進階搜尋


下載電子全文  
系統識別號 U0026-0308201118361600
論文名稱(中文) 腰椎植入內固定器之三維有限元素分析
論文名稱(英文) Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Implanted Intenor Spinal Fixator for Lumbar Spine
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工程科學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Engineering Science
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 陳敬文
研究生(英文) Ching-Wen Chen
學號 n96984236
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 94頁
口試委員 指導教授-潘文峰
口試委員-王榮泰
口試委員-李國龍
口試委員-洪兆宇
口試委員-張高華
中文關鍵字 有限元素法  MSC.PATRAN有限元素軟體  腰椎 
英文關鍵字 Finite Element Analysis  MSC.PATRAN Finite Element Analysis Software  Lumbar Spine 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究使用電腦計算的方法,模擬骨科醫師植入脊椎內固定器後,病人在使用時的相關力學行為,該研究不僅克服進行體內實驗的限制,更能夠降低體內實驗所需的龐大設備資源及經費。
本研究方法係先由電腦斷層掃描人體的脊椎幾何外型及軟硬組織,接著以3D Doctor軟體將電腦斷層所掃描的圖檔一層層堆疊起來,繼續以PATRAN有限元素軟體結合脊椎固定器並建立及修補三維脊椎實體模型,同時建立網格模型及設定適當的負載及邊界條件,最後匯入ABAQUS有限元素軟體模擬出植入脊椎內固定器後病人使用時,脊椎內部的應力、應變及變形的分佈情形。
英文摘要 In this study, using the computer calculation method for simulating the mechanical behavior of the internal spinal fixator implanted by orthopedic surgeons. This study not only can overcome the limitations in vivo experiments, but can reduce the huge cost and experimental equipment resources.
The research method start with CT scanning the appearance of the body's spine and geometry of the soft tissue. Next, the drawing layers from CT scanning are stacked together by using the software 3D Doctor. Thereafter, the finite element software PATRAN is used to establish and repair the 3D solid model of the internal spinal fixator. Simultaneously, the grid model is constructed and the appropriate load and boundary conditions are also set. Finally, the model is inserted into the finite element software ABAQUS for simulating the stress, strain and deformation of the implanted internal spinal fixator for patients during usage.
論文目次 目錄

摘 要 .............................................. I
Abstract ............................................. Ⅱ
誌 謝 ............................................... Ⅲ
目 錄 ............................................... Ⅳ
圖目錄 ............................................... Ⅵ
表目錄 ............................................... Ⅷ

第一章 緒論 .......................................... 1
1-1 前言 ................................. 1
1-2 研究動機與目的 ........................ 2
1-3 文獻回顧 .............................. 4
1-4 章節提要 .............................. 12
第二章 理論架構基礎 ................................... 14
2-1 人體脊椎生理構造 ....................... 14
2-2 脊椎結構 .............................. 16
2-2-1 脊椎骨 .......................... 17
2-2-2 椎間盤 .......................... 23
2-2-3 小面關節 ........................ 27
2-2-4 韌帶 ........................... 28
2-3 腰椎相關病變與治療 ..................... 35
2-2-1 腰椎相關病變 ..................... 35
2-2-2 治療方式 ......................... 38
2-2-3 手術材料 ......................... 41
2-4 有限元素法 ............................. 43
2-5 有限元素分析軟體 ....................... 45
2-5-1 有限元素軟體PATRAN ............... 46
2-5-2 有限元素軟體ABAQUS ............... 48
第三章 模型建立與分析 ................................ 50
