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系統識別號 U0026-0308201621405600
論文名稱(中文) 單歧管太陽能集熱板效率研究與不確定性分析
論文名稱(英文) Performance and Analysis of Uncertainty of a Single Fin Solar Collector
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 航空太空工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 曾國哲
研究生(英文) Kuo-Che Tseng
學號 p46031068
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 94頁
口試委員 指導教授-張克勤
口試委員-王覺寬
口試委員-李聰盛
中文關鍵字 準動態效能測試  平板型集熱板  太陽熱能 
英文關鍵字 Quasi-dynamic test  Flat-plate collector  Solar energy 
學科別分類
中文摘要 平板型太陽能集熱器為國內太陽能熱水器產業中最為常見太陽能利用裝置。集熱板主要是由歧管、吸收板面搭配選擇性吸收膜所構成;集熱板系統吸收太陽輻射能後轉換成可用熱能的過程中,太陽輻射光的角度、漫射比率、環境溫度及風速等因素皆會對其吸收、轉化的效率產生影響。ISO 9806:2013描述了一種準動態測試方法,來進行集熱系統吸收效率的測試。本研究利用準動態測試,在實際、多變的天氣條件下進行集熱板日照實驗,藉此評估集熱系統吸收太陽輻射光的效能表現。實驗模組為同一家台灣製造商生產之兩種不同型式的單鰭片單歧管平板型集熱板,差異在於歧管分別置於向陽面與背陽面,並搭配五種入口流體流量進行太陽輻射光日照實驗。
研究發現歧管置於向陽面的集熱板模組,在日照過程中,歧管因直接被日照光照射,故集熱板內部能量傳導的路徑相對較短,入口流量小時,其集熱系統在無熱散條件下的最佳效率最高,約0.66,隨著流量增加,逐漸下降至0.62;歧管置於背陽面的集熱板模組,內部能量是由吸收板被日照光照射後,藉由吸收板內部以及吸收板與歧管之間的焊接條進行熱傳導,入口流量小時,其集熱系統在無熱散條件下的最佳效率最低,約0.60,隨著流量增加至約一倍標準流量,其最佳效率達至高峰值,約0.63,爾後,又隨流量增加而逐漸下降。歧管置於向陽面的集熱板模組,因歧管直接接觸內部空氣層及其系統於集熱過程中的平均溫度較高,導致其集熱系統與環境之間的熱散程度較另一種集熱板模組較為嚴重。
一般常見的非循環集熱系統使用的情形,其系統平均溫度會比環境溫度高約5℃ ~ 10 ℃,表示系統會有明顯的熱散現象。故歧管置於背陽面的集熱板模組,其吸收日照光轉換成可用熱能的瞬時效率會比歧管置於向陽面的集熱板較佳,歧管置於向陽面的集熱板模組僅在入口流量小且系統與環境溫差小時,其系統效率略有優勢。

英文摘要 This study investigates the performance of the fin flat-plate solar collectors constituted of single tube and single fin. There are two different types of flat-plate collector (FPC) in this study. The first one, the FPC tube is mounted on the sunny side. The second one, the FPC tube is mounted on the back of the sunny side. ISO 9806:2013 performed a quasi-dynamic test (QDT) on FPC performance under variable and real weather conditions. Based on the QDT, two types of FPCs were tested with different inlet flow rates in Tainan, Taiwan for finishing the performance analysis.
The tube of the first FPC module was irradiated by the solar radiation directly, so the energy transferring path was comparetively shorter. At a small inlet flow rate, the optimal efficiency without heat loss (η0) of the FPC was almost 0.66. η0 decreased gradually as the inlet flow rate was increasing. In the second FPC module, solar radiation irradiates to the absorber plate of the FPC. The heat was transferred to the tube of the FPC via thermal conduction. At a small inlet flow rate, η0 of the second FPC was at most 0.60. As the flow rate was increasing, η0 increased gradually. There was a peak value of η0 when the inlet flow rate was increased to almost 1.0 of the standard flow rate stated in ISO 9806:2013. After the standard flow rate, η0 decreased as the flow rate was increasing. In the first FPC module, the tube of the FPC contacted the air layer inside the FPC system directly, so the mean temperature of the FPC was higher in the process of energy absorption. Therefore, the degree of heat loss of the first FPC is higher than the second FPC.
Under most actual weather, there is an obvious temperature difference between the FPC system and the surroundings. Performance and collection efficiency of the first FPC module is worse than the second one. The only advantages are appeared under the conditions of the small inlet flow rate and the small temperature difference between the system and environment.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 VII
目錄 VIII
表目錄 XI
圖目錄 XII
符號目錄 XV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 2
1.3文獻回顧 2
第二章 實驗設備與方法 5
2.1 實驗設備 5
2.1.1集熱器系統 5
2.1.2 溢流系統-大型儲水桶、溢流桶及小型水泵 5
2.1.3訊號擷取系統 6
2.1.4溫度控制器 6
2.2實驗儀器 6
2.2.1 溫度感測器 6
2.2.2流量計 7
2.2.3 全天空日射計 7
2.2.4 全天空漫射計 7
2.2.5 風速計 7
2.2.6單光光譜儀 7
2.2.7熱傳導係數分析儀 8
2.3 實驗方法 8
2.3.1實驗的設置 8
2.3.2集熱器效率測試法 8
2.3.2.1入口流量規範修正與設定 9
2.3.2.2入口溫度規範修正與設定 9
2.3.2.3實驗流程 10
2.3.3時間常數與特徵常數評估 10
2.3.4夜間熱散實驗 11
第三章 相關理論與研究方法 12
3.1相關理論 12
3.1.1熱傳導、對流、輻射與總熱傳係數 12
3.1.2平板型集熱系統熱傳說明 13
3.1.3平板型集熱器轉換效能分析 14
3.1.4影響平板型集熱板之性能概論 16
3.1.5集熱板準動態測試模組 17
3.1.6迴歸分析 18
3.1.6.1多元線性迴歸分析(Multiple Linear Regression) 19
3.1.6.2共線性問題(Multicollinearity) 20
3.1.6.3 R相關係數、R2決定係數與t-ratio測試 21
3.1.7 不確定度分析 22
3.2研究方法 24
3.2.1實驗數據的量測 24
3.2.2實驗數據的處理 24
3.2.3 數據平均時間間隔 25
3.2.4準動態模組計算與修正 25
3.2.5效能曲線 26
3.2.6計算日射光入射角 27
3.2.7時間常數與特徵時間的計算 28
3.2.8 不確定度評估 29
第四章 結果與討論 30
4.1 集熱器準動態測試 30
4.1.1迴歸數據分布 30
4.1.2平均時間長度的影響 32
4.1.3 準動態迴歸分析之處理 34
4.1.4風速範圍修正後的影響 35
4.1.5 R Table 35
4.2集熱系統內部溫度分布 36
4.3 時間常數與特徵時間 38
4.4 集熱板夜間熱散評估 41
4.5 集熱系統效率分析結果 42
4.5.1集熱系統最佳效率與等效熱散係數 42
4.5.2漫射率的影響 46
4.6不確定度分析 47
第五章 結論與建議 49
5.1結論 49
5.2建議 50
參考文獻 51


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