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系統識別號 U0026-0208201911163100
論文名稱(中文) 淨化呼吸瑜伽在家練習增加迷走神經調節之心率變異與靜息態杏仁核功能性連結
論文名稱(英文) Increase of vagal-mediated heart rate variability and resting-state amygdala functional connectivity after short sudarshan kriya yoga practicing
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 生理學研究所
系所名稱(英) Department of Physiology
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 許庭維
研究生(英文) Ting-Wei Hsu
學號 S36064020
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 71頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃阿敏
口試委員-林君昱
口試委員-吳昌衛
中文關鍵字 淨化呼吸瑜伽  在家練習  靜息態磁振造影  迷走神經調節之心率變異  杏仁核  區域同質  功能性連結 
英文關鍵字 sudarshan kriya yoga  short SKY  resting-state magnetic resonance imaging  vagal-mediated heart rate variability  amygdala  regional homogeneity  functional connectivity 
學科別分類
中文摘要 淨化呼吸瑜伽由獨特的呼吸技術組成,全世界成千上百萬人常規練習。規律練習淨化呼吸瑜伽可以增加幸福感,緩解焦慮和抑鬱等負面情緒。淨化呼吸瑜伽練習分為長版的團體練習以及短版的在家練習。最近研究發現,長版團體練習可以增加迷走神經調節之心率變異,然而短版在家練習的效果是否相同仍未知,此外,淨化呼吸在家練習是否可透過改變自律神經張力進而影響大腦功能也未有人探討。淨化呼吸瑜伽緩解負面情緒可能與大腦杏仁核功能有關,此腦區不僅是情緒中樞,也能影響自律神經張力。我們推論淨化呼吸在家練習不只可改變迷走神經調節之心率變異,進而可改變杏仁核活性及其大腦功能連結。我們招募了二十五名健康參與者,他們已學習並規律練習淨化呼吸瑜伽。每位參與者皆進行兩天實驗,其中一天介入淨化呼吸瑜伽在家練習,另一天介入影片觀賞作為對照,為時約35分鐘。介入前後立即同時測量靜息態磁振造影和指脈搏光電容積脈波描記,事後進行腦影像和心率變異分析。結果顯示,與對照組相比,淨化呼吸在家練習顯著提升正常心跳間期差值平方和均方根(RMSSD),也就是說淨化呼吸瑜伽在家練習也可以提升迷走神經調節之心率變異。區域同質影像分析顯示,淨化呼吸瑜伽在家練習和對照組大腦區域活性變化模式顯著不同,淨化呼吸瑜伽練習增加緣上回的活性,對照組則增加視覺相關腦區的活性。然而,雙側杏仁核區域活性並不改變。功能性連結影像分析顯示,若以雙側杏仁核為種子區分析,淨化呼吸瑜伽練習後,雙側杏仁核皆與內側前額葉皮質層功能連結增加,左側杏仁核與緣上回連結增加,右側杏仁核則與顳葉回功能連結增加,也就是說淨化呼吸瑜伽練習後杏仁核與情緒調節腦區之功能連結增加。相關分析顯示,RMSSD變化量與右側杏仁核與右側腦島功能連結變化量呈正相關;RMSSD變化量也與左側杏仁核與丘腦、左側杏仁核與右側杏仁核/海馬旁迴/橋腦的功能連接變化之間呈正相關。若進一步以丘腦為種子區,發現RMSSD變化量與丘腦和腦幹/前額葉腦迴區/紋狀體/腦島/丘腦/小腦/海馬旁迴/顳葉上回/中央前迴/海馬迴/屏狀體/左側杏仁核等大區域之間的功能連結變化量也正相關。然而,看影片的對照組未發現這些正相關。綜合以上的結果顯示,短版淨化呼吸瑜伽練習可提升迷走神經張力及情緒調控腦區的活性,而迷走神經張力的提升主要與杏仁核延伸到丘腦及腦幹等腦區功能連結變化有關。
英文摘要 Sudarshan kriya yoga (SKY) consists of a unique yoga breathing technique which is practiced by more than tens of millions of people around the world. Regular practicing of SKY increases well-being and relieves emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression. There are two versions of SKY practicing: weekly “long SKY” practicing in a group and daily “short SKY” practicing at home. Recent studies have found that long SKY increases vagal-mediated heart rate variability (HRV). However, whether short SKY has similar effects on HRV is unknown. Relief of negative emotions by SKY is probably related to the activity of amygdala, which is not only an emotional center, but also affects autonomic tone. We conjectured that short SKY practicing not only changes vagal-meditated HRV but also changes the activity of amygdala and its functional connectivity (FC) with other brain regions. In this study, we have recruited 25 healthy participants who had learned SKY and regularly practice at home or in a group. Each participant underwent two days of resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and photoplethysmographic (PPG) HRV analysis. On one day, short SKY for 35 minutes was practiced, and on the other day was 35 minutes of control video watching. Data were collected simultaneously for each participant immediately before and after interventions. HRV analysis results showed that short SKY but not video watching increased the root mean square of the successive differences (RMSSD), indicating that short SKY improves vagal-mediated HRV. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) of brain image analysis showed that the activity pattern after short SKY practicing was different from that after control video watching. Short SKY practicing especially increased the activity of the supramarginal gyrus, while the control group increased the activity of the visual cortex. However, the activity of the bilateral amygdala region did not change. FC analysis showed that if using bilateral amygdala as the seed region, FC between bilateral amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), FC between left amygdala with the supramarginal gyrus, and FC between right amygdala with the