||Fabrication of Paper-based Microfluidics by One-step Hot Microembossing
||Department of Chemical Engineering
heavy metal detection
近年來，紙基微流體裝置(µPAD)得到相當多關注，因為其簡單、可攜帶以及可拋棄的特性，可用於低成本的化學、生物及環境檢測。再者，因為樣本與試劑不須使用機械或電子設備，單純以毛細現象即可進行輸送，降低了許多設備成本，而使其更容易作為檢測的裝置。目前已有各種不同製作紙基微流體裝置的方法問世，例如噴墨印刷法(ink jet printing)、紙張切割法(craft cutting)，以及光微影法(photolithography)等。本研究將呈現如何以一步驟熱微壓印製備紙基微流體裝置，探討溫度、壓力及壓印時間等變數對於研究有何影響，並且將此微流體裝置用於重金屬離子之檢測。使用本研究方法將可在10秒以內完成紙基微流體裝置之製作。
In recent years, microfluidic paper-based analytical device (µPAD) has been receiving attention because it is simple, inexpensive and power-free for low-cost chemical, biological and environmental detection. Moreover, paper is lightweight, easy to stack, store and transport, biodegradable, biocompatible, good for colorimetric tests, flammable for easy disposal of used paper-based diagnostic devices by incineration, and can be chemically modified.
Different methods have been demonstrated to fabricate µPADs such as solid wax printing, craft cutting, photolithography, etc. In this study, we proposed and demonstrated one-step hot microembossing to fabricate µPADs. The processing parameters like temperature, embossing pressure and embossing time were systematically studied. The results showed that the temperature and embossing time played important roles in fabrication of µPADs. Heavy metal detection was conducted to verify the performance of µPADs as fabricated. Fabrication of µPADs can be completed within 10 seconds.
Extended Abstract ii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究動機與方法 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1 紙基微流體 3
2.2 紙基微流體的製作 5
2.2.1 Handcrafted 6
2.2.2 Mask 8
2.2.3 Printing 12
2.2.4 Cutting/Shaping 15
2.2.5 其它方法 18
2.3 紙基微流體之檢測方法 21
2.3.1 光度檢測法 21
2.3.2 螢光檢測法 22
2.3.3 電化學檢測法 23
2.4 紙基微流體之應用 24
2.4.1 臨床檢測 24
2.4.2 環境監控 25
2.4.3 食安分析 26
2.5 流體在濾紙中的流動行為 28
第三章 實驗材料及方法 30
3.1 實驗藥品與材料 30
3.2 實驗儀器 31
3.3 實驗步驟 36
3.3.1 製備紙基微流體裝置 36
3.3.2 重金屬檢測應用 37
第四章 結果與討論 39
4.1 流道隔絕層材料選擇 39
4.2 流道形成機制 41
4.3 製程變數之影響 43
4.3.1 壓印溫度 43
4.3.2 壓印壓力 44
4.3.3 壓印時間 47
4.3.4 不同濾紙之比較 48
4.4 流動現象與特徵 50
4.5 重金屬檢測 52
4.4.1 銅離子檢測 52
4.4.2 鐵離子檢測 55
第五章 結論 57
第六章 未來工作與展望 58
第七章 參考文獻 59
第八章 附錄 66
 W Xu Hou, Yu Shrike Zhang, Grissel Trujillo de Santiago, Mario Moisés Alvarez, João Ribas, Steven J. Jonas, Paul S. Weiss, Anne M. Andrews, Joanna Aizenberg and Ali Khademhosseini, “Interplay between materials and microfluidics,” Nature Reviews Materials, vol. 2, Article number: 17016, 2017
 Kangning Ren, Jianhua Zhou, and Hongkai Wu, “Materials for Microfluidic Chip Fabrication,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 46, pp. 2396–2406, 2013.
 Yuanyuan Yang, Eka Noviana, Michael P. Nguyen, Brian J. Geiss, David S. Dandy, and Charles S. Henry, “Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices: Emerging Themes and Applications,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 89, pp.71−91, 2017.
 A. W. Martinez, S. T. Phillips, M. J. Butte, and G. M. Whitesides, "Patterned paper as a platform for inexpensive, low-volume, portable bioassays," Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, vol. 46, pp. 1318-1320, 2007.