3-1 建立有限元素模型 ....................... 51
3-1-1 醫學影像處理 ..................... 51
3-1-2 建立有限元素模型 ................. 51
3-2 模型分析 ............................... 58
3-2-1 元素設定 ......................... 58
3-2-2 脊椎材料性質 ..................... 60
3-2-3 負載及邊界條件 ................... 61
3-2-4 人體動作之脊椎狀態分析 ........... 62
第四章 有限元素分析結果 .............................. 67
4-1 收斂性分析 ............................. 67
4-2 模型驗證與確立 ......................... 67
4-3 椎間盤應力 ............................. 80
4-4 椎間相對轉角 ........................... 84
第五章 結論與未來展望 ................................ 88
5-1 結論 .................................. 88
5-2 未來展望 ............................... 89
參考文獻 ............................................... 90


圖目錄

圖1.1 植入脊椎內固定器示意圖 .......................... 4
圖1.2 Goel等人的L3-L5腰椎有限元素模型圖 .............. 12
圖2.1 人體脊椎結構圖 ................................ 15
圖2.2 腰椎運動肢段的矢面狀示意圖 ...................... 16
圖2.3 脊椎骨斷面圖 .................................. 18
圖2.4 (a)為正常的骨小樑 (b)為骨質疏鬆的骨小樑 ......... 20
圖2.5 端板、軟骨板及椎間盤 .......................... 21
圖2.6 椎間盤的組織結構圖 ............................ 24
圖2.7 纖維環的纖維方向示意圖 ........................ 26
圖2.8 脊椎各韌帶位置示意圖 .......................... 29
圖2.9 韌帶的應力-應變曲線圖 ......................... 30
圖2.10 透過方程式所得之適合曲線 ....................... 33
圖2.11 本研究各個韌帶應力應變曲線圖 .................... 34
圖2.12 (a) L5-S1之間的椎間盤突出 (b)椎孔狹窄 (c) L5-S1的脊椎滑脫(d) L4-L5與L5-S1的椎間盤退化 ......................... 38
圖2.13 (a)脊椎內固定器X光圖,(b)鎖入位置示意圖 .......... 43
圖3.1 人體腰椎、薦椎樣本模型圖 ........................ 50
圖3.2 Mesh-On-Mesh with Hard bar element ........... 52
圖3.3 脊椎實體模型截面圖 ............................. 53
圖3.4 椎間盤各部份模型圖 ............................. 54
圖3.5 附著脊椎之韌帶元素圖 ........................... 55
圖3.6 脊椎有限元素模型圖 ............................. 56
圖3.7 螺釘及連桿有限元素模型圖 ........................ 57
圖3.8 脊椎骨植入脊椎內固定器示意圖 ..................... 57
圖3.9 Softened contact情況下間距與壓力之關係圖 ........ 59
圖3.10 承受Preload與邊界條件的示意圖 ................... 62
圖3.11 外力施加方式 (左)前彎、(右)伸展圖 ................ 63
圖3.12 外力施加方式 (左)側彎、(右)扭轉圖 ................ 64
圖3.13 脊椎端板轉角方向定義圖 .......................... 65
圖3.14 前彎或伸展動作時椎間相對轉角計算方式(θ2-θ1為轉角)圖 .. 66
圖3.15 側彎動作時椎間相對轉角計算方式(θ2-θ1為轉角)圖 ...... 66
圖4.1 垂直負載下之腰薦椎有限元素模型圖 ................. 68
圖4.2 垂直負載下植入脊椎內固定器之腰薦椎有限元素模型圖 ... 69
圖4.3 ORG-Preload的有限元素應力分析圖 ................. 70
圖4.4 ORG-Preload各部位應力分析圖 .................... 70
圖4.5 ORG-EXT的有限元素應力分析圖 ..................... 71
圖4.6 ORG-EXT各部位應力分析圖 ........................ 71
圖4.7 ORG-FLX的有限元素應力分析圖 ..................... 72
圖4.8 ORG-FLX各部位應力分析圖 ......................... 72
圖4. 9 ORG-LAT的有限元素應力分析圖 .................... 73
圖4.10 ORG-LAT各部位應力分析圖 ....................... 73
圖4.11 ORG-ROT的有限元素應力分析圖 .................... 74
圖4.12 ORG-ROT各部位應力分析圖 ........................ 74
圖4.13 ISF-Preload的有限元素應力分析圖 ................. 75
圖4.14 ISF-Preload各部位應力分析圖 .................... 75
圖4.15 ISF-EXT的有限元素應力分析圖 .................... 76
圖4.16 ISF-EXT各部位應力分析圖 ........................ 76
圖4.17 ISF-FLX的有限元素應力分析圖 .................... 77
圖4.18 ISF-FLX各部位應力分析圖 ........................ 77
圖4.19 ISF-LAT的有限元素應力分析圖 .................... 78
圖4.20 ISF-LAT各部位應力分析圖 ........................ 78
