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系統識別號 U0026-0209201115130000
論文名稱(中文) 船舶壓艙水引入外來物種之風險評估
論文名稱(英文) The Risk Assessment for the Ballast Water Mediated Invasion of Non-indigenous Aquatic Species
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 海洋科技與事務研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Ocean Technology and Marine Affairs
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 蔡欣潔
研究生(英文) Hsin-Chieh Tsai
學號 na6981012
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 196頁
口試委員 指導教授-劉大綱
口試委員-莊士賢
口試委員-王琳麒
中文關鍵字 環境相似度  風險評估  船舶壓艙水  外來物種  群集分析 
英文關鍵字 Enviornmental Similarity  Risk Assessment  Ballast Water  Alien Species  Cluster Analysis 
學科別分類
中文摘要 經濟快速發展帶動海運市場,使世界船隊日益增長,外來物種藉船舶壓艙水打破自然障礙四處散佈的機會因此增多,造成對世界各地重大的環境與經濟危害。世界各地已有相當多外來物種藉由壓艙水入侵,造成嚴重危害之案件,如美國斑馬貽貝入侵,感染40%的內河水道堵塞汲水口,一年花費超過五億美元清理;亞洲海草入侵南澳、紐西蘭與地中海,改變當地海床群落;北美櫛水母的入侵黑海造成漁業崩盤等。為處理這些問題2004年國際間達成共識,由國際海事組織針對船舶壓艙水問題通過「國際控管船舶壓艙水及沉澱物公約」,希望能預防或杜絕藉由船舶壓艙水引入外來物種之情形。我國地理位置為重要的船舶往來中繼站,但目前卻無船舶壓艙水相關管理規定,以處理此日益嚴重的問題。
本研究為因應國際情勢與維護我國海域環境,針對高雄港及臺中港來訪船舶進行風險評估,藉由國際海事組織風險評估指南中之環境相似度法,判斷各地港口與臺灣港口溫度和鹽度的相似程度,進一步以群集分析篩選環境更相近之港口,再比較其他航運相關之風險因素,如航程、船旗國、壓艙水、造訪次數與來訪船舶是上一港是否停靠於藻華發生地等,透過這些因素評估我國入港船舶,以建立船舶之風險等級。
經研究後發現,2005年至2009年高雄港入港船舶船型多為貨櫃輪,佔所有入港船舶的77%,其次為雜貨輪與油輪各佔5%。經環境相似度評估上一港共276個港口,有92個港口與高雄港溫鹽環境相似,其中有73個港口位於亞洲地區。群集分析法進一步將篩選出風險較高的21個港口,其中20港位於中國東南沿海地區,另一港位於日本那霸。再以航運相關因素篩選由此21港來訪之船舶發現,來訪船舶有33%懸掛船旗國管制較為鬆散的巴拿馬旗幟;壓艙水量則以貨櫃輪與雜貨輪為主要排放船型,佔總排放壓艙水量一半以上;從高風險港口來的貨櫃輪進港次數亦居冠,佔總進港艘次89.3%;受分析的來訪船舶中其上一港皆曾發生過藻華事件。經過三層級之風險篩選,五年間高風險船舶艘數介於384至450艘間,佔原入港艘數29.2%;而臺中港風險分析知結果,五年間入港高風險船舶介於77至153艘數間,佔原入港艘數9.3%。此評估結果可協助港口國管制官員優先檢查高風險船舶,不僅可符合我國港口國管制官員的人力配置,進一步預防或降低外來物種對我國海域造成生物污染。
英文摘要 The rapid economic development leads to the continuous growth of the world fleet, which increases the opportunities for the ballast water mediated introduction of non-indigenous aquatic species (NIAS) to the coastal waters of other countries. There are many severe cases of NIAS invasion around the world that cause significant impact on environment and economic development. As a global response to this issue, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the ‘‘International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments’’ (BWM Convention) in 2004, with the intention of improving the management of such adverse exotic intrusion events.
Taiwan is located in strategic relay location that is subject to NIAS invasions, but there is currently no regulation related to ballast water management. In this study, we performed risk assessment for the incoming vessels to the port of Kaohsiung and Taichung in order to prioritize the risk of vessels for port state control (PSC) inspection. First, environmental similarity in IMO’s guidelines of BWM Convention was utilized to assess the last ports of call with similar salinity and temperature to these two ports in Taiwan. Second, cluster analysis was conducted for further screening of ports with matching environmental conditions. Third, vessel-related factors were used to prioritize the risk of donor ports. Based on the three-tier screening processes, the priority for PSC inspection was established for all the incoming vessels during 2005~2009 in these two ports.
We found that the vessels visiting the port of Kaohsiung are mainly container vessel (77%), whereas bulk carries and oil tankers were 5% each. After tier 1 risk assessment, 92 out of 276 last ports of call were identified having similar environmental conditions with the port of Kaohsiung. Tier 2 risk assessment, i.e., cluster analysis, further identifies 21 ports with higher risk out of the previous 92 ports. Tier 3 risk assessment distinguishes vessels from high risk last ports of call with high vessel-related risk. It was found the number of high-risk vessel ranges from 384 to 450 each year during 2005~2009 in the port of Kaohsiung, representing 29.2% of all the visiting vessels. For analysis in the port of Taichung, the high-risk vessel ranges from 77 to 153, approximately 9.3% of all the visiting vessels. The risk assessment procedure established in this study can prioritize vessels with high risk for PSC inspections such that the ballast water mediated invasions can be mitigated.
論文目次 中文摘要i
英文摘要ii
誌謝iii
目錄iv
表目錄vi
圖目錄viii
一、緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究架構 2
二、文獻回顧 4
2.1 航運運輸 4
2.1.1 全球目前運輸情況 4
2.1.2 壓艙水導入外來種生物之問題 9
2.1.2.1 各地案例 10
2.2 壓艙水公約風險評估管理機制 14
2.2.1 國際海事組織 14
2.2.2 國際海事組織之風險評估指導方針 15
2.3其他評估機制現況 16
2.3.1 美國風險評估與管理委員會之風險評估法 17
2.3.2 北歐波羅的海案例分析 19
2.3.3 挪威船級社之風險評估方式 23
2.3.4 澳洲學者Hayes等人研究之風險評估方式 25
2.3.5 德國學者Gollasch等人研究之風險評估方式 28
2.3.6 各國風險評估法綜整 29
三、 研究方法 33
3.1 研究範圍與資料來源 33
3.2 侵襲風險評估 33
3.2.1 環境相似度 35
3.2.2 其他航運相關因素 40
四、結果與討論 43
4.1 基本資料分析 43
4.2 侵襲風險評估 47
4.2.1 初步溫鹽分析之侵襲風險 47
4.2.2 進一步溫鹽分析-以NOAA資料進行群集分析 51
4.2.3 其他相關因素 62
4.2.3.1 航程 62
4.2.3.2 船旗國 64
4.2.3.3 壓艙水 69
4.2.3.4 入港頻率 73
4.2.3.5 潛在入侵物種區 77
4.2.4 各項分析結果 80
五、結論與建議 83
5.1 結論 83
5.2 建議 85
參考文獻 87
中文 87
英文 88
附錄一:高雄港附錄 95
附錄二:臺中港附錄 143

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