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系統識別號 U0026-0209201022535700
論文名稱(中文) 環境建構與中老年人身體活動量之關係-以台南市為例
論文名稱(英文) Relationship between built environment and physical activity among middle-age and older adults in Tainan city
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 體育健康與休閒研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Physical Education, Health & Leisure Studies
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 黃上真
研究生(英文) Shang-Chen Huang
學號 rb696108
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 60頁
口試委員 口試委員-林麗娟
口試委員-胡淑貞
指導教授-周學雯
中文關鍵字 環境建構  社會生態學模式  老年人身體活動量表 
英文關鍵字 built environment  social ecological model  PASE (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly) 
學科別分類
中文摘要 目前台灣人中老年人口比例不斷攀升,如何促進中老年人口之健康值得重視。而身體活動可維持身體機能運作,預防疾病及延緩老化,因此推廣中老年人從事身體活動確實有其重要性。近來,國外利用社會生態學做為理論,從環境及政策面切入探討身體活動之文章大量興起,也多已證明兩者間具有正向關係,而國內在此一領域相關研究尚少,針對中老年人之研究更尚未出現,因此本研究即針對中老年人,探討認知環境與其身體活動量之間的關係。
本研究以台南市東區及中西區50歲以上中老年人為對象,並以問卷調查方式進行。身體活動量量表使用老年人身體活動量表PASE(Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly)進行身體活動評估,建構環境認知量表則是參考鄰里行走環境調查問卷NEWS (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Survey),在進行專家效度篩選題項後使用。統計方式使用獨立樣本t 檢定、單因子變異數分析,皮爾森積差相關,以及多元迴歸分析檢視各變項之間關係。
結果顯示認知環境與身體活動量具有正向關係。多元迴歸分析中,人口變項以年齡、自覺健康狀況對身體活動量具有預測能力,認知建構環境變項則以住家附近環境此構面具有預測能力。本研究結果與先前研究有相同傾向,但如「服務可近性」,此一構面在國外已獲得許多研究證實具正向關係,但在本研究則否,推測或許與當地鄰里設計,及居民使用之交通方式等生活型態有關。
因此建議未來研究應針對當地之生活型態進行了解,也應針對不同鄰里設計,或交通方式等特性進行探討。另外,不同地區及不同年齡層,也有待後續研究進行探討。而縱貫性之研究也可做為未來研究方向,以探究環境與身體活動量兩者之間之因果關係。
英文摘要 The lack of Physical Activity (PA) is recognized as a major health concern, due to its contribution to a multiplicity of negative health outcomes. The need to increase PA is a public health priority, especially for older adults, due to the issue of aging population dramatically raising all over the world. Recently, literature on researching the factors effecting PA has started investigating from environmental and politic aspect. And the positive relationship between environment and PA level has been proved by many researches. Yet, built environmental variables have been much less studied in Taiwan, let alone in the elderly. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine whether perceived neighborhood attributes were associated with reported PA levels in Tainan older adults.
This study used a cross-sectional design and self-reported survey. Older adults’ PA levels were measured by The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), and the survey of Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) was partially used to examine the perceived built environment after expert validity test. On-site surveys were send out to 400 over 50 years old subjects in Tainan city and the data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, independent t-test, Pearson product correlation, one way ANOVA, and multiple regression to exam the relationships between demographic variables, built environment, and PA level.
The results in this study showed familiar trend as prier studies, there was a positive relation between built environment and PA level. But there was only one dimension of built environmental factor was selected to the regression model, which was within 3 demographic variables, in the end. We assumed the reasons that the other dimensions were not selected to regression model were related to the differences of land use and transportation. Therefore, future studies should take a closer look on the neighborhood design of the local area and the common way of transportation that local people used, since there is an obvious difference of urban plan and utility rate of scooter between western world and Taiwan. In addition, the use of intervention designs are needed to determine whether the environment–behavior associations that we and others have documented, are actually causal relationships.
論文目次 目錄
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 2
第三節 研究問題 3
第四節 研究假設 3
第五節 名詞解釋 3
第六節 研究範圍與限制 4
第貳章 文獻探討 5
第一節 身體活動與中老年人之健康 5
一、身體活動與健康 5
二、中老年人從事身體活動概況與影響因素 6
第二節 促進身體活動之研究發展與方式 7
第三節 建構環境與身體活動之文獻回顧 9
第四節 理論基礎 11
第五節 研究工具選擇 13
一、身體活動量測量 13
二、認知建構環境測量 15
第参章 研究方法 17
第一節 研究架構 17
第二節 問卷施測地區與收案條件 17
第三節 研究工具 18
一、基本資料 18
二、身體活動量 20
三、認知建構環境 20
四、自覺健康狀況 20
第四節 研究步驟 23
第五節 資料處理及分析 24
第肆章 結果 25
第一節 資料之描述性統計結果 26
第二節 認知建構環境得分狀況與不同人口背景變項之比較分析 28
第三節 身體活動類型與不同人口背景變項PASE得分分析 30
第四節 認知建構環境、自覺健康狀況與身體活動量之關係 33
第五節 各變項對身體活動量之預測情形 34
第伍章 討論 38
第一節 影響身體活動量之人口背景因素 38
第二節 認知建構環境與身體活動量之相關性 39
第三節 人口背景變項與認知建構環境對身體活動量之預測情形 40
第陸章 結論與建議 42
參考文獻 44

表目錄
表 一:使用PASE量表之研究一覽表 15
表 二:台南市各區土地面積與人口密度一覽表 18
表 三:基本資料計分方式 19
表 四:身體活動量計分方式 21
表 五:認知環境計分方式 22
表 六:自覺健康狀況計分方式 22
表 七:認知建構環境信度分析表 25
表 八:受試者基本資料 27
表 九:認知建構環境得分狀況 28 
表 十:不同背景變項與認知建構環境分數之比較分析 29
表 十一:休閒性身體活動次數分配表 31
表 十二:家務性與職務性身體活動 31
表 十三:不同背景變項之PASE分數比較分析 32
表 十四:認知建構環境、自覺健康與身體活動量之積差相關矩陣 33
表 十五:認知建構環境構面與身體活動量之積差相關係數表 33
表 十六:人口變項斯皮爾曼相關係數表 34
表 十七:投入變項與類別變項之虛擬變項一覽表 35
表 十八:人口變項、認知建構環境與身體活動量逐步迴歸模型摘要表 36
表 十九:人口變項、環境構面與身體活動量逐步迴歸模型摘要表 36
表 二十:認知建構環境與身體活動量迴歸模型共線性診斷 37
表 二十一:認知建構環境構面與身體活動量迴歸模型共線性診斷 37

圖目錄
圖 一:身體活動促進方式示意圖 8
圖 二:社會生態學模式示意圖 13
圖 三:研究架構圖 17
圖 四:研究流程圖 23

附錄
附錄一:受試者同意書 53
附錄二:研究工具使用同意書 55
附錄三:建構環境與身體活動量調查問卷 56
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