圖4.21 ISF-ROT的有限元素應力分析圖 .................... 79
圖4.22 ISF-ROT各部位應力分析圖 ........................ 79
圖4.23 各椎間盤垂直載重之最大應力圖 .................... 82
圖4.24 各椎間盤伸展之最大應力圖 ........................ 82
圖4.25 各椎間盤前彎之最大應力圖 ........................ 83
圖4.26 各椎間盤側彎之最大應力圖 ........................ 83
圖4.27 各椎間盤扭轉之最大應力圖 ........................ 84
圖4.28 垂直載重下各椎間相對轉角圖 ...................... 85
圖4.29 伸展動作下各椎間相對轉角圖 ...................... 85
圖4.30 前彎動作下各椎間相對轉角圖 ...................... 86
圖4.31 側彎動作下各椎間相對轉角圖 ...................... 86
圖4.32 扭轉動作下各椎間相對轉角圖 ...................... 87


表目錄

表2.1 各文獻所採用的皮質骨材料參數整理表 ............... 22
表2.2 各文獻所採用的海綿骨材料參數整理表 ............... 22
表2.3 各文獻所採用的端板材料參數整理表 ................. 22
表2.4 各文獻所採用的後骨材料參數整理表 ................. 23
表2.5 各文獻所採用的纖維環材料參數整理表 ............... 26
表2.6 各文獻所採用的髓核材料參數整理表 ................. 27
表2.7 TAUT REGION起點與終點 ......................... 31
表2.8 TAUT REGION起點與終點 ......................... 31
表2.9 各個韌帶應力應變曲線使用參數 .................... 32
表2.10 各個韌帶應力應變曲線使用參數 .................... 32
表2.11 各個韌帶之E taut .............................. 33
表2.12 各個韌帶之ε0 .................................. 33
表2. 13 本研究各個韌帶使用參數 .......................... 34
表3.1 脊椎各部位元素及斷面性質 ........................ 60
表3.2 脊椎各結構材料性質表 ............................ 61
表4.1 各名詞之英文說明及代號 .......................... 69
參考文獻 1. Brekelmans, W.A.M., Poort, H.W. and Slooff, T.J.J.H., "A New Method to Analyses the Mechanical Behavior of Skeletal Parts.", Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, Vol. 43, pp. 301-317, 1972.
2. Hakim, N.S. and King, A.I., " A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Dynamic Rresponse Analysis of a Vertebra with Experimental Verification.", J. Biomech, Vol. 12, pp. 277-292, 1979.
3. Goel, V.K., Kim, Y.E., Lim, T.H. and Weinstein, J.N., "An Analytical Investigation of Spinal Instrumentation.", Spine, Vol. 13, pp. 1003-1011, 1988.
4. Skinner, R., Maybee, J., Transfeldt, E., Venter, F.R. and Chalmers, W., 'Experimental Pullout Testing and Comparison of Variables in Transpedicular Screw Fixation: A Biomechanical Study.", Spine, Vol. 15, pp. 195-201, 1990.
5. Goel, V.K., Kong, W., Han, J.S., Weinstein, J.N. and Gilbertsion, L.G., "A Combined Finite Element and Optimization Investigation of Lumbar Spine Mechanics with and without Muscles.", Spine, Vol. 18, pp. 1541-1591, 1993.
6. Shirazi-Adl. A., Parnianpour, M. "Nonlinear Response Analysis of the Human Ligamentous Lumbar Spine in Compression.", Spine, Vol. 18, pp. 147-158, 1993.
7. Shirazi-Adl. A., "Biomechanics of the Lumbar Spine in Sagittal/Lateral Moments.", Spine, Vol. 19, pp. 2407-2414, 1994.
8. Shirazi-Adl. A., "Nonlinear Stress Analysis of the Whole Lumbar Spine in Torsion-Meshanics of Facet Articulation.", J Biomesh, Vol. 27, pp. 289-299, 1994.
9. Shirazi-Adl. A. and Parniapour, M. "Role of Posture in Mechanics of the Lumbar Spine in Compression.", J of Spinal Disorder, Vol. 9, pp. 277-286, 1996.
10.Cunningham, B.W., Sefter, J.C., Shono, Y. and McAfee, P.C., "Static and Cyclical Biomechanical Analysis of Pedicle Screw Spinal Constructs.", Spine, Vol. 18, pp. 1677-1688, 1993.
