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系統識別號 U0026-0307201512481000
論文名稱(中文) 主要客戶與研發資本化
論文名稱(英文) Major Customers and Capitalization of R&D
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 會計學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Accountancy
學年度 103
學期 2
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 陳家慧
研究生(英文) Chia-Hui Chen
學號 R18971016
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 91頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊朝旭
口試委員-黃華瑋
口試委員-黃炳勳
口試委員-陳政芳
口試委員-劉啟群
口試委員-林嬋娟
口試委員-李佳玲
中文關鍵字 供應鏈  研發資本化  關係專用投資  信用交易  關係存續 
英文關鍵字 Supply chain  R&D capitalization  Relationship-specific investment  Trade credit  Relationship duration 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究旨在分析供應鏈關係中,研發資本化的決定因素和後果。首先,擬定三個研究問題為:(1)當供應商面臨的顧客集中度較高時,其如何決定軟體發展成本之資本化,及此關聯性是否受到(2)資訊不對稱和(3)客戶投入的關係專用投資所影響。此外,本研究亦進一步以信用交易和關係延續兩項觀點,探討研發資本化對客戶-供應商關係之影響。本研究採用2001至2012年美國軟體業為樣本,發現公司的顧客集中度和研發資本化之間呈負相關,此證據支持下列觀點:當客戶擁有議價優勢時,供應商被促使採取較為保守之研發會計政策。再者,本研究發現資訊不對稱和客戶投入的關係專用投資與研發資本化之間為正相關,顯示當公司處於不透明的資訊環境和其客戶投入較多的關係專用投資時,較可能藉由資本化研發支出以傳遞較佳前景之訊息,進而使客戶願意接受較短之信用交易期限並維持彼此往來之商業關係。
英文摘要 This study aims to analyze the determinants and consequences of R&D capitalization in customer-supplier relationships. The first three research questions are how suppliers decide to capitalize software development costs when they face a more concentrated customer base, and whether the relationship will be affected by information asymmetry, or relationship-specific investments from its customers. Furthermore, I examine the effect of firms’ R&D capitalization on customer-supplier relationships from two perspectives: trade credit and relationship continuity.
Using a sample of U.S. software firms from 2001 to 2012, I document a negative relationship between a firm’s customer-base concentration and R&D capitalization. This finding is consistent with the view that supplier firms are induced to adopt a more conservative R&D accounting policy when their customers have a bargaining advantage over them. In addition, I find that the level of information asymmetry and the intensity of R&D investments by customers are positively related to the magnitude of R&D capitalization, suggesting that firms are more likely to capitalize R&D expenditures to convey favorable prospects when they operate in an opaque information environment and when their customers invest more in relationship-specific assets. Consequently, due to R&D capitalization signaling customers are more willing to accept a shortening of credit terms and to continue the business relationship.
論文目次 Abstract i
摘要 ii
Acknowledgments iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Tables vi
1. Introduction 1
2. Literature Review and Hypotheses Development 11
2.1. Introduction of R&D Accounting Treatment 11
2.2. The Signaling Role of R&D Capitalization 12
2.3. The Opportunistic Role of R&D Capitalization 14
2.4. The Characteristics of Software Systems Development 15
2.4.1. Uncertainties in Systems Development 15
2.4.2. Relationship-Specific Investments in Systems Development 16
2.5. R&D Activities in the Supply Chain Setting 17
2.6. Stakeholders’ Bargaining Power and Accounting Practices 18
2.7. The Determinants of R&D Capitalization in the Customer-Supplier Relationship 20
2.7.1. Stakeholders’ Bargaining Power and R&D Capitalization Decisions 20
2.7.2. Information Asymmetry among Stakeholders and R&D Capitalization Decisions 23
2.7.3. Stakeholders’ Relationship-specific Investments and R&D Capitalization Decisions 24
2.8. The Consequence of R&D Capitalization in the Customer-Supplier Relationship 27
2.8.1. R&D Capitalization and Trade Credit Extending to Customers 28
2.8.2. R&D Capitalization and the Duration of Customer-Supplier Relationship 30
3. Research Design 32
3.1. Regression Models and Variables Definitions 32
3.1.1. Test the Determinants of R&D Capitalization in the Customer-Supplier Relationship (H1-H3) 32
3.1.2. Test the Relationship between R&D Capitalization and Extending Trade Credit to Customers (H4) 36
3.1.3. Test the Relationship between R&D Capitalization and the Duration of Customer-Supplier Relationships (H5) 38
3.2. Data and Sample Selection 43
4. Empirical Results 45
4.1. Descriptive statistics 45
4.2. The Effect of Customers’ Bargaining Power, Information Asymmetry and Relationship-specific Investments on R&D Capitalization 53
4.3. The Effect of R&D Capitalization on Trade Credit 58
4.4. The Effect of R&D Capitalization on the Duration of Relationships 60
4.5. Additional Tests 64
4.5.1. The determinants of R&D capitalization: analysis using relationship-year observations 64
4.5.2. Decomposition of R&D Capitalization 69
4.5.3. Tests for Alternative Measures 74
5. Conclusion 79
Reference 81
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