 Lei Mou and Xingyu Jiang, “Materials for Microfluidic Immunoassays: A Review,” Advanced Healthcare Materials, vol.6, DOI: 10.1002, 2017.
 Yanyan Xia, Jin Si, and Zhiyang Li, “Fabrication techniques for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices and their applications for biological testing: A review,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 77, pp. 774–789, 2016.
 D. M. Cate, J. A. Adkins, J. Mettakoonpitak, and C. S. Henry, "Recent Developments in Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices," Analytical Chemistry, vol. 87, pp. 19-41, 2015.
 Tugce Akyazi, Lourdes Basabe-Desmonts, Fernando Benito-Lopez, "Review on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices towards commercialization," Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 1001, pp. 1-17, 2018.
 Chunxiu Xu, Longfei Cai, Minghua Zhong and Shuyue Zheng, " Low-cost and rapid prototyping of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices by inkjet printing of permanent marker ink," RSC Adv., vol. 5, pp. 4770-4773, 2015.
 Y. Lu, W. Shi, L. Jiang, J. Qin, and B. Lin, "Rapid prototyping of paper-based microfluidics with wax for low-cost, portable bioassay," Electrophoresis, vol. 30, pp. 1497-1500, 2009.
 W. Dungchai, O. Chailapakul, and C. S. Henry, "A low-cost, simple, and rapid fabrication method for paper-based microfluidics using wax screen-printing," Analyst, vol. 136, pp. 77-82, 2011.
 Wei Hong, Jing Zhou, Mandakini Kanungo, Nancy Jia, and Anthony D. Dinsmore, "Wax Spreading in Paper under Controlled Pressure and Temperature," Langmuir, vol. 34, pp. 432-441, 2018.
 Joong Ho Shin, Juhwan Park and Je-Kyun Park, “Organic Solvent and Surfactant Resistant Paper-Fluidic Devices Fabricated by One-Step Embossing of Nonwoven Polypropylene Sheet,” Micromachines, vol. 8, 30, 2017.
 P. d. T. Garcia, T. M. Garcia Cardoso, C. D. Garcia, E. Carrilho, and W. K. Tomazelli Coltro, "A handheld stamping process to fabricate microfluidic paper-based analytical devices with chemically modified surface for clinical assays," Rsc Advances, vol. 4, pp. 37637-37644, 2014.
 Yu Xiang, Aijun Tong, Peiyuan Jin, and Yong Ju, “New Fluorescent Rhodamine Hydrazone Chemosensor for Cu(II) with High Selectivity and Sensitivity,” Organic Letter, vol. 8, pp. 2863–2866, 2006.
 Jerry B. Ayers and William H. Waggoner, “Synthesis and properties of two series of heavy metal hexacyanoferrates,” Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Vol. 33, pp. 721-733, 1971.
 Junhong Xu, Yimin Hou, Qiujuan Mab, Xuefen Wub, Suxiang Feng, Juan Zhang and Youming Shen, "A highly selective fluorescent probe for Cu2+ based on rhodamine B derivative, " Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 124, pp. 416–422, 2014.
 X. Li, J. F. Tian, T. Nguyen, and W. Shen, "Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices by Plasma Treatment," Analytical Chemistry, vol. 80, pp. 9131-9134, 2008.
 Y. Zhang, C. Zhou, J. Nie, S. Le, Q. Qin, F. Liu, et al., "Equipment-Free Quantitative Measurement for Microfluidic Paper Based Analytical Devices Fabricated Using the Principles of Movable Type Printing," Analytical Chemistry, vol. 86, pp. 2005-2012, 2014.
 Yupaporn Sameenoi, Piyaporn Na Nongkai, Souksanh Nouanthavong, Charles S. Henry and Duangjai Nacapricha, “One-step polymer screen-printing for microfluidic paper-based analytical device (mPAD) fabrication,” Analyst, vol. 139, pp. 6580–6588, 2014.
 Trinh Lam, Jasmine P. Devadhasan, Ryan Howse and Jungkyu Kim, “A Chemically Patterned Microfluidic Paper-based Analytical Device (C-μPAD) for Point-of-Care Diagnostics,” Scientific Reports, vol. 7, 1188, 2017.
 Thiago M. G. Cardoso, Fabrício R. de Souza, Paulo T. Garcia, Denilson Rabelo, Charles S. Henry, Wendell K. T. Coltro, “Versatile fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices with high chemical resistance using scholar glue and magnetic masks,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.974, pp. 63-68, 2017.
