||A Process Perspective on Leadership Emergence in Multicultural Task Groups
||A Process Perspective on Leadership Emergence in Multicultural Task Groups
||Institute of International Management
Leadership emergence is a process of perceived influence or deference that results in one person becoming more central in group dynamics. The purpose of the paper is to provide insights regarding an interpretation of process perspective of emergent leadership in students’ task groups. Precisely, we reach to achieve two main objectives in this study. First, to understand the key patterns of behavior associated with leadership emergence process in multicultural task groups in educational context. Second, we investigate the structure of the leadership emergence process and give insights regarding the variations of this process in cases of shared and individual leadership. We use qualitative techniques for an in-depth exploration of this phenomena. A combination of qualitative interviews and non-participant observations helps us to achieve consistency in the data collection and analysis. It gives us realistic and comprehensive results as well as more accurate research process.
The study is focused on students’ teamwork within the walls of educational institution. We use the setting of university to explore the patterns of emergent leadership in multicultural task groups which are the same outside of this setting. The paper will contribute to the knowledge of emergent leadership which is a promising and a developing field. Our study reveals some process-related issues, gives an illustration to the process of emergent leadership and provide a solid ground for a further research.
TABLE OF CONTENTS II
LIST OF TABLES V
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Objectives. 1
1.1.1 Overview of the phenomena. 1
1.1.2 Collaborative Learning as a Lens to the Business World. 5
1.1.3. The Research Gap and Research Objectives. 6
1.2 Research Procedure. 8
1.3 Research Contribution. 9
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 The Nature of Leadership. 10
2.1.1 What is Leadership: A Conceptual and Behavioral Definition. 10
2.1.2 Leadership in Multicultural Teams. 11
2.1.3 Collaborative Learning. Task Groups in Higher Education. 16
2.1.4 Appointed Leaders and Emergent Leaders. 17
2.2 Indications of Leadership Emergence. 17
2.2.1 Emergence of Collective and Individual Leadership. 18
2.2.2 Two Mechanisms of Leadership Emergence. 19
2.2.3 The Mechanism of Achievement. 20
2.2.4 The Mechanism of Ascription. 24
2.3 A Process Perspective on Leadership Emergence. 25
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD 28
3.1 A Field of Study. 28
3.1.1 Setting. 28
3.2 Study Design. 29
3.3 Sampling Approach. 30
3.4 Participants. 31
3.5 Interviews. 32
3.6 Observations. 33
3.7 Data Analysis. 34
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS 36
4.1 Case #1. A Case of a Shared Leadership with Two Different Mechanisms of Emergence. 37
4.1.1 Introduction of the Case. 37
4.1.3 Group Leader #1. The Mechanism of Ascription. 39
18.104.22.168 The Central Idea. 39
22.214.171.124 Supporting factors. 40
4.1.4 Group Leader #2. The Mechanism of Achievement. 44
126.96.36.199 The Main Idea 44
188.8.131.52 Supporting Factors. 45
4.1.5 The Process of Leadership. The Transition of Shared Leadership. 48
4.1.6 Patterns of Leadership Emergence. 51
4.2 Case #2. A Case of Individual Leadership with the Mechanism of Ascription ………………………………………………………………….52
4.2.3 The Main Idea. 54
4.2.4 Supporting Factors. 54
4.2.5 The Process of Leadership. 60
4.2.6 The Patterns of the Leadership Emergence. 63
4.3 Case #3. A Case of an Individual Leadership with the Mechanism of Achievement. 64
4.3.3 The Main Idea. 65
4.3.4 The Supporting Factors. 66
4.3.5 The Process of Leadership. 69
4.3.4 The Patterns of Leadership Emergence. 69
4.4 Case #4. A Case of a Shared Leadership with a Similar Mechanism of Emergence. 70
4.4.3 The Main Idea. 72
4.4.5 The Process of Leadership 74
4.4.6 The Patterns of Leadership Emergence. 77
CHAPTER FIVE RESEARCH DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 79
5.1 Research Conclusions. 80
5.1.1 Theoretical Implications 82
5.2 Limitations and Future Research. 83
Aktas, M., Gelfand, M. J., & Hanges, P. J. (2016). Cultural Tightness–Looseness and Perceptions of Effective Leadership. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(2), 294–309. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022115606802
Anderson, C., & Brown, C. E. (2010). The functions and dysfunctions of hierarchy. Research in Organizational Behavior, 30(Supplement C), 55–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riob.2010.08.002
Ang, S., & Van, D. (2008). Conceptualization of cultural intelligence: Definition, distinctiveness, and nomological network. Handbook of Cultural Intelligence: Theory, Measurement and Applications, 3–15.
