marketing, 14(4), 361-378.
Statista. (2019). Forecast unit shipments of augmented (AR) and virtual reality (VR) headsets from 2019 to 2023 (in millions). Retrieved April 1, 2019
Steiger, J. H. (2007). Understanding the limitations of global fit assessment in structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(5), 893-898.
Stephenson, W. (1967). The play theory of mass communication. Journal of Marketing Research, (0000040)(4).
Steuer, J. (1992). Defining virtual reality: Dimensions determining telepresence. Journal of communication, 42(4), 73-93.
Suh, K.-S., & Chang, S. (2006). User interfaces and consumer perceptions of online stores: The role of telepresence. Behaviour & Information Technology, 25(2), 99-113.
Suh, K.-S., & Lee, Y. E. (2005). The effects of virtual reality on consumer learning: An empirical investigation. Mis Quarterly, 673-697.
Sukoco, B. M., & Wu, W.-Y. (2011). The effects of advergames on consumer telepresence and attitudes: A comparison of products with search and experience attributes. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(6), 7396-7406.
Sullivan, J. (1999). What are the functions of corporate home pages? Journal of World Business, 34(2), 193-210.
Tractica. (2017). Virtual reality content set to outpace hardware by 2018.
Turley, L. W., & Milliman, R. E. (2000). Atmospheric effects on shopping behavior: a review of the experimental evidence. Journal of business research, 49(2), 193-211.
Underhill, P. (2009). Why we buy: The science of shopping--updated and revised for the Internet, the global consumer, and beyond: Simon and Schuster.
Van Kerrebroeck, H., Brengman, M., & Willems, K. (2017). Escaping the crowd: An experimental study on the impact of a Virtual Reality experience in a shopping mall. Computers in Human Behavior, 77(0), 437-450.
Verhagen, T., & van Dolen, W. (2011). The influence of online store beliefs on consumer online impulse buying: A model and empirical application. Information & Management, 48(8), 320-327.
Verhagen, T., Vonkeman, C., Feldberg, F., & Verhagen, P. (2014). Present it like it is here: Creating local presence to improve online product experiences. Computers in Human Behavior, 39(0), 270-280.
Vonkeman, C., Verhagen, T., & Dolen, W. v. (2016). Role of local presence in online impulse buying. Information & Management. doi: 10.1016/j.im.2017.02.008
Wilson, G., & Baldassare, M. (1996). Overall" sense of community" in a suburban region: The effects of localism, privacy, and urbanization. Environment and Behavior, 28(1), 27-43.
Witmer, B. G., & Singer, M. J. (1998). Measuring presence in virtual environments: A presence questionnaire. Presence, 7(3), 225-240.
Woszczynski, A. B., Roth, P. L., & Segars, A. H. (2002). Exploring the theoretical foundations of playfulness in computer interactions. Computers in Human Behavior, 18(4), 369-388.
Xu, Y., & Huang, J.-S. (2014). Effects of price discounts and bonus packs on online impulse buying. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 42(8), 1293-1302.
Yim, M. Y.-C., Chu, S.-C., & Sauer, P. L. (2017). Is augmented reality technology an effective tool for e-commerce? An interactivity and vividness perspective. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 39(0), 89-103.
Yim, M. Y.-C., Cicchirillo, V. J., & Drumwright, M. E. (2012). The impact of stereoscopic three-dimensional (3-D) advertising. Journal of Advertising, 41(2), 113-128.
Zhang, H., Lu, Y., Gupta, S., & Zhao, L. (2014). What motivates customers to participate in social commerce? The impact of technological environments and virtual customer experiences. Information & Management, 51(8), 1017-1030.
Zhang, H., Wang, Z., Chen, S., & Guo, C. (2019). Product recommendation in online social networking communities: An empirical study of antecedents and a mediator. Information & Management, 56(2), 185-195. doi: 10.1016/j.im.2018.05.001
Zheng, X., Liu, N., & Zhao, L. (2013). A study of the effectiveness of online scarce promotion-based on the comparison of planned buying and unplanned buying. Paper presented at the WHICEB.
Zyda, M. (2005). From visual simulation to virtual reality to games. Computer, 38(9), 25-32.