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系統識別號 U0026-0208201814175400
論文名稱(中文) 水源中β-甲氨基-L-丙氨酸毒素分析技術建立及調查研究
論文名稱(英文) Development and Application of Analytical Methods for β-methylamino-L-alanine in Source and Drinking Water
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Environmental Engineering
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生(中文) 楊明敏
研究生(英文) Ming-min Yang
學號 P56054157
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 91頁
口試委員 指導教授-林財富
口試委員-王根樹
口試委員-黃良銘
口試委員-侯文哲
中文關鍵字 藻毒素  β-甲氨基-L-丙氨酸(BMAA)  固相萃取法  吹氮濃縮法  飲用水系統 
英文關鍵字 Cyanotoxin  β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine  Solid phase extraction  Nitrogen purging  Drinking water system 
學科別分類
中文摘要 β-甲氨基-L-丙氨酸(β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, BMAA)是具有神經毒性的非蛋白質氨基酸,被視為導致關島型「肌肉萎縮性側索硬化症/帕金徵群癡呆綜合症」(Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/ Parkinson–dementia complex, ALS/PDC)或阿茲海默症之高患病率與高死亡率的可能成因。BMAA可以被淡水及海洋中20餘種藍綠細菌合成,並經由食物鏈而有生物濃縮作用的現象,若存在於飲用水中會對民眾用水安全造成衝擊,因此調查水源中BMAA之流佈為水質管理重要的一環。本研究擬建立BMAA毒素之分析技術,並應用於水源之BMAA毒素監測以掌握潛在危害,進一步保障用水安全。
本研究利用固相萃取法及吹氮濃縮法兩種樣品濃縮法萃取藻體和環境水體BMAA,搭配液相層析串聯質譜儀進行分析,以了解樣品濃縮法的可行性。然而,在吹氮濃縮天然水BMAA部分,串聯質譜儀偵測BMAA有訊號值偏低的情形,故首先探討天然水中物質造成基質效應原因。後續則應用建立之分析技術在台灣本島5座水庫、金門2座水庫及馬祖2座水庫,進行BMAA毒素之調查以及優勢藻種產BMAA之能力。結果顯示高濃度磷酸根(PO43-)及碳酸根(CO32-)會干擾BMAA分析,且在濃縮後的天然水基質中亦會有訊號受抑制造成濃度低估情形。監測環境水體BMAA部分,台灣本島及離島共9座水庫中皆可以檢測到BMAA,其濃度範圍為0.04-2.59 μg-L-1;其中在7座水庫(77.8%)淨水廠之清水中發現BMAA存在。由於這些水庫均為飲用水水源,顯示BMAA對於民眾用水存在著一定程度的風險,建議未來需持續進行監測以進一步了解BMAA之濃度分布。
英文摘要 β-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxic algal toxin, produced by many common cyanobacteria, has been associated with neurological diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism–dementia complex and Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, BMAA may pose potential health risks to the people who take cyanobacteria-laden water for drinking source. However, BMAA is difficult to analyze due to its low concentrations in naural water, and very limited information is available about the presence of BMAA in drinking water sources. Therefore, the objective of this study is to optimize the pretreatment processes to concentrate BMAA in environmental samples and to investigate the levels of BMAA in Taiwan’s source and drinking water. Two methods, solid phase extraction and nitrogen purging, were employed to concentrate BMAA in deionized water and natural water. A liquid chromatograph coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was then used to quantify BMAA concentration in water samples. The results showed that BMAA was detected in 9 reservoirs (100% detected) in Taiwan and in offshore islands, including raw water and finished water, and the concentrations were in the range of 0.04-2.59 μg-L-1. For nitrogen purging, the results showed that the matrix effects had influences on the response in LC/MS/MS of BMAA after concentrated for 25 folds. These results suggest that the BMAA concentrations measured may be underestimated in environmental samples, if using the current analytical methods.
論文目次 摘要 I
Extended Abstract II
致謝 VIII
目錄 IX
表目錄 XII
圖目錄 XIV
第一章 緒論 1
1-1研究源起 1
1-2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1 β-甲氨基-L-丙氨酸 (β-methylamino-L-alanine, BMAA) 3
2-1-1基本特性 3
2-1-2影響產生BMAA的相關因子 5
2-1-3產BMAA之藻種 7
2-1-4 BMAA對人體、生態及環境影響 12
2-2 BMAA的分析方法 19
2-2-1樣品前處理 19
2-2-2衍生化法 20
2-2-3親水性作用層析(Hydrophilic interaction chromatography, HILIC) 21
2-2-4液相層析串聯質譜儀(Liquid Chromatograph Tandem Mass Spectrometer, LC-MS/MS) 22
2-3國內水體現況 24
第三章 實驗設備與方法 26
3-1研究架構流程 26
3-2藍綠菌培養 27
3-2-1藍綠菌來源 27
3-2-2藍綠菌培養方法 27
3-3藍綠菌計數 29
3-3-1微囊藻及魚腥藻計數 29
3-3-2柱孢藻計數 29
3-3-3細胞計數盤(S52 Sedgwick-Rafter counting cell) 30
3-4臺灣地區環境水體採集 32
3-5固相萃取法(Solid Phase Extraction, SPE) 33
3-5-1實驗設備 33
3-5-2實驗試藥與試劑 33
3-5-3樣品前處理 35
3-5-4固相萃取流程 38
3-6吹氮濃縮法 40
3-6-1實驗設備與試劑 40
3-6-2樣品前處理 40
3-6-3實驗流程 40
3-7衍生化 41
3-7-1實驗設備與試劑 41
3-7-2實驗流程 41
3-8液相層析串聯質譜儀 (Liquid Chromatograph coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry, LC-MS/MS) 42
3-8-1實驗設備與試劑 43
3-8-2 BMAA之定性與定量 44
第四章 結果與討論 46
4-1天然水、培養基中物質與BMAA分析 46
4-1-1吹氮濃縮天然水 46
4-1-2天然水對BMAA分析之基質效應 47
4-1-3天然有機物(Natural Organic Matter, NOM)對BMAA分析之影響 48
4-1-4天然水大分子物質對BMAA分析之影響 51
4-1-5 ASM培養基對BMAA分析之基質效應 53
4-1-6 ASM培養基與天然水中離子態物質對BMAA分析之影響 54
4-1-7碳酸對BMAA分析之基質效應 57
4-1-8碳酸鈣沉澱及曝氮氣去除碳酸 59
4-2環境水樣BMAA檢測分析 62
4-2-1固相萃取管柱選擇與操作條件確認 62
4-2-2固相萃取法搭配衍生化 69
4-2-3固相萃取環境水樣BMAA流程 70
4-2-4台灣湖庫中BMAA之調查 72
4-3產BMAA毒素之藍綠細菌 76
4-3-1凍融法搭配固相萃取 76
4-3-2超音波破碎法搭配固相萃取 77
4-3-3蛋白質沉澱法搭配吹氮濃縮 78
第五章 結論與建議 82
5-1結論 82
5-2建議 83
第六章 參考文獻 84
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