Ayman, R., Mead, A. D., Bassari, A., & Huang, J. (2012). Implicit Leadership in Iran: Differences between Leader and Boss and Gender. In Worldly Leadership (pp. 135–157). Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230361720_8
Bass, B. M., Bass, R., & Bass, B. M. (2008). The Bass handbook of leadership: theory, research, and managerial applications (4th ed., Free Press hardcover ed). New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. M., & Stogdill, R. M. (1990). Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications. Simon and Schuster.
Berdahl, J. L. (1996). Gender and leadership in work groups: Six alternative models. The Leadership Quarterly, 7(1), 21–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(96)90033-8
Blumberg, H. H. (Ed.). (1983). Small groups and social interaction. Chichester [West Sussex] ; New York: Wiley.
Breakwell, G. M. (Ed.). (2004). Doing social psychology research. Malden, MA: BPS Blackwell. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/book/10.1002/9780470776278
Brett, J., Behfar, K., & Kern, M. C. (2006). Managing multicultural teams. Harvard Business Review, 84(11), 84–91, 156.
Bryman, A. (2004). Qualitative research on leadership: A critical but appreciative review. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(6), 729–769. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2004.09.007
Bunderson, J. S. (2003). Recognizing and Utilizing Expertise in Work Groups: A Status Characteristics Perspective. Administrative Science Quarterly, 48(4), 557–591. https://doi.org/10.2307/3556637
Chaturvedi, S., Zyphur, M. J., Arvey, R. D., Avolio, B. J., & Larsson, G. (2012). The heritability of emergent leadership: Age and gender as moderating factors. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(2), 219–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.08.004
Colbeck, C. L., Campbell, S. E., & Bjorklund, S. A. (2000). Grouping in the Dark. The Journal of Higher Education, 71(1), 60–83. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.2000.11780816
Cole, B. M. (2013). Lessons from a Martial Arts Dojo: A Prolonged Process Model of High Context Communication. Academy of Management Journal, amj–2012.
Connerley, M. L., & Pedersen, P. B. (2005). Leadership in a Diverse and Multicultural Environment: Developing Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills. SAGE Publications.
Côté, S., Lopes, P. N., Salovey, P., & Miners, C. T. H. (2010). Emotional intelligence and leadership emergence in small groups. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(3), 496–508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.03.012
Crow, M. (2014). What is the role of universities in global development?
DeLucia-Waack, J. L., & Donigian, J. (2004). The Practice of Multicultural Group Work: Visions and Perspectives from the Field. Thomson--Brooks/Cole.
DeWalt, K. M., & DeWalt, B. R. (2011). Participant Observation: A Guide for Fieldworkers. Rowman Altamira.
Dillenbourg, P. (1999). Collaborative Learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches (2nd edition). Amsterdam ; New York: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Dingel, M., & Wei, W. (2014). Influences on peer evaluation in a group project: an exploration of leadership, demographics and course performance. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 39(6), 729–742. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2013.867477
Dinh, J. E., Lord, R. G., Gardner, W. L., Meuser, J. D., Liden, R. C., & Hu, J. (2014). Leadership theory and research in the new millennium: Current theoretical trends and changing perspectives. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), 36–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2013.11.005
DuBrin, A. (2010). Principles of Leadership. South-Western: CENGAGE-Learning.
Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (1991). Gender and the Emergence of Leaders: A Meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(5), 685–710.
Ellis, D. G., & Fisher, B. A. (1994). Small Group Decision Making: Communication and the Group Process. McGraw-Hill.
Ely, R. J. (2004). A field study of group diversity, participation in diversity education programs, and performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(6), 755–780. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.268
Emery, C. (2012). Uncovering the role of emotional abilities in leadership emergence. A longitudinal analysis of leadership networks. Social Networks, 34(4), 429–437. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2012.02.001
Feichtner, S. B., & Davis, E. A. (1984). Why Some Groups Fail: a Survey of Students’ Experiences with Learning Groups. Organizational Behavior Teaching Review, 9(4), 58–73. https://doi.org/10.1177/105256298400900409
Flick, U. (2009). An Introduction to Qualitative Research. SAGE.
Guastello, S. J. (2001). Managing Emergent Phenomena: Nonlinear Dynamics in Work Organizations. Psychology Press.
Guastello, S. J. (2007). Non-linear dynamics and leadership emergence. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(4), 357–369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.04.005
Gündemir, S., Homan, A. C., Dreu, C. K. W. de, & Vugt, M. van. (2014). Think Leader, Think White? Capturing and Weakening an Implicit Pro-White Leadership Bias. PLOS ONE, 9(1), e83915. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083915
Härtel, C. E. J., & Fujimoto, Y. (2000). Diversity is not the Problem – Openness to Perceived Dissimilarity is. Journal of Management & Organization, 6(1), 14–27. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1833367200005484
Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, Third Edition. McGraw Hill Professional.
Hogan, R., & And Others. (1994). What We Know about Leadership: Effectiveness and Personality. American Psychologist, 49(6), 493–504.
Hollander, E. P. (1974). Processes of leadership emergence. Journal of Contemporary Business, 3(4), 19–33.
House, R. J., & Aditya, R. N. (1997). The social scientific study of leadership: Quo vadis? Journal of Management, 23(3), 409–473. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0149-2063(97)90037-4
Huxham, M., & Land, R. (2000). Assigning Students in Group Work Projects. Can We Do Better than Random? Innovations in Education & Training International, 37(1), 17–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/135580000362043
Jehn, K. A., & Bezrukova, K. (2004). A field study of group diversity, workgroup context, and performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(6), 703–729. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.257
Jones, S. (2017, June 9). White Men Account for 72% of Corporate Leadership at 16 of the Fortune 500 Companies. Fortune.
Joshi, A., & Knight, A. P. (2015). Who Defers to Whom and Why? Dual Pathways Linking Demographic Differences and Dyadic Deference to Team Effectiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 58(1), 59–84. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2013.0718
Judge, T. A., Colbert, A. E., & Ilies, R. (2004). Intelligence and leadership: a quantitative review and test of theoretical propositions. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(3), 542–552. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.3.542
Judge, Timothy A., Ilies, R., Bono, J. E., & Gerhardt, M. W. (2002). Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 765–780.
Kelsey, B. L. (1998). The Dynamics of Multicultural Groups: Ethnicity as a Determinant of Leadership. Small Group Research, 29(5), 602–623. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496498295004
Klenke, K. (2008). Qualitative Research in the Study of Leadership. Emerald Group Publishing.
Lisak, A., & Erez, M. (2015). Leadership emergence in multicultural teams: The power of global characteristics. Journal of World Business, 50(1), 3–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2014.01.002
Lord, R. G. (1977). Functional Leadership Behavior: Measurement and Relation to Social Power and Leadership Perceptions. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22(1), 114–133. https://doi.org/10.2307/2391749
Marinova, P. (2017, March 28). Uber’s First Diversity Report Is Nothing to Brag About. Fortune.
McGrath, J. E. (1964). Social psychology: a brief introduction. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Mori, S. C. (2000). Addressing the Mental Health Concerns of International Students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 78(2), 137–144. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.2000.tb02571.x
Nestle Human Resources. (2017). Retrieved December 20, 2017, from https://www.nestle.com/jobs/functions/human-resources
Offermann, L. R., & Hellmann, P. S. (1997). Culture’s Consequences for Leadership Behavior: National Values in Action. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 28(3), 342–351. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022197283008
Osland, J. S., & Bird, A. (2005). Global Leaders as Experts. In Advances in Global Leadership (Vol. 4, pp. 123–142). Emerald Group Publishing Limited. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1535-1203(06)04009-3
Paunova, M. (2015). The Emergence of individual and collective leadership in task groups: A matter of achievement and ascription. The Leadership Quarterly, (26), 935–957.
Pfaff, E., & Huddleston, P. (2003). Does It Matter if I Hate Teamwork? What Impacts Student Attitudes toward Teamwork. Journal of Marketing Education, 25(1), 37–45. https://doi.org/10.1177/0273475302250571
Popov, V., Brinkman, D., Biemans, H. J. A., Mulder, M., Kuznetsov, A., & Noroozi, O. (2012). Multicultural student group work in higher education: An explorative case study on challenges as perceived by students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(2), 302–317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.09.004
Raelin, J. A. (2004). Don’t bother putting leadership into people. The Academy of Management Executive, 18(3), 131–135. https://doi.org/10.5465/AME.2004.14776184
Re, D. E., Hunter, D. W., Coetzee, V., Tiddeman, B. P., Xiao, D., DeBruine, L. M., … Perrett, D. I. (2013). Looking Like a Leader–Facial Shape Predicts Perceived Height and Leadership Ability. PLoS ONE, 8(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080957
Snaebjornsson, I. M., Edvardsson, I. R., Zydziunaite, V., & Vaiman, V. (2015). Cross-Cultural Leadership: Expectations on Gendered Leaders’ Behavior. SAGE Open, 5(2), 2158244015579727. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244015579727
Snell, S. A., Snow, C. C., Davison, S. C., & Hambrick, D. C. (1998). Designing and Supporting Transnational Teams: The Human Resource Agenda. Human Resource Management (1986-1998); New York, 37(2), 147.
Sudweeks, F., & Simoff, S. J. (2005). Leading conversations : communication behaviours of emergent leaders in virtual teams. Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Retrieved from http://researchdirect.westernsydney.edu.au/islandora/object/uws%3A7821/
Walker, R., & Aritz, J. (2014). Leadership Talk: A Discourse Approach to Leader Emergence. Business Expert Press.
Walsham, G. (2006). Doing interpretive research. European Journal of Information Systems, 15(3), 320–330. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.ejis.3000589
Walter, F., Cole, M. S., der Vegt, G. S. van, Rubin, R. S., & Bommer, W. H. (2012). Emotion recognition and emergent leadership: Unraveling mediating mechanisms and boundary conditions. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(5), 977–991. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2012.06.007
Wang, Y.-S., Lee, W.-L., & Hsu, T.-H. (2017). Using netnography for the study of role-playing in female online games: Interpretation of situational context model. Internet Research, 27(4), 905–923. https://doi.org/10.1108/IntR-04-2016-0111
Wolff, S. B., Pescosolido, A. T., & Druskat, V. U. (2002). Emotional intelligence as the basis of leadership emergence in self-managing teams. The Leadership Quarterly, 13(5), 505–522. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(02)00141-8
Yin, R. K. (2009). Case Study Research: Design and Methods. SAGE.
Yukl, G. A. (2013). Leadership in Organizations. Pearson.
Zander, L., Butler, C., Mockaitis, A., Herbert, K., Lauring, J., Mäkelä, K., … Zettinig, P. (2015). Team-Based Global Organizations: The Future of Global Organizing (Vol. 10). https://doi.org/10.1108/S1745-886220150000010008
Zander, L., Mockaitis, A. I., & Butler, C. L. (2012). Leading global teams. Journal of World Business, 47(4), 592–603. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2012.01.012