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系統識別號 U0026-0208201701501900
論文名稱(中文) 台灣台東地區大氣中之細懸浮微粒及戴奧辛之研究
論文名稱(英文) Atmospheric PM2.5 and Depositions of polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans in Taitung County, Taiwan.
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Environmental Engineering
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 張克平
研究生(英文) Justus Mutuku
學號 P56057040
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 107頁
口試委員 指導教授-李文智
口試委員-王琳麒
口試委員-賴怡潔
口試委員-林聖倫
中文關鍵字 none 
英文關鍵字 PCDD/Fs  Particulate matter  Dry deposition  Wet deposition  Gas-particle partitioning  Atmosphere  Concentration. 
學科別分類
中文摘要 台東位於台灣的東南邊,一邊靠山一邊臨海。台東由於人口稀少,缺乏都市化以及工業化的發展,其主要的經濟活動為農業與旅遊業,所以台東相較於台灣的其他地區,也因此而是屬於較無受污染的地區。在本研究中,也有研究台灣台東地區之氣象因素對於戴奧辛/呋喃(PCDD/Fs)和顆粒物質(PM2.5)之大氣濃度和沉降的影響,也針對該地區戴奧辛的乾沉降和濕沉降進行量化。
平均PM2.5濃度範圍介於9.6μg m-3 到11.0 μg m-3之間。台灣目前應用2012年更新的PM2.5世界空氣品質指標作為台灣行政院環保署的標準,已從15 µg m–3改成12 µg m–3。根據這些標準,在整個研究期間內,台東地區大氣中的PM2.5濃度都沒有超出的限值。然而, 和台東站(9.6 µg m–3)相比,關山站有較高的PM2.5濃度(11 µg m–3)。為了量化台東地區大氣中戴奧辛的濃度,本研究以戴奧辛/呋喃(PCDD/Fs)和PM10之質量濃度做回歸線。相較於其他研究,台東地區的戴奧辛濃度低於台灣的其他地區。大氣中的戴奧辛模擬濃度值介於0.0106 至0.0117 pg WHO 2005-TEQ m–3之間。使用溫度及大氣壓力來模擬戴奧辛之氣相和微粒相在一年四季中的配比。較高分子量的氯化戴奧辛(六、七和八氯)是微粒相中主要的同源物,而低氯同系物(四和五氯戴奧辛)幾乎完全存在於氣相中。乾沉降的地區值介於35.7至188.5 pg WHO2005-TEQ m-2 month-1,而沉降速度則介於0.17 至 0.52 cms-1。
濕沉降則取決於經歷的降雨天數,範圍在0.39至30.3 pg WHO2005-TEQ m-2 month-1之間。在整個研究期間,清除率的範圍則落在1351-41197之間。
英文摘要 Taitung lies on the South East side of Taiwan; geographically, it mostly consists of mountains and a coastal stretch. It has a tropical monsoon climate, the wet season runs from May to October, while the dry season runs from November to April. The region has a high humidity and its annual average temperature ranges from 22 to 25 0C. The tropical climate in Taitung region is different in the sense that it is more foggy than sunny. The main economic activities in Taitung are farming and tourism. Because of its sparse population, lack of urbanization and industrialization, Taitung County has managed to remain a pollution free zone compared to other regions of Taiwan. As a result, it has been left out on most of the studies on air pollution in Taiwan. This study focused on the roles of meteorological factors to the ambient air concentrations and depositions of Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) and particulate matters (PM2.5) in Taitung County, Taiwan. Wet and dry depositions of dioxins in the region were also quantified.
The average annual PM2.5 concentrations ranged between 9.6 to 11.0 μg m-3. Taiwan applies the 2012 PM2.5 world air quality index as its standard for the EPA which is currently at 15 µg m–3. According to these standards, Taitung County did not exceed the set limits for the concentration of PM2.5 in ambient air for the entire study period. However, Guanshan station (11 µg m–3) had a higher concentration of PM2.5 compared to Taitung station (9.6 µg m–3). To quantify the concentration of dioxins in the atmosphere in Taitung County, Taiwan, a regression line relating the mass concentration of PCDDs/Fs to PM10 was plotted. Compared to other studies, the concentration of dioxins in Taitung County was lower than the other regions in Taiwan. The simulated concentration of dioxins in the atmosphere ranged between 0.0106 to 0.0117 pg WHO 2005-TEQ m–3. There was an upward trend in the concentration of the dioxins for the two years in the entire area of study concentrations in 2014 was 0.0106 while the concentration in 2015 was 0.0115 pg WHO 2005-TEQ m–3 . Temperature and atmospheric pressure were used to model the partitioning of dioxins into their gaseous and particulate phases for the four seasons of the year. Higher chlorinated dioxins (hexa-, hepta- and octa-chlorinated) were the dominant congeners in the particulate phase while the low chlorinated congeners (tetra- and penta-chlorinated dioxins) existed almost wholly in their gaseous phase. Total deposition in the Taitung County ranged between 58.2 and 189.5 pg WHO2005-TEQ m-2 month-1. Dry deposition was dominant in region compared to wet deposition and it ranged between 35.7 to 188.5 pg WHO2005-TEQ m-2 month-1 with the dry deposition velocities ranging between 0.17 and 0.52 cms-1. The average dry deposition velocity was 0.39 cms-1.
Wet deposition was dependent on the number of days experiencing precipitation and it ranged between 0.39 to 30.3 pg WHO2005-TEQ m-2 month-1. The range of the scavenging ratios was between 1351 and 41197 for the entire study period.
論文目次 Abstract iv
Acknowledgement vi
Contents viii
List of figures xi
List of Tables xiii
List of Appendixes xiv
Symbols xv
1 INTRODUCTION 1
2 LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 Atmospheric modelling 6
2.2 Sources and Characteristics of Particulate Matter 8
2.2.1 Physical properties 9
2.2.2 Chemical properties 10
2.2.3 Toxicity Equivalence Factors 11
2.3 Sources of Particulate matters and PCDDs/Fs in the Environment and their trends 14
2.3.1 Formation and Destruction of PCDDs/Fs and particulate Matters 14
2.3.2 Other Estimated Sources 15
2.4 Pathways 17
2.5 Degradation of dioxins 17
3 METHODOLOGY 19
3.1 Study area 19
3.2 Meteorological conditions and PM concentration during the study period 20
3.3 Gas-Particle Partitioning 21
3.4 Dry Deposition Fluxes of PCDD/Fs 23
3.5 Theory of Scavenging Ratios 24
3.6 Determination of Wet Deposition Fluxes of PCDD/Fs 26
3.7 Quality assurance and Quality Control 27
4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 28
4.1 Meteorological information 28
4.2 Meteorological conditions in Guanshan and Taitung stations. 28
4.3 Rainfall intensity in Guanshan and Taitung stations 33
4.3.1 The monthly average PM10 concentration 35
4.3.2 The average annual PM2.5 concentration 37
4.4 Simulated ambient air PCDD/Fs concentration 41
4.4.1 Congener Profile of the PCDDs/Fs 46
4.5 Gas-Particle Partitioning of PCDD/Fs 55
4.6 Dry Deposition 65
4.7 Wet deposition 69
4.8 Total Monthly deposition flux 72
5 CONCLUSION 77
6 SUGGESTIONS 80
REFERENCES 81
Appendices 90
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