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系統識別號 U0026-0401202006312800
論文名稱(中文) The Impact of Interactivity, Virtual Embodiment and Virtual Crowd on Virtual Reality Experiences and Impulse Buying
論文名稱(英文) The Impact of Interactivity, Virtual Embodiment and Virtual Crowd on Virtual Reality Experiences and Impulse Buying
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 國際經營管理研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of International Management
學年度 108
學期 1
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 何光安
研究生(英文) Ha Quang An
學號 RA8047011
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 90頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳正忠
召集委員-Shuk Ying Ho
口試委員-王存國
口試委員-邱兆民
口試委員-王維聰
口試委員-王鈿
中文關鍵字 none 
英文關鍵字 Interactivity  Virtual embodiment  Virtual crowd  Local presence  Telepresence  Perceived social presence  Impulse buying 
學科別分類
中文摘要 none
英文摘要 With the growth of virtual reality (VR) devices and applications, VR is asserted to be a successful internet shopping technology in the future. However, only a few studies have investigated the VR shopping context. Applying the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) model, this research examines the influences of some VR environment stimuli (interactivity, virtual embodiment, virtual crowd) on a customer’s organism (local presence, telepresence, perceived social presence, and playfulness) and a customer’s urge to buy impulsively in a VR store. To examine these relationships, the author conducted a 2x2x3 factorial design experiment with 364 participants. The findings revealed that interactivity has positive impacts on local presence and playfulness, virtual embodiment has positive impacts on telepresence and playfulness, and virtual crowd has positive impacts on perceived social presence. Additionally, except telepresence, local presence, perceived social presence, and playfulness are found to have positive impacts on the urge to buy impulsively. The results of this research contribute to the literature on consumer behaviors in VR shopping as well as the understanding of the impacts of VR environmental factors on impulse buying.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT I
ACKNOWLEDGMENT II
TABLE OF CONTENTS III
LIST OF FIGURES VIII
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivations. 1
1.1.1 Virtual Reality and Applications. 1
1.1.2 Research Gaps. 4
1.2 Research Objectives and Contributions. 8
1.3 Research Procedure. 9
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 Stimulus-Organism-Response Model. 10
2.2 Virtual Reality Product Presentation and Interactivity. 14
2.3 Theories of Embodied Cognition and Virtual Embodiment. 15
2.3.1 Embodied Cognition. 15
2.3.2 Virtual Embodiment and Virtual Body. 16
2.4 Social Presence and Virtual Crowd. 17
2.4.1 Perceived Social Presence. 17
2.4.2 Virtual Crowd. 18
2.5 Local Presence. 20
2.6 Telepresence. 20
2.7 Playfulness. 22
2.8 Urge to Buy Impulsively. 24
2.9 Hypothesis Developments. 25
2.9.1 The Impact of Interactivity on VR Shopping Experiences. 25
2.9.2 The Impact of Virtual Embodiment on VR Shopping Experiences. 27
2.9.3 The Impact of Virtual Crowd on VR Shopping Experiences. 28
2.9.4 The Impact of Telepresence on Playfulness. 30
2.9.5 The Impact of Perceived Social Presence on Playfulness. 31
2.9.6 The Impact of Local Presence on the Urge to Buy Impulsively. 32
2.9.7 The Impact of Telepresence on the Urge to Buy Impulsively. 33
2.9.8 The Impact of Playfulness on the Urge to Buy Impulsively. 34
2.9.9 The Impact of Perceived Social Presence on the Urge to Buy Impulsively. 35
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 37
3.1 Research Framework. 37
3.2 Research Variables. 38
3.3 Experimental Design. 38
3.4 Independent Variables Manipulation. 39
3.4.1 Manipulation for Interactivity. 39
3.4.2 Manipulation for Virtual Embodiment. 39
3.4.3 Manipulation for Virtual Crowd. 40
3.5 App Development. 41
3.6 Experimental Task. 42
3.7 Construct Measurements. 42
3.8 Sampling Plan. 44
3.9 Control Variables. 45
3.10 Data Analysis Methods 45
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS AND FINDING 46
4.1 Data Collection. 46
4.2 Characteristics of the Respondents. 46
4.3 Descriptive Statistical Analysis. 48
4.4 Factor Analysis and Reliability Test. 49
4.5 Manipulation Checks. 52
4.6 Hypothesis Testing: Multivariate Analysis of Variance among Research Variables. 54
4.6.1 The Main Effects of Interactivity. 56
4.6.2 The Main Effects of Virtual Embodiment. 57
4.6.3 The Main Effects of Virtual Crowd. 57
4.6.4 The Interaction Effect between Interactivity and Virtual Crowd. 59
4.6.5 The Interaction Effect between Virtual Embodiment and Virtual Crowd 62
4.7 Hypothesis Testing: Structural Equation Model 65
4.8 The mediating role of Playfulness 67
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSION 68
5.1 Discussions 68
5.2 Theoretical Contributions and Practical Implication 71
5.3 Research Limitation and Suggestion for Future Research. 73
REFERENCES 76
Descriptive Statistics of MANOVA 87
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