11.Daftari, T.K., Horton, W.C. and Hutton, W.C., "Correlations Between Screw Hole Preparation, Torque of Insertion, and Pullout Strength for Spinal Screws.", J Spinal Disorder, Vol. 7, pp. 139-145, 1994.
12.Lim, T.H., An, H.S., Evanich, C., Hasanoglu, K.Y., McGrady, L. and Wilson, C.R., "Strength of Anterior Vertebral Screw Fixation in Relationship to Bone Mineral Density.", J Spinal Disorder, Vol. 8, pp. 121-125, 1995.
13.Goel, V.K., Monroe, B.T., Gilbertson, L.G. and Brinckmann, P., "Interlaminar Shear Stresses and Laminae Separation in a Disc. Finite Element Analysis of The L3-L4 Motion Segment Subjected to Axial Compressive Loads.", Spine, Vol. 20, pp. 689-698, 1995.
14.Kwok, A.L., Finkelstein, J.A., Woodside, T., Hearn, T.C. and Hu, R.W., "Insertional Torque and Pull-Out Strengths of Conical and Cylindrical Pedicle Screws in Cadaveric Bone.", Spine, Vol. 21, pp. 2429-2434, 1996.
15.Yerby, S.A., Ehteshami, J.R. and McLain, R.F., "Loading of Pedicle Screws within the Vertebra.", J Biomech, Vol. 30, pp. 951-954, 1997.
16.Stambough, J.L., Genaidy, A.M., Huston, R.L., Serhan, H. and Sabri, E.H., "Biomechanical Assessment of Titanium and Stainless Steel Posterior Spinal Constructs: Effects of Absolute/Relative Loading and Frequency on Fatigue Life and Determonation of Failure Modes.", J Spinal Disorder Tech, Vol. 10, pp. 473-481, 1997.
17.Pienkowski, D., Stephens, G.C., Doers, T.M. and Hamilton, D.M., "Multicycle Mechanical Performance of Titanium and Stainless Steel Transpedicular Spine Implants.", Spine, Vol. 23, pp. 782-788, 1998.
18.Buhler, D.W., Berlemann, U., Oxland, T.R. and Nolte, L.P., "Moments and Forces During Pedicle Screw Insertion: In Vitro and in Vivo Measurements.", Spine Vol. 23, pp. 1220-1228, 1998.
19.Rohlmann, A., Calisse, J., Bergmann, G., Weber, U., "Internal Spinal Fixator Stiffness Has Only a Minor Influence on Stresses in the Adjacent Discs.", Spine, Vol. 24, pp. 1192-1196, 1999.
20.McKinley, T.O., McLain, R.F., Yerby, S.A., Sharkey, N.A., Sarigul-Klijn, N. and Smith, T.S., "Characteristics of Pedicle Screw Loading: Effect of Surgical Technique on Intravertebral and Intrapedicular Bending Moments.", Spine, Vol. 24, pp. 18-25, 1999.
21.Zhu, Q., Lu, W.W., Holmes, A.D., Zheng, Y., Zhong, S. and Leong, J.C.Y., 'The Effects of Cyclic Loading on Pull-Out Strength of Sacral Screw Fixation: An In Vitro Biomechanical Study.", Spine, Vol. 25, pp. 1065-1069, 2000.
22.Lu, W.W., Zhu, Q., Holmes, A.D., Luk, K.D.K., Zhong, S. and Leong, J.C.Y., "Loosening of Sacral Screw Fixation Under in Vitro Fatigue Loading.", Journal of Orthopaedic Research, Vol. 18, pp. 808-814, 2000.
23.Okuyama, K., Abe, E., Suzuki, T., Tamura, Y., Chiba, M. and Sato, K., "Influence of Bone Mineral Density on Pedicle Screw Fixation: A Study of Pedicle Screw Fixation Augmenting Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Elderly Patients.", The Spine J, pp. 402-407, 2001.
24.蘇建榮,『針對不同表面處理之鈦合金骨螺絲作生物親和性的評估』,國立成功大學醫學工程研究所,碩士論文,中華民國九十一年六月。
25.林宏銘,『椎體成形術之生物力學分析』,國立陽明大學醫學工程研究所,碩士論文,中華民國九十二年八月。
26.Chen, P.Q., Lin, S.J., Wu, S.S. and So, H., "Mechanical Performance of the New Posterior Spinal Implant: Effect of Materials, Connecting Plate, and Pedicle Screw Design.", Spine, Vol. 28, pp. 881-886, 2003.