temporal gyrus were all increased after short SKY practicing, suggesting that FC between the amygdala and the mood-regulating brain area after short SKY practicing. Correlation analysis showed that changed RMSSD was positively correlated with changed FC between right amygdala and right insula; changed RMSSD was also positively correlated with FC between left amygdala and thalamus, and between left amygdala with right amygdala / parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) / pons after short SKY practicing. Furthermore, using thalamus as a seed region, positive correlation was also found between changed RMSSD and changed FC between thalamus and a big cluster which includes brainstem / prefrontal gyrus / striatum / insula / thalamus / cerebellum / PHG / superior temporal gyrus / precentral gyrus/ hippocampus / claustrum / left amygdala after short SKY practicing. However, all of these positive correlations were not found in control video watching. Overall, results from this study show that the short version of SKY not only improves the vagal tone, but also the activity of brain regions involved in emotional regulation. Increase of vagal tone is related to the FC of the amygdala to regions include thalamus and brainstem.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 V
Contents VII
Table Contents X
Figure Contents XI
Introduction 1
1. Effects of yoga on emotion and autonomic tone 1
2. Sudarshan kriya yoga and its beneficial effects 1
3. Respiration, vagal tone, and heart rate 3
4. Heart rate variability (HRV) and its physiological meaning 4
5. Brain-body pathways of amygdala on the regulation of emotion and autonomic nervous system 5
6. Changes of resting-state amygdala functions in yoga or meditation practices that include respiration manipulation 6
7. Different functions between left and right amygdala 7
8. Resting-state regional homogeneity (ReHo) and seed-based FC 7
Hypothesis 9
Materials and Methods 10
Subjects: 10
Procedures: 10
Interventions: 11
Short SKY 11
Entertainment video watching 12
Data Analyses: 12
HRV data acquisition and analyses 12
fMRI Data Acquisition 13
fMRI Data Preprocessing 14
The regional homogeneity (ReHo) and seed-based functional connectivity analyses 15
Statistical Analysis 16
Results 18
1. Significant increase of RMSSD after short SKY practicing but not control video watching 18
2. Differential changes of regional brain activity after short SKY practicing and control video watching 19
3. No changes in the activity of bilateral amygdala after short SKY practicing and control video watching 20
4. Differential changes of the bilateral amygdala FC after short SKY practicing and control video watching 21
5. Changes of RMSSD are not correlated with FC of bilateral amygdala with mPFC, ACC, temporal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus after short SKY practicing 22
6. Positive correlation between △RMSSD and FC of the bilateral amygdala with brain regions after short SKY practicing 22
7. Positive correlation between △RMSSD and FC of thalamus after short SKY practicing 23
Discussion 25
1. Findings of this study 25
2. Short SKY practicing increases vagal-mediated HRV in healthy subjects 25
3. Brain regions which activity changed after short SKY practicing 27
4. Changes of amygdala FC but not regional activity after short SKY practicing 28
5. Increases of vagal-mediated HRV is not correlated with amygdala FC with mPFC, ACC, temporal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus after short SKY practicing 30
6. Increase of vagal-mediated HRV is correlated with amygdala FC with insula and brain regions in limbic system and brainstem after short SKY practicing 31
7. Increase of vagal-mediated HRV is correlated with thalamus FC with forebrain regions, limbic system, cerebellum and brainstem after short SKY practicing 32
8. The vagal-mediated and non vagal-mediated network after short SKY practicing 33
9. Limitations 33
Conclusion 36
References 37
Supplementary Data 65
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