 Ning Liu, Jing Xu, Hong-Jie An, Dinh-Tuan Phan, Michinao Hashimoto and Wen Siang Lew, “Direct spraying method for fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, vol. 27, 104001, 2017.
 K. Abe, K. Suzuki, and D. Citterio, "Inkjet-printed microfluidic multianalyte chemical sensing paper," Analytical Chemistry, vol. 80, pp. 6928-6934, 2008.
 X. Li, J. Tian, G. Garnier, and W. Shen, “Fabrication of paper-based microfluidic sensors by printing,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 76, pp. 564-570, 2010.
 Niels Postulka, Andreas Striegel, Marcel Krauße, Dario Mager, Dieter Spiehl, Tobias Meckel, Matthias Worgul and Markus Biesalski, “Combining Wax Printing with Hot Embossing for the Design of Geometrically Well-Defined Microfluidic Papers,” Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 11, pp. 4578−4587, 2019.
 E. Fu, P. Kauffman, B. Lutz, and P. Yager, “Chemical signal amplification in two-dimensional paper networks,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 149, pp. 325-328, 2010.
 Md. Almostasim Mahmud, Eric J. M. Blondeel, Moufeed Kaddoura and Brendan D. MacDonald, “Features in Microfluidic Paper-Based Devices Made by Laser Cutting: How Small Can They Be?” Micromachines, vol. 9, 220, 2018.
 J. Olkkonen, K. Lehtinen, and T. Erho, “Flexographically printed fluidic structures in paper,” Analytical chemistry, vol. 82, pp. 10246-10250, 2010.
 C. M. Cheng, A. W. Martinez, J. Gong, C. R. Mace, S. T. Phillips, E. Carrilho, et al., “Paper‐Based ELISA,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 49, pp. 4771-4774, 2010.
 K. Scida, B. Li, A. D. Ellington, and R. M. Crooks, "DNA detection using origami paper analytical devices," Analytical chemistry, vol. 85, pp. 9713-9720, 2013.
 Jiafu Chang, Haiyin Li, Ting Hou, and Feng Li, “Paper-based fluorescent sensor for rapid naked-eye detection of acetylcholinesterase activity and organophosphorus pesticides with high sensitivity and selectivity,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 86, pp. 971-977, 2016.
 Stefano Cinti, Elena Proietti, Federica Casotto, Danila Moscone, and Fabiana Arduini, “Paper-Based Strips for the Electrochemical Detection of Single and Double Stranded DNA,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 90, pp. 13680−13686, 2018.
 D. M. Cate, W. Dungchai, J. C. Cunningham, J. Volckens, and C. S. Henry, "Simple, distance-based measurement for paper analytical devices," Lab on a Chip, vol. 13, pp. 2397-2404, 2013.
 S. M. Zakir Hossain and John D. Brennan, “β-Galactosidase-Based Colorimetric Paper Sensor for Determination of Heavy Metals,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 83, pp. 8772–8778, 2011.
 J. Jokerst, J. Adkins, B. Bisha, M. Mentele, L. Goodridge, and C. Henry, "Development of a paper-based analytical device for colorimetric detection of select foodborne pathogens," Analytical chemistry, vol. 84, pp. 2900-2907, 2012.
 J. Shi, F. Tang, H. Xing, H. Zheng, B. Lianhua, and W. Wei, "Electrochemical detection of Pb and Cd in paper-based microfluidic devices," Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, vol. 23, pp. 1124-1130, 2012.
 W. Liu, J. Kou, H. Xing, and B. Li, "Paper-based chromatographic chemiluminescence chip for the detection of dichlorvos in vegetables," Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 52, pp. 76-81, 2014.
 Cummins, B. M., Chinthapatla, R., Ligler, F. S., Walker, G. M., Analytical Chemistry, vol. 89, pp. 4377-4381, 2017.
 Yi-Je Juang, Po-Sheng Chen, and Yu Wang, “Rapid fabrication of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices by microembossing,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 283, pp. 87-92, 2019.
 Jianlong Wang, and Can Chen, ” The current status of heavy metal pollution and treatment technology development in China,” Environmental Technology Reviews, vol. 4, pp. 39-53, 2015.