27.Chen, S.I., Lin, R.M. and Chang, C.H., "Biomechanical Investigation of Pedicle Screw-Vertebrae Complex: A Finite Element Approach Using Bonded and Contact Interface Conditions.", Med Eng Phys, Vol. 25, pp. 275-282, 2003.
28.陳守義,『椎弓骨釘在材料性質及介面狀態之生物力學分析』,國立成功大學醫學工程研究所,博士論文,中華民國九十二年八月。
29.呂元喬,『逆行性骨髓內釘之生物力學分析』,國立成功大學醫學工程研究所,碩士論文,中華民國九十二年七月。
30.蔡盈宗,『椎弓足骨螺絲骨咬合強度之生物力學測試與有限元素分析』,國立台灣科技大學機械工程研究所,碩士論文,中華民國九十三年六月。
31.徐慶琪,『骨螺絲之結構設計與生物力學分析』,國立台灣科技大學機械工程研究所,博士學位論文,中華民國九十四年十二月。
32.謝牧鄰,『以CT 斷層掃描影像為基礎之脊椎有限元素分析』,國立成功大學土木工程研究所,碩士論文,中華民國九十四年六月。
33.林柏君,『電腦輔助腰椎之有限元素分析』,國立成功大學土木工程研究所,碩士論文,中華民國九十五年六月。
34.Chen, C.H., "A Finite Element Study of the Biomechanical Behavior of the Nonlinear Ligamentous Thoracic and Lumbar Spine.", National Cheng Kung University, Department of Civil Engineering, Dissertation of Master Degree, June 2007.
35.林冠瑋,『電腦輔助脊椎之有限元素分析』,國立成功大學土木工程研究所,碩士論文,中華民國九十七年六月。
36.劉哲榮,『後方腰椎間融合手術後應力重新分配之有限元素分析』,國立成功大學土木工程研究所,碩士論文,中華民國九十八年七月。
37.Nordin, M. and Frankel, V.H., "Basic Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.", Baltimore, 2001.
38.Gray Henry, "Grey's Anatomy", New York, 1917.
39.White III, A.A. and Panjabi, M.M., "Clinical Biomechanics of the Spine.", second edition, J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1990.
40.Andrea Strayer, "Lumbar Spine Surgery. A Guide to Preoperative and Postoperative Patient Care.", An Reference Series for Clinical Practice, 4700 W. Lake Avenue, Glenview, IL 60025-1485.
41.Cook, R.D., Malkus, D.S., Plesha, M.E. and Witt, R.J., "Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis.", fourth edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2002.
42.Natarajan, R. N., and Andersson, G.B.J., "Modeling The Annular Incision in a Herniated Lumbar Intervertebral Disc to Study its Effect on Disc Stability.", Computers Structures, Vol. 64, pp. 1291-1297, 1997.
43.Lee, C., Kim, Y.E., Lee, C.S., Hong, Y.M., Jung, J. and Goel, V.K., "Impact Response of the Intevertebral Disc in a Finite Element Model.", Spine, Vol. 25, pp. 2431-2439, 2000.
44.Pitzen, T., Geisler, F.H., Matthis, D., Müller-Storz, H., Pedersen, K. and Steudel, W.I., "The Influence of Cancellous Bone Density on Load Sharing in Human Lumbar Spine: A Comparison Between an Intact and a Surgically Altered Motion Segment.", European Spine Journal, Vol. 10, pp. 23-29, 2001.
45.Goto, K., Tajima, N., Chosa, E., Totoribe, K., Kuroki, H. and Arizumi, Y., "Mechanical Analysis of the Lumbar Vertebrae in a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Method Model in which Intradiscal Pressure in the Nucleus Pulposus was Used to Establish the Model.", Journal of Orthopaedic Science, Vol. 7, pp. 243-246., 2002.
46.Baroud, G., Nemes, J., Heini, P., and Steffen, T., "LoadShift of the Intervertebral Disc after a Vertebroplasty: A Finite-Element Study.", European Spine Journal, Vol. 12, pp. 421-426, 2003.
47.Sairyo, K., Goel, V.K., Masuda, A., Vishnubhotla, S., Faizan, A., Biyani, A., Ebraheim, N., Yonekura, D., Murakami, R.I. and Terai., T., "Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of the Pediatric Lumbar Spine.", European Spine Journal, Vol. 15, pp. 923-929, 2006.
48.Rohlmann, A., Burra, N.K., Zander, T. and Bergmann, G., "Comparison of the Effects of Bilateral Posterior Dynamic and Rigid Fixation Devices on the Loads in the Lumbar Spine.", European Spine Journal, Vol. 16, pp. 1223-1231, 2007.
49.Smit, T.H., Odgaard, A., and Schneider, E., "Structure and Function of Vertebral Trabecular Bone.", Spine, Vol. 22, pp. 2823-2833, 1997.
50.Polikeit, A., Ferguson S.J., Nolte L.P. and Orr T. E., "Factors Influencing Stresses in the Lumbar Spine after the Insertion of Intervertebral Cages: Finite Element Analysis.", European Spine Journal, Vol. 12, pp. 413-420, 2003.
51.Glema, A., Lodygowski, T., Kakol, W., Wierszycki, M. and Ogurkowska, M.B., "Modeling of Intervertebral Discs in the Numerical Analysis of Spinal Segment.", ECCOMAS, pp. 24-28, 2004.
52.Gwanseob, Shin, "Viscoelastic Responses of the Lumbar Spine During Prolonged Stooping.", Ph.D. dissertation, NCSU, USA, 2005.
53.Adams, M.A. and Hutton, W.C., "The Effect of Posture on the Role of the Apophysial Joints in Resisting Intervertebral Compressive Forces.", The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 62, pp. 368-362, 1980.
54.Sharma, M., Langrana, N.A. and Rodriguez, J., "Role of Ligaments and Facets in Lumbar Spinal Stability.", Spine, Vol. 20, pp. 887-900, 1995.
55.Sharma, M., Langrana, N.A. and Rodriguez, J., "Modeling of Facet Articulation as A Nonlinear Moving Contact Problem: Sensitivity Study on Lumbar Facet Response.", Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, Vol. 120, pp. 118-125, 1998.
56.Chazal, J., Tanguy, A., Bourges, M., Gaurel, G., Escande, G., Guillot, M. and Vanneuville, G., "Biomechanical Properties of Spinal Ligaments and a Histological Study of the Supraspinal Ligament in Traction.", Journal of Biomech., Vol.18, pp. 167-176, 1985.
57.Shirazi-Adl, S.A., Ahmed, A.M. and Shrivastava, S.C., "A Finite Element Study of a Lumbar Motion Segment Subjected to Pure Sagittal Plane Moments.", Journal of Biomech., Vol. 19, pp. 331-350, 1986.
58.Naira H.C.K., "Computational Analysis of the Time-Dependent Biomechanical Behavior of the Lumbar Spine.", Ph.D. Thesis, Ohio State University, USA, 2004.
59.Goel, V.K., Park, H. and Kong, W.,"Investigation of Vibration Characteristics of Ligamentous Lumbar Spine Using the Finite Element Approach.", Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, Vol. 116, pp. 377-383, 1994.
60.Lu, Y.M., Hutton, W.C. and Gharpuray, V.M., "Do Bending, Twisting, and Diurnal Fluid Changes in the Disc Affect the Propensity to Prolapse? A Viscoelastic Finite Element Model.", Spine Vol. 21, pp. 2570-2579, 1996.
61.Manuel, J.G.R. and Leidy Y.S.G., "Comparison of Hyperelastic Material Models in the Analysis of Fabrics.", International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, Vol. 18, pp. 314-325, 2006.
62.ABAQUS CAE, Material Property Evaluation.
63.Peter, F.U.Jr., "Bone Graft Substitutes.", Spine-health.com.
64.Yamamoto, I., Panjabi, M.M., Crisco, T. and Oxland, T., "Three-Dimensional Movements of the Whole Lumbar Spine and Lumbosacral Joint.", Spine, Vol. 14, pp. 1256-1260.
65.Chen, C.S., Cheng, C.K., Liu, C.L. and Lo, W.H., "Stress Analysis of the Disc Adjacent to Iinter-Body Fusion in Lumbar.", Medical Engineering & Physics, Vol. 23, pp. 483–491, 2001.

論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2013-08-18起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2016-08-18起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw