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系統識別號 U0026-0212201509215900
論文名稱(中文) 台灣海岸優養綜合評估與管理策略
論文名稱(英文) Comprehensive Assessment of Coastal Eutrophication in Taiwan and Its Implications for Management Strategy
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 海洋科技與事務研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Ocean Technology and Marine Affairs
學年度 104
學期 1
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 陳平
研究生(英文) Ping Chen
學號 NA8001038
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 97頁
口試委員 指導教授-劉大綱
口試委員-莊士賢
口試委員-黃良銘
口試委員-王琳麒
口試委員-林啟燦
中文關鍵字 優養化  營養鹽  河口優養狀態  生態品質相對率指數 
英文關鍵字 Eutrophication  Nutrients  Estuarine eutrophic status (EES)  Ecological quality ratio (EQR) 
學科別分類
中文摘要 由於人口迅速增長,人類活動導致的農業、工業與都市放流水產生過量營養物質,如氮,磷等營養鹽在海岸水體中累積,而台灣尚未發展出海岸優養化的綜合評估分析方法。本研究從台灣環保署長達十多年的河口與近岸海域水質監測數據,進行台灣海岸優養化的整合分析,並基於目前優養狀態的嚴重程度提出一個三層級之監測策略與建議。由河口優養潛勢(EEP)與河口優養狀態(EES)分析比較結果顯示,台灣西南部的鹽水溪(YSR)、阿公店溪(AGR)與東港溪(DGR)河口同屬於高優養潛勢(High-EEP)區域,且其優養狀態亦同樣屬於高度優養(High-EES);大甲溪(DJR)與烏溪(WUR)則同屬低優養潛勢(Low-EEP)與低優養狀態(Low-EES)。而在河口優養狀態改變(CEC)方面,有7處河口顯示其優養狀態趨向於惡化,其中東港溪(DGR)河口乃高優養潛勢(High-EEP)與高度優養狀態(High-EES),且優養狀態趨向惡化,需特別注意。出現優養問題區域主要位於台灣西南海岸的東港溪(DGR)河口及與其相鄰的近岸海域,即高屏溪口沿海(KPM)與大鵬灣沿海(DPB),隨著優養狀態加劇惡化,這些區域需要高時空解析的監測及研究,以評估過量營養鹽造成之壓力,以及預測未來可能的反應。由1998至2013年間台灣海岸水質之營養鹽氮磷質量比統計分布可知,氮磷質量比(N/P mass ratio)介於0.037~388之間(平均值5.64,中位數3.00),且氮磷質量比<10佔87.7%,顯示台灣海岸水體主要為氮鹽相對不足之氮限制(N-limiting)環境。其中大鵬灣內呈現葉綠素a濃度與溶解態無機磷成正比;而與溶解態無機氮成負相關之特性,此現象可能是藻華期間,浮游植物大量吸收氮鹽,導致水中氮鹽移轉到生物體所致,造成水體中溶解態無機氮濃度偏低,類似的情形亦曾出現在大鵬灣的紅潮事件中。台灣沿海水體當發生藻華時,除出現高濃度葉綠素a外,並常伴隨相對偏低之氮磷比值。此特性可能為爆發藻華後浮游植物大量吸收氮的結果,因此氮控制乃降低海岸藻華很重要的一部分,海岸環境若能有效管控氮的輸入與移除過量的氮,應可有效降低優養化藻華及赤潮的發生。
英文摘要 Due to the rapid population growth, anthropogenic activities result in agricultural, industrial, and urban diffuse runoffs that elevate the level of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in coastal waters. Currently there is no integrated analysis for coastal eutrophication in Taiwan. A comprehensive analysis of the coastal eutrophic status was performed in this study based on decade-long coastal water quality monitoring data from Taiwan’s Environmental Protection Administration. A 3-tiered monitoring strategy is recommended based on the severity of the current eutrophication state. Results indicate that the most problematic area of coastal eutrophication is located in the estuary of the Donggang River (DGR) and its adjacent coastal waters, i.e., the Kao-Ping mouth (KPM) and Dapeng Bay (DPB) in south-western Taiwan. With a worsening eutrophic status, these areas demand intensive monitoring and research with higher spatial and temporal resolutions to evaluate the stresses of nutrient forcing and predict possible future responses.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
Abstract II
謝誌 X
目錄 XI
表目錄 XIII
圖目錄 XIV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景及動機 1
1.2 研究目的 3
1.3 研究區域 4
1.4 研究架構及流程 4
第二章 文獻回顧 7
2.1 優養化 7
2.1.1 優養化定義 7
2.1.2 淡水與海水環境優養差異 9
2.1.3 對近岸海域的威脅 13
2.1.4 台灣的海岸環境 14
2.2 有害藻華與海域缺氧 17
2.2.1 有害藻華(harmful algae blooms, HABs) 18
2.2.2 海域缺氧(coastal hypoxia: low-oxygen or oxygen depletion) 23
2.3 氣候變遷對優養化與藻華及缺氧死區影響 26
2.3.1 全球暖化對海洋缺氧的影響 27
2.3.2 氣候變遷對藻華的影響 27
2.4 近岸海域優養化管理策略 30
2.4.1 立法與因應 31
2.4.2 營養鹽管理策略(nutrient management strategies, NMS) 33
第三章 研究方法 36
3.1 河口優養潛勢分析(Analysis of estuarine eutrophication potential, EEP) 37
3.1.1 水文沖刷潛力(hydrological flushing potential, FP) 37
3.1.2 台灣的營養鹽指數(Taiwan’s nutrient index, NiT) 39
3.2 河口優養狀態分析(Analysis of estuarine eutrophic status, EES) 41
3.3 近岸海域生態品質率整合評估(Coastal EQR Overall Assessment
(CEOA) 44
3.4 研究限制 46
第四章 結果與討論 49
4.1 河口優養潛勢(EEP) 49
4.2 河口優養狀態(EES) 53
4.3 近岸海域生態品質率整合評估(CEOA) 58
4.4 藻華與營養鹽氮磷比率(N:P ratios) 59
4.4.1 整體平均質量濃度 59
4.4.2 個別質量濃度 60
4.5 海岸優養化管理策略 71
4.5.1 監測與研究層面 71
4.5.2 政策管理層面 74
第五章 結論與建議 76
5.1 結論與建議 76
5.1.1 學術層面的涵義 76
5.1.2 務層面的涵義 78
5.2 未來研究方向 79
參考文獻 81
中文 81
網頁 82
英文 84
附錄1 中英文縮寫